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should say it was a variety of influenza, mainly because thecomplexion of its victims was that of the influenzal, and Ihave not observed that peculiar bluish Sush in any othermalady.

I saw the same flush in another anomalous patient duringthis period. His symptoms were high fever, lethargy, andright hemiparesis. His cerebro-spinal ’fluid was perfectly.clear. He recovered in about three weeks, sufficiently, atleast, to be sent to the base convalescent. I called hisailment.. lethargic encephalitis " on the score of what I hadread, and for lack of a better name, but it seems to me

likely enough that it also was a variant of influenzal

picture.I shall be grateful if any -reader of this can help me to

more knowledge of the above-described variety of hsemato-rhachis. This note is recorded by leave of the Director-General, Medical Services, British Armies in France.



THE following case of anaphylaxis appears interesting asit occurred in a subject for the first time when inoculatedwith antitetanic serum for his third wound, no such

phenomena having taken place when inoculated for his firsttwo wounds a year and 21 months previously.Private, aged 22, was wounded on April 8th, 1918, a small

graze on right elbow. On the 10th the first dose of anti-tetanic serum was given at a base hospital at 2 P.M. About2.30 P.M. he complained of feeling very weak and faint, ofblood rushing to the head, that the eyes felt closing up,that the heart was "vibrating," and that there was atightness across the chest. The skin then began to irritateall over. Seen shortly afterwards, the eyelids were verymuch swollen and he was very flushed. There was a profusegeneral urticaria. The pulse was not palpable; cardiacsounds inaudible. During the next two hours he vomitedcontinuously and the bowels were freely open three times.Caffein sod. sala, gr. 2, and brandy being administered, a general improvement soon began, and he made an uninter-rupted recovery. The second dose of serum, due seven dayslater, was withheld.The patient stated that when wounded on July lst, 1916,

he received two doses of antitetanic serum at about 10 days’interval-no inconvenience whatever. He was again woundedon April 10th, 1917, and had two doses of serum at about10 days’ interval, again without any inconvenience. As faras he can remember, the interval between the doses wascertainly not less than 10 days in each case, possibly longer.His previous health had invariably been good, and he hadnever suffered from " nettle-rash " or asthma.




DEATH resulting from scorpion stings is so unusual thatthe following case, which presented some interesting featuresand’ended fatally, may be worth recording.Private C., who was serving with his battalion in a forward

area in Mesopotamia, was brought to the regimental aid-post about 11 o’clock one night suffering from scorpionstings. He was a small, slightly built man, aged 21. Hestated that he had just been stung three times on thebuttocks and thigh by a green scorpion which measured;about 3 inches from the head to tip of the tail. The scorpionhad been killed and was produced.The patient appeared somewhat nervous and com-

plained of a tingling "pins-and-needles" sensation all overhim, but otherwise his condition was quite good, and he hadno pain. He was given some brandy and detained in theaid-post for the night. Shortly afterwards he fell asleep andslept for some hours.His pulse and temperature were taken in the usualroutine about 5 o’clock next morning; both were normal,and he appeared to be in good condition, but he still com-

plained of the "pins-and-needles" sensation all over hisbody. About an hour later he suddenly became collapsed.He was conscious but very weak. There -was a cold sweaton his forehead, his temperature was subnormal; and his

(Continued at JQQt oj next column.)


Inaecg2cral Address.THE first meeting of the Medical Section of this society

was held at the Medical Society of London on May 15th,when Dr. W. H. R. RIVERS delivered the inaugural addressfrom the chair, the subject being

Psychology and Medioine.He said: We are met this evening to inaugurate the

foundation of a special section of a society which hashitherto ’attempted to cover unaided the whole field of

psychological inquiry. The great increase of interest in,and knowledge of, the mental aspect of disease which hasbeen one result of the abnormal strains to which modernwarfare has exposed the soldier made it certain that some-thing would be done to foster this interest and increase thisknowledge. On the more practical side, and in its relationto medicine in general, the medical profession is alreadyprovided with instruments for this purpose in the PsychiatricalSection of the Royal Society of Medicine and the Medico-Psychological Association; but the work of these bodies ischiefly connected with the practical aspect of medicine. Itis not their business to attend in any special measure to thetheoretical aspect of psychology. Still less is it their functionto deal with the relations of their work to other branches ofpsychology.As soon as the declaration of the armistice became effec-

tive, there arose a widespread opinion that some organisationwas necessary to encourage the more theoretical side ofpsychological medicine. It became a question whether thispurpose would be fulfilled more effectively by a societywholly devoted to this purpose, or whether the new organi-sation should become part of the society which has nowfor many years been the meeting place of the psychologistsof this country. This question has been decided in the

second sense, and on this occasion, when the Medical Sectionof our society meets for the first time, I cannot better employthe privilege you have given me of opening its scientificwork than by pointing out some reasons which justify thisdecision.

The Good and the Evil of Speoialism.I will begin with a general problem. One of the most

vexed questions of to-day is concerned with the good and theevil of specialism. With the great advance in knowledge ofwhich we are now enjoying the fruit specialism is necessary.Owing to the vast extent of the field it is essential thatworkers, in medical as in other branches of science, shallnot be content with a general knowledge of the subject towhich they devote their labours, but shall attend speciallyto some one of the many aspects which every branch ofknowledge now presents. This specialisation has, however,in recent years reached such a pitch that it has become aserious evil. There is even a tendency to regard with

suspicion one who betrays the possession of knowledge orattainments outside a narrow circle of interests. Scientificworkers often deliberately confine their research to somenarrow channel. They fail to see the bearings of work,including their own, which would be obvious if they liftedtheir heads and surveyed even cursorily the broad field ofknowledge of which their own specialty forms one of thefertilising streams. The linking of workers in psychologicalmedicine with other students as members of a society whichcovers the whole field of psychology should go far to preventthe evil of undue narrowness of outlook and limitation ofinterest.

(Continued from previous column.)

pulse was slow and feeble. He was given strychnine anddigitalin hypodermically and brandy and hot oxo by mouth.His condition rapidly improved and he was ordered brandyhourly and hot oxo every two hours. By mid-day heappeared to be out of danger and was taking quite aninterest on what was going on around him. Treatment,however, was continued. At 4.15 P.M. he suddenly becameseverely collapsed and died in a few minutes.



It is proposed that the society to which we now belongshall have several sections, but owing to the fewness oftheir adherents students of certain subjects well adapted forspecial sections will for the present have to be content withthe opportunities offered by general membership. I proposenow to survey briefly some of these branches of psychologyand inquire how we may expect to benefit from associationwith those who study them.

Introspective Psyohology.I will begin with the parent, an aged parent, whose

services in the past we are perhaps inclined to depreciateunduly. The older introspective psychology which cameinto existence by a long-drawn-out process of fission fromphilosophy, with which it still struggles to maintain its con-nexion, did great service in defining the problems of psycho-logy and analysing into its elements the vast complexity ofmental process. Into this process of analysis it broughtfrom its earlier associations a clearness and exactness ofthought which may well be emulated by the adherents of thelater developments of psychology. The great fault of theolder psychologists was that their liking for clearness ofreasoning and exactness of definition led them to pay a fartoo exclusive attention to the intellectual aspect of mind,

where exactness is possible. It led them to ignore, or paytoo little attention to, the subjects of instinct, feeling, andemotion, which are less susceptible of exact treatment.

They also tended to neglect unduly mental process lyingon the confines, or altogether without the confines, of theconscious. The adherents of the older academic psycho-logy are now aware of the imperfections of their earlierposition. But they have not lost the logical minds whichthey acquired from their special training, and there is thewidest scope for mutual advantage if they will take part inour discussions and if we attempt to understand the point ofview from which they regard our special problems.

The Experimental Method.Next in order I may take the experimental movement in

psychology. There is now a widespread, and in my beliefwell-founded, opinion that this movement has failed tocome up to the expectations of its founders and has provedunfruitful as a direct means of increasing our knowledge,at any rate in so far as it confines its attention to the

experimental investigation of the normal human adult. Itcannot be said to have done much more than providesuggestions and clues for investigation on other lines. Itis not difficult to see the reason for this. In the case of thenormal human adult, there is too little scope for the varia-tion of conditions which is the essence of experiment. Itis only such subjects as are open to the definite variation ofconditions that have provided material for any greatadvance in knowledge.While the experimental method as applied to the normal

adult has borne little fruit, it would be difficult to rate too

highly the importance of experiment in discovering andtesting methods to be used in other lines of psychologicalinquiry where a wider variation of conditions is possible.The value of these methods is now generally recognised in theinvestigation of the developing mind of the child and of themental processes of animals. These methods are alsoessential to the new department of industrial psychology,but there is no branch in which they are more needed thanin psychological medicine. Thus, the clinical work of Headand his colleagues, which must take a foremost place inthe history of psychology, has as one of its main featuresthe utilisation of the methods of experimental psychologymodified to meet the special needs presented by clinicalmaterial. Experimental psychology takes a place in relationto the observation of data derived from behaviour as

important as that which is taken by the older introspectivepsychology in relation to the logical processes by whichthese data are utilised.

It is not at present proposed that the two branches ofpsychology which I have just considered shall have specialsections devoted to them. Members of this section shouldbe able to gain such help as they require by the attendanceof general and experimental psychologists at the meetingsof this section, while they may also learn much from thepapers and demonstrations given at general meetings of thesociety.

Educational Psychology.The subject of educational psychology, for the study of

which a section has already been formed, is one fromwhich members of this section should have much tolearn. It is now widely agreed that much of the generalpsychological state which predisposes a person to theoccurrence of neurosis, and to a less extent of psychosis,comes from faults of education, using this term in a widesense to include the whole life-history of the child from itsbirth. Opinions differ concerning the relative weight ofthese factors as compared with heredity in the production ofthe neurotic and psychotic constitution, but no one can usemodern methods in the clinical investigation of psycho-neurosis without having forced upon him the vast importanceof the mental traumata and faulty trends of thought andconduct which occur or come into existence in childhood,often in its very early years. Nothing is more needed to

help advance in our special field of knowledge than closecollaboration between those who deal with sufferers from thepsycho-neuroses and those who have the care of childrenduring the years when the seeds of these morbid states aresown. May we hope that joint gatherings, mutual attendanceat the meetings of both sections, and the general oppor-tunities for interchange of views which this society shouldprovide, may furnish material for rapid progress on lineswhich will bring great mutual benefit to both physician andteacher.

Industrial Psycology.The other section, which has been already inaugurated,

will deal with industrial psychology. Within its scope willcome the investigation of fatigue, interest, practice, andother mental factors which affect the efficiency of labour,both manual and mental. It will also deal with the mentalqualities which fit or unfit a person for an occupation, andthus help in the highly important task of putting round pegsin round holes and square in square. Investigations of thiskind will not be limited merely to the needs of govern-ment departments or the demands of industry, but will,doubtless, be extended to such subjects as the choice of aprofession, and will thus closely approach the work of theeducational section. Here, perhaps, the psychologist of

industry will have to learn from the physician, and membersof this section will, perhaps, visit the Section of IndustrialPsychology to teach rather than to learn, but it is veryunlikely that the advantage will be altogether one-sided.Nothing but good can come from common membership ofthis society with its opportunities of collaboration.

Social Psychology.The two sections to which I have just referred will

resemble our own in that they will be devoted to appliedpsychology. It is not at present proposed to found a sectionfor the branch of psychology which I have now to consider,though this cannot be long delayed. The science which dealswith the behaviour of human beings when acting as membersof a group, and not merely as individuals, is usually knownas social psychology, though it might also be called collectivepsychology. It attempts to explain the actions of men asmembers of a social group, whether nation, tribe, clan,church, profession, club, or any other kind of combinationin which men unite for social purposes. Psychology is hereremoved from the possibility of utilising experiment as a

means of eliciting truth and has therefore had recourse tothe comparative method. Social psychology is largely devotedto the behaviour of human society in its simpler and cruderforms, whether of the past or of the savage and barbarouspeoples who still occupy the less comfortable regions of theearth. Through the study of the culture of these peoples itis becoming possible to form some idea of the mental factorswhich have determined the course of human evolution andthe outcome of the interactions, peaceful or otherwise, whichcome into being when peoples are brought into contact withone another.

It might seem at first sight that we have here a branchof psychology which can have little in common with thework of this section. The knowledge gained in this newstudy, however, has already brought out some strikingparallels between the behaviour of the ruder forms ofhuman society and the thoughts and actions of eivilisedman under such abnormal conditions as come within the

purview of this section.



Instinctive Tendencies and Social Ideals.The outstanding fact which is daily becoming clearer to

those who are studying the various forms of mental dis-order is that these depend upon the re-entrance into

activity of instinctive tendencies which have been

brought under control in the normal healthy person, andhave become subject to standards of thought and conductin harmony with the needs of social life. In man manyinstinctive tendencies subserving the welfare and immediatehappiness of the individual have been suppressed becausethey are incompatible with the needs of society, and withthe ultimate happiness of the individual as a member of

society. Neurosis and psychosis are essentially states inwhich ’the controlling and suppressing forces have been soweakened that conflicts are aroused in which the suppressedtendencies strive with more or less success to regain thepredominance they once held, both in the history of the Irace and in the infancy of the individual. ’

The frequency of the psycho-neuroses in the greatcommunities of the modern world is the direct consequenceof the fluid and unorganised character of their civilisation.In savage communities where long ages of freedom fromexternal influence have allowed culture to become organisedand stable, the psycho-neuroses are absent or hardly to bedetected, although the cruder forms of mental disorder, suchas imbecility and idiocy, are not uncommon. In suchcommunities there has come about a stable adjustmentbetween instinctive tendencies and social ideals, leaving noroom for the conflict which forms the essence of the psycho-neuroses. Similarly, I believe that a comparative study ofthe frequency and severity of neuroses among the greatcivilisations of the modern world, will show that this fre-quency and severity are definitely correlated with the fluidityor instability of the culture and with the extent to whichnational ideals call for repression of instinctive tendencies.The perfect social organisation is one in which instinctivetendencies, out of harmony with social ideals, have so comeunder control that they no longer form the grounds of con-flict or give occasion for it only in the presence of excep-tional stress and strain.Another interest of social psychology to the student of

mental medicine, is that when men act collectively theytend to be moved predominantly by motives belonging to theinstinctive sphere. Not only does each individual of themass act more instinctively as a member of a group than asan individual- but when a number of men aet together- therational motives arising out of education, and other forms ofsocial process, tend to cancel one other, leaving in powerthe instinctive tendencies which are common to all and ofthe same nature in all. It is this potency of instinct whichis common to the behaviour of men in mass and the indi-vidual in disease which gives a common interest to the

physician and the social psychologist. It furnishes a reasonin itself sufficient to justify the inclusion of both in oneorganisation for the advancement of knowledge.

Primitive Mental Processes.

Of even more interest to the physician should be thestudy of mental process in rude and backward forms ofhuman society. Much as we may disagree in detail, there isgeneral agreement that in neurosis and psychosis there is inaction a process of regression to primitive and infantilestates. Anything which helps the physician to a knowledgeof the primitive and infantile in man should thereforecome within his circle of interests. In so far as the thoughtand behaviour of savage man are primitive, they furnishmaterial which helps us to understand and deal with theregressive states exhibited by sufferers from disorder ofmental functions.From the point of view of the ethnologist the problem is

far from simple. The customs and institutions of existingexamples of savage man show such a bewildering mixtureof development and degeneration that it is difficult to

disentangle the primitive from the late. If it stood aloneethnology would be greatly embarrassed by the complexityof its problems, and it is driven to seek help in the study ofother aspects of human behaviour. If regression is a con-stant feature of morbid mental states, and of such a normalprocess as the dream, it should furnish much material to helpthe seeker after the primitive in human conduct. In arecent publication I have tried to show how the psychology 1 W. H. R. Rivers: Dreams and Primitive Culture. Manchester. 1918.

of the dream may help us to determine the nature of theprimitive, and quite as much is to be learnt from the

psychology of neurosis, which, as we are coming to see, hasso much in common with the dream. Medicine standingalone and ethnology standing alone may find themselveshelpless before problems the solution of which -will comefrom the union of the two lines of inquiry, at first sight sowidely different from one another. It is difficult at presentto say exactly how each can help the other, but the

general trend of our knowledge justifies the brightest hopesif students of each will work together in such a spirit ofcooperation as it is the object of this society to foster.

Animal Psychology.Another branch of psychology is one which might at

first sight seem even more remote from the interests .of thephysician than that I have just considered. The study ofthe mental processes of animals is one in which this countryhas had, and still has, great names, but the number of itsvotaries is at present so small that there does not seem to beany immediate prospect of the foundation of a specialsection devoted to this study. Work on this subject willfor the present form part of the business of the generalsociety, but however it enter into the scheme of our

activities, animal psychology should have a profoundinterest for the physician, and for reasons similar to thosewhich justify his interest in the ruder forms of human-culture. If instinct have the importance which we are, I think, all willing to recognise, animal psychology, fromwhich issues our chief knowledge of instinct, cannot beneglected by this section. At the present time there is muchconfusion and uncertainty in the use of instinct as a psycho-logical concept. In clearing up this confusion we need thecooperation of those whose studies lead them to an interestin the primitive, whether it be exhibited by the animal, thechild, the savage, or the subject of regression. We do notknow from which of these will come the clue leading us tothe truth, but my impression is that morbid psychology hasthe brightest prospects, and that this subject is destined toilluminate many of the dark regions in our knowledge ofmental development. Here, again, the opportunities ofcollaboration offered by this society should furnish an amplereason for our union with other branches of psychology.

Special Tasks of the Section.Thus far I have been considering the work of this section

in its relation to the general aims of the British Psycho-logical Society and to the work of its other sections.It is now fitting that I should say something about thespecial tasks which lie before our own section. The mostobvious task is to understand the functional nervous andmental disorders, and to make them iustruments by whichwe may be helped to understand the normal working of themind. Most of us are engaged, or have been engaged duringthe war, in the practical task of treating sufferers from dis-orders which, notwithstanding the apparently physicalcharacter of many of their manifestations, are now gener-ally recognised as being wholly or in the main of mentalorigin. It is our special task as members of this section tostudy these disorders in order that we may carry out thatprocess of bringing them into relation with other fields ofknowledge which we call " explanation."Many of us have been brought into contact with the

psycho-neuroses only through the accidents of war, and aword or two may therefore be said about the special interestof war neurosis from the psychological point of view. In myopinion, the keynote of the war neuroses is their simplicity.They are primarily due to the reawakening of suppressedinstinctive tendencies which, in most members of our civilisa-tion, are normally allowed to lie dormant because themechanisms by which they are controlled and suppressedare subjected to no strain great or continuous enough tointerfere with their efficiency. Moreover, the instinct whichis mainly affected, the instinct of self-preservation, is oneof great simplicity, while the social and intellectualelements which form factors in the process of controlare also of a relatively simple kind. Through this sim-

plicity the psycho-neuroses of war are well adapted toillustrate the essential characters not only of the patho-logical states, but also of the normal balance betweencontrolled and controlling forces which underlies theharmony of the healthy mental life.



The Psyoho-neuroses of Civil Life.Now that the war is over it becomes our task to utilise the

knowledge we have gained from the study of a relativelysimple and transparent form of disorder. We have to dis-cover with equal clearness the nature of the psycho-neuroseswhich in times of peace take so large a place in the life andwork of a physician. Just as the war neuroses are essentiallythe result of conflict between certain instinctive tendenciesand the traditional sentiments and ideals of society con-cerning these tendencies, so can we be confident that asimilar conflict will be found to form the essential factor inthe psycho-neuroses of civil life ’. It will be our task todiscover the nature of the instinctive tendencies and of thesocial ideals which form the opposing forces in this intestinewarfare within the individual life. You all know how themost prominent school of students of the psycho-neurosesbelieve that the instinctive tendencies which stand on oneside of the battleground belong exclusively to the instinct ofsex. However repellent this may be’to the traditions of themedical profession, we must be prepared to face this problemhonestly and without prejudice. In turning from the prac-tice of war to that of peace we must expect to find a greatincrease in the part taken by the sexual instinct, forthe simple and obvious reason that the conditions ofour civilisation make this instinct the special object ofits repressions and taboos. We have found reason to believethat sex plays but a little part in the causation of war-neuroses, but it does not follow that this will hold good ofthe neuroses of civil life. On the other hand, we must becareful to hold the balance and not allow ourselves to giveto sexual tendencies a prominence greater than they deserve.The sexual instinct is far from standing alone as the subjectof the repressions and taboos of social tradition. It shouldbe our working hypothesis that any instinct which needsrepression in the interests of society may furnish that occasionfor conflict which forms the essence of neurosis.The psycho-neuroses form so absorbing a topic, and provide

so vast a field for observation and speculation, that we mayeasily overlook another line of inquiry which should beof equal interest to our section. There ’ is an especialdanger that we may overlook this second line of interest inthat most of us have been engaged during the war exclusivelyin the study of those disorders of nervous and mentalactivity which we label "functional." Many may perhapsbe hardly aware of the advance in psychological knowledgewhich has come from observations on the organic lesionsfurnished by the accidents of war.

Clinical Investigation of the Nervous System.The destruction of parts of the nervous system by injury

or disease takes in the psycho-physiology of’man the placewhich in the case of the lower animals belongs to experi-ment. We have to look to the investigation of organiclesions for light upon all those higher functions of the nervous system which give to man his distinctive place inthe universe. Clinical investigation forms the’ chief instru-ment, sometimes the only instrument, whicH’ we can use in-the investigation of speech or other of those higher reactionswhich are associated with mental activity.

’ ’

The clinical investigation of the nervous system has inrecent years thrown a flood of light upon" all the senson-;motor processes which form the basis of mind. Pre"eminent in this respect have been the researches of Head.Working steadily through the nervous system from peripheryto centre, he has now reached the cortex cerebii. In hisrecent paper on "Sensation and the Cerebral Cortex" 2 hehas given us a clear and consistent account of the mechanismsby which the cortex exerts that selective and discriminativeactivity which we call I attention."

" It is only through suchwork that psychology can expect to gain any profit from thestudy of the anatomy and chemistry of the brain, whethernormal or pathological. The neuron and the arrangements ofneurons can have none but a purely speculative interest forthe psychologist until the analysis of mental function hascarried our knowledge far beyond the limits of the territoryit has now conquered. It is only when such analysis as thatcarried out by Head in the case of cutaneous sensibility hasbeen extended to other forms of sensation and to suchmanifestations of cortical activity as Speech that we can

2 Brain, 1918, vol. xli., p. 57.

expect to unaerstana tne nature or tne relations neiweennervous and mental activity.The experience of war has recently taken Head, working

in conjunction with Riddoch,3 back to the spinal cord. It

might be thought that there would be little here to interestus as psychologists, but the investigations of these workershave brought out many features of the functions of the spinalcord, when separated from the rest of the nervous system,which make a great addition to our knowledge. They con-tribute greatly to the solution of the problem, so vitallyimportant to the psychologist, of the evolution of thereactions by which animals have adjusted themselves to theprogressive increase in the complexity of their environment.

Especially instructive from this point of view is the dis-covery of the" mass-reflex."

" This is a mode of reaction ofthe isolated spinal cord, one of the most primitive kind, suchas would ensure the bodily withdrawal of an animal fromnoxious stimulation. This reflex is so out of keeping withlater modes of reaction that it has been wholly suppressedand buried, and its presence has only been revealed by oneof the cruellest accidents of war.

Physiology of the Nervous System.Such clinical investigations as those of Head and his

colleagues bring us to the physiology of the nervous system.Here again we have a subject which should take a prominentplace in the deliberations of this section. Especially throughthe work of Sherrington 4, we have been provided with a largebody of knowledge which, though gained by purely physio-logical methods and purely physiological in character, shouldnevertheless be of great interest to the psychologist, for itreveals a general plan of neural function with which anyplan of mental function must be ih harmony. In work onthe activities arising out of the complex relations ofbinocular vision Sherrington 5 has shown that his integrativemechanisms apply to a psychical process of a relatively highorder. This should point the way to other work designed to

bring out the relations between physiological and psycho-logical integration.

Another product of the recent physiology of the nervoussystem which I should like to mention is the "all-or-none"principle, the demonstration of which we owe to Adrian andKeith Lucas. 6 This principle, originally shown by theseworkers to characterise the activity of the isolated nervefibre, holds good in large measure of the protopathic form ofcutaneous sensibility and of the recently discovered mass-reflex." " Moreover, there is reason to believe that the" all-or-none" principle applies to a large extent toemotional activity and to all those instinctive reactionswhich are emotional in nature. All these reactions have thecharacter that, if they take place at all, they tend to appearin their full strength without that delicate discrimination ofappreciation and graduation of response which are shown byreactions associated with intelligence.

The Field of Physiological Psychology.The- lin.es of inquiry from which these instances have been

taken furnish, so vast, and in some respects so highlyspecialised, a field that it might be thought they shouldform the work of a special section of this society, a sectionof physiological psychology. I hope, however, that thisstep will not be taken, for I believe that it would be carry-ing the principle of specialisation to a harmful length.JR.ather would I advocate that this line of inquiry should bedivided , between; this section and that of experimentalpsychology, whenever such a section is founded. I shouldlike to see the physiology of the nervous system serving as abond between the work of our section and other branches ofpsychology. It has been a special feature of the experi-mental psychology of this country that, at any rate in itsearly days, it was clearly linked with physiology. I hopethat this close relation will continue to form a bond linkingour work with that of other sections of the society, so thatthey shall form an harmonious organisation working with acommon purpose, and with common principles, towards thebetter understanding of that which makes man what he is,which makes human society what it is-the mind.

3 Brain, 1918, vol. xl., pp. 188 and 264.4 The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, London, 1906.

5 Brit. Journ. Psych., 1904-05, vol. i., p. 26.6 Brain, 1918, vol. xli., p. 26.