BRT Project

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PROJECT REPORT BRT CORRIDORMBA- AB 2009-11

Submitted by:21 : Amarjeet Punia 22 : Pranesh Kumar Pathak 23 : Vikas Gupta 24 : Ashish Jain 25 : Anil Gupta

26 27 28 29 30

: : : : :

Tanvi Jindal Anshul Jain Vipul Singhal Vineet Kumar Ishita Dhingra

Date:- November 4, 2009

UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary2. Introduction of the BRT

a. Introduction of Delhi b. Introduction of BRT System c. Need for BRT 3. Financial performance Analysis a. Company reportb. Interpretation of financial condition 4. Strategies for BRT

a. Marketing b. Human Resource c. Finance 5. SWOT Analysis 6. Interpretation and Recommendations 7. Conclusions 8. Bibliography

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Executive Summary

Around

the

world,

cities

face

enormous

problems

of

transport

sustainability. Rapidly increasing populations and vehicle use have created gridlock and sprawl, even in very poor cities, as well as rapid growth in oil use and unacceptably high levels of air pollution. This project shows how better bus systems, incorporating new approaches to system design and new technologies, can put urban transportation on a more sustainable path. It covers the area: new bus systems in Delhi that are tackling very difficult traffic-related problems. Compared to cities dominated by small private vehicles, those with welldesigned bus systems have much less traffic congestion, lower pollutant and CO2 emissions, and offer better mobility for all social and economic classes. Bus systems in the developing world carry a large share of urban travellers but are responsible for only a small part of traffic congestion, energy use and pollution. This is because reasonably full buses are inherently efficient in terms of both road space and fuel use per passenger kilometre Even dirty buses emit far less pollution and CO2

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emissions per passenger kilometre than most other types of vehicles. But transit shares of travel are declining in many cities and conditions are worsen in changing these trends and moving toward more sustainable transport is imperative. Our analysis indicates that for a city like Delhi, there is a 100% difference in oil use and CO2 emissions between a future transport system dominated by travel in high-quality bus systems and one that is dominated by private vehicles. While many new technologies are emerging to improve buses, perhaps the most important story to be told is that the systems in which buses operate can be dramatically improved. Bus transit can be a premier form of urban travel. A new paradigm in delivering bus services, becoming known as bus rapid transit, is being developed in a number of cities, particularly in Latin America, and shows promise for revolutionizing bus systems around the world. Getting buses out of traffic, increasing their average speeds, improving their reliability and convenience, and increasing system capacities can ensure high ridership levels and increase the profitability of systems. All in all, the package of improvements described in this book, and being tested and implemented in various cities around the world, holds the potential to make all cities more efficient, cleaner, less gridlocked and more sustainable. But it will not be easy. It will require technical assistance and the transfer of experience and learning from successful cities to those just Starting out. Perhaps most of all it will require political will. The institutional, financial and operational aspects of bus systems must be strengthened. In many poor cities, most buses are run by small independent companies, some of which survive from day to day. These companies are rarely able to make major investments. Systems must be reformed to improve service and profitability, by moving from bus versus bus competition on the same route to competition for a licence to serve

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entire routes. The level of service required for the entire route should be specified in the contract, and provision of this service should be assisted by supporting policies, such as adequate fares. Testing of new bus systems in demonstration corridors is an important step. Pilot or demonstration projects can create the seed that later grows into a fully established system of bus rapid transit routes. Demonstration projects can include dedicated bus lanes, improved bus stops and terminals and new ways of licensing and regulating bus services on the route. They can also offer a showcase for advanced technologies, or simply modern buses. New, low-cost bus-system technologies can help. When lanes and entire corridors are given over to buses, bus travel becomes increasingly attractive. With such additional features as bus priority treatment at intersections and traffic signals, buses can become a premium form of urban travel, rather than a last resort. Global positioning systems (GPS) to track bus position and relay this information to travellers in real time, so they know when buses will arrive, are also becoming cost-effective. Smart card ticketing systems can allow easy transfers and multiple trips with one electronic fare card. In such cases, technology leap-frogging makes good sense for many cities in the developing world. Improved buses and bus systems should be part of a comprehensive strategy. Improving buses and bus systems will help increase the bus share of passenger travel in cities around the world. But unless strong policies to dampen the growth in car travel and, in many places, motorcycle travel are also applied, the fight for sustainable transport will be a losing battle. Increasing vehicle and fuel taxes, strict land-use controls and limits and higher fees on parking are important to ensure a sustainable urban transport future. Equally important is integrating transit systems into a broader package of mobility for all types of travellers, for example non-motorised vehicle lanes. Pedestrians and bicyclists are

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important users of transit, if they can get to it. Finally, all travel is rooted in the electric-drive structure of a city. Electric-drive development should be geared toward avoiding cardependence and putting important destinations close to public transit stations (and vice versa).

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Introduction of BRTThe Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System is a newly introduced concept of transport in Delhi in which the buses cater to sixty percent of the city's transportation needs. Together with Delhi Metro and soon to be introduced Monorail and Light Rail, it will be part of an integrated multimodal transport systems operational in Delhi. Delhi BRT work is also being sped up keeping in mind the fact that the city will be hosting Commonwealth Games in 2010. The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi is undertaking major reforms to make the transport in the capital city better. This includes introducing the multi-modal transport system that will interact with each other at common bays as well as other measures, like the AC buses, privatizing Delhi Transport Corporation etc. Like other bus-rapid transit systems across the world, Delhi BRT aims to make public transport a more convenient option for its people. Delhi BRT is not grade-separated, i.e., the buses do not run at a different level or height than the normal traffic and share the same traffic signals.

DELHIDelhi is known as city of flyovers in India. In the last decade, a number of flyovers were built to ease the traffic condition on the road. Flyovers and underpasses were built to increase the mobility of the commuters. The new expanded road spaces were seen as a symbol of progress and speed and were accepted with much fanfare. However, each action has tradeoffs. To create a private vehicle oriented infrastructure, the public transportation system was neglected. Further with the citys buoyant economy, cars have replaced buses on the roads and cyclists have switched to two-wheelers and motorcycles. Pedestrians are now the most marginalized commuters on the road. Increased number of vehicles on the road has not only reduced the mobility of a large section of people, but

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has also increased the pollution level, journey time and average per KM fuel consumption. In 2002, Supreme Court issued an order to convert all diesel buses into CNG. The action aimed to reduce the carbon level in the air and also generated hopes of a clean and healthier society. However, in less than a decade, the gains that accrued from the CNG program have been lost. All the options available under the first generation reforms have been exhausted. In August 2008, the average total suspended particulate (TSP) level in Delhi was 378 micrograms per cubic meterapproximately five times the World Health Organizations (WHO) annual average standard (Source: Central Pollution Control Board). It is estimated that over 3000 metric tons of air pollutants are emitted in Delhi (MOEF, 2002). To address all these issues, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) envisions an Integrated Multi-Modal Network of Public Transport system consisting of a network Metro, Mono Rail, Light Rail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). The overall vision aims to strengthen the public transportation system and envisage a long-term solution to the citys traffic and parking problem.

Traffic scenario in DelhiThe transportation network in Delhi is predominantly road based with 1,284 km of road per 100 km2. The number of vehicles on Delhis road has increased by 212% in the last 18 years from 19.23 lakh in 1991 to over 60 lakh by 2008. Road space in Delhi is 21% of the total space available, thus there is little scope of future expansion of road length. The road length in Delhi has increased from 22,487 km in 1991 to 31,183 km in 2008, a modest increase of 17% in the same period. To accommodate the increasing vehicular population, additional space is increasingly

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sought to be created either over or beneath the road, i.e. Flyovers and underpasses. However, traditional approaches do not help to improve the mobility but help to shift the bottleneck from one point to another. For example, GNCTD built more than 15 flyovers on Ring Road to increase the throughput. The condition has improved radically so far as engineering is concerned, but not necessarily in a mobility context. Ring Road has become completely signal-free, but not congestion-free. Increasing vehicle population is also positively co-related with number of fatalities caused by road accidents, most of these are pedestrians, cyclists and bus travelers. According to a recent World Bank report (August 2008), every year road accidents cost India about 3% of its gross domestic product, which was more than $1 trillion in 2007. In Delhi alone, till July 2008, 1,128 people had lost their lives in road accidents, of which 64 people had died in accidents casued by Bluelines buses. Therefore, a longterm solution to improve the traffic condition in Delhi, which includes bringing behavioral, attitudinal and cultural changes, is the need of the hour. To avoid the chaos caused by the mixed traffic and to mitigate the risk of accidents, there is a need to encourage lane driving of buses that had been introduced earlier with the orders of the High Court. Further, instead of giving more incentive and road space to private vehicles owners, there is a need to promote public transport. The success of policy initiatives aimed at public transport is palpable. Delhi Metro has proved to be a tremendous success story in Delhi. The idea was approved in 1998, with an aim to improve the traffic condition and mobility of commuters. Delhi Metro is operating around 90 trains and carrying approx. 8 lakhs passenger per day. The bus system, however, has its own importance. Delhi Metro can not completely replace the busbased system on all routes. Due to higher capital cost, low capital returns

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and large gestation period, it is not feasible to build Metro line on all stretchs. The logic of this argument is seen from the situation in other cities with well developed metro networks like London and Paris, where buses still cater to a much larger number of passenger trips than metro. The reason is that the bus system is more flexible compared to other transportation system. There is, thus, a need to strengthen the bus-based system. In Delhi, buses are generally considered unreliable and time consuming, to reach the destination. Thus, there is need to develop a system to give priority and dedicated road space to buses in order to make them reliable and faster. BRT system is part of the Multi Modal Transport Policy of GNCTD, a total of 7 BRT corridors are proposed to be built in the first phase

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Corridors plannedA total 26 BRT corridors are planned, covering a total length of 310 km by the year 2020. This will be in addition to more than 400 km of metro train coverage by 2020 and further coverage by Monorail and Light Rail.

Phase I (20052010) II (20102015)7 III (20152020)

Corrid ors 7 3 3

Length (Km) 115.5 28.0 166.0

Delhi BRT systemBRT means giving right of way to buses and safeguarding cyclists and pedestrians by encouraging lane driving on engineered road spaces along large and wide corridors and link them to metros and other colony roads for easy access. Besides giving priority to buses, the system also provides dedicated lanes for pedestrian and non-motorized vehicles like cycles and rickshaws etc. The corner stone for the introduction of BRT system in Delhi was put up in 1995, when Central Pollution Control Board commissioned a study for reducing vehicular pollution in Delhi. The final report, with a recommendation to introduce segregated bicycle lanes and bus lanes, was submitted in 1997. An international workshop was organized by the Delhi Transport Corporation in collaboration with SIAM, IDFC and IIT Delhi on High Capacity Bus Systems System in January 2002. This was the first major step in the conceptualization of the BRT System for Delhi.

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In 2004, GNCTD appointed RITES and Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi) for designing and implementing the first corridor from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate. RITES has been appointed the Project Management Consultant and TRIPP IIT Delhi the technical and conceptual advisors. In 2006, GNTCD established Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS), a Special Purpose Vehicle to oversee the establishment of public transport systems in Delhi. DIMTS is currently entrusted with the operation and maintenance of the existing corridor as the Corridor Manager. In October 2006, the construction work on the corridor started. The stretch from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Moolchand is under trial run since April 20, 2008.

Technical detailsThe first corridor of BRT in Delhi, from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate, is 14.5 km long with ROW varying from 28 meters to 51.5 meters. Bus Lane is in the middle of the road with a width of 3.3 meters. Motorized vehicle lane is on the side of bus lane with a width of 6.75 meters. Separate tracks are made for non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians.

Operation managementCorridor Manager is looking after the operations and maintenance of the BRT Corridor. The scope of work includes all types of operational aspects including traffic management, bus operation, public relations, enforcement, recovery of disabled vehicles, cleaning etc. Corridor Manager has an internal dedicated team of senior officers to manage the operation on a day to day basis. The company has also established an Operational Control Centre (OCC) at Kashmere Gate and a camp office at DTC Khan Pur Depot to monitor the daily progress.

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Regular monitoring schedules to track operational details are put in place. The company has also engaged different third-party services providers to meet specific requirements. As on date, 180 road marshals are deployed on the corridor in two shifts. Road Marshals guide bus passengers, help children and old people to cross the road, manage traffic, instruct people to follow traffic rules and perform other corridor management activities. Corridor Manager had also organized a two-day training session with Traffic Police and one-day training session with The Institute of Driving Training & Research (IDTR). This was designed to familiarize marshals with their assignment at the time of deployment. The company also organized follow-up training sessions for marshals. The company has also deployed security guards at the bus platforms on 24 hrs basis. Corridor Manager has also hired one crane to remove disabled vehicles from the corridor. Since April 2008, on an average 3 vehicles break down on the corridor each day and all disabled vehicles including buses are removed in about 10 minutes response time. Corridor Manager also organized special three-days training sessions at IDTR for both DTC and Private Stage Carriage drivers. It also organized one-day training sessions for other drivers like school bus drivers etc. Over 700 drivers were trained and stipend was paid to all blue line and contract carriage bus drivers to ensure attendance. An introduction of the new system requires a change in behavioral pattern of the users. To address this issue, the Corridor Manager designed and printed brochures for all types of commuters, traffic Signage booklets for drivers and a list of dos and donts for general

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public. Wide distribution of this literature was ensured. Further, Bus queue shelter (BQS) advertising space was used to educate people. Corridor Manager also took an initiative to involve school authorities and children to create awareness about the importance of public transportation system in Delhi. The company communicated with more than 50 school authorities to address their concerns. The company also conducted interactive sessions and made presentations in schools on the BRT system and its key advantages. The company has also installed PIS (Passenger Information System) boards on all the 58 BQS. Currently, GPS (Global Positioning System) is installed in the new low-floor buses on four routes 419, 423, 521 and 522. The boards also help to reduce the waiting anxiety of passengers waiting at the BQS. Cleaning and landscaping are the key prime issue for the Corridor Manager. The company ensures that all lanes, BQS and signage are cleaned on daily basis. State of art mechanized cleaning equipment is deployed for the purpose

Traffic volumeTraffic volume on the BRT corridor is very high. The corridor is situated along some of the prime colonies in South Delhi and is the main connecting road to the large commercial development in Gurgaon. On the stretch from Dr. Ambedkar Nagar to Moolchand, there are 6 key intersections, of which Chirag Delhi and Moolchand are the busiest ones. According to a DIMTS Survey, Chirag Delhi is one of the busiest junctions in Delhi. More than 1.35 lakhs vehicles cross the junction in a day (16 hours). Motorised vehicles consisting of cars, two wheelers and auto rickshaws constitute more than 90% of the vehicle traffic, of which the number of

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cars/Jeeps constitute around 35-40% of total motorized vehicles. These, however, carry only 15-20% of the total commuters. On the other hand, buses account only for 2.0-2.5% of total vehicles, but carry around 5560% of the total commuters, thus using road space more democratically. Approximately 200-250 buses move on Chirag Delhi Junction (the busiest section) during peak hour, catering to passenger load of about 11,000 - 12,000 on an average day. It has been observed that net throughput of all kinds of vehicles have significantly improved after the implementation of the BRT and bus and cycle transit time through the corridor has reduced.

Commuter socioeconomic profileAccording to a DIMTS commissioned socio-economic survey at BRT Corridor, it is observed that more than 60% of commuters use BRT Corridor mainly for work. Most of the respondents showed their discontent with the existing public transportation system. Respondents preferred to use their private vehicles due to inflexibility and unreliability of the bus system. Regarding perceptions about a good bus system, more than 50% of respondents suggested timeliness of bus service, clean bus and well behaved staff and certainty of bus service. The research agency also enquired about the willingness of the respondents to use the BRT System. Interestingly, 85% of the respondents, who are currently not using public transport system, showed their willingness to use new BRT system if it is good. The study clearly predicts that commuters are willing to shift to public transport system, if the service delivery is improved and responds to their requirements and expectations.

Need of BRT Corridor

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1) The coverage looses sight of the fact that every bus carries at least 40 passengers (in fact, the way public buses in Delhi are overcrowded; this number can touch 80-100 at times). In contrast, a private vehicle in Delhi usually carries about 1 passenger. On an average, it would carry less than 2 passengers. Pollution per passenger in a bus is about 1-tenth of the pollution by the most fuel-efficient (hence, less polluting) car on Delhi roads. Fuel consumed by the buses in Delhi is much cleaner (CNG) than the fuel of an average private car (petrol). This adds to public health benefits and saves the burden on govt. health facilities (that they are not in good shape is another matter altogether and a different point of discussion). higher fuel consumption in private cars is actually a drain on India's forex reserves According to Delhi govt. statistics 70-80% of road users are pedestrians, cyclists and bus travelers. According to Delhi traffic police statistics about 88% of fatalities in road accidents involve the vulnerable 70-80% of road users (mentioned above). When buses have to compete for road space, it creates problems. In recent times, we have experienced hundreds of deaths by DTC buses and Blue Lines (remember the recent campaigns). Production of a private car wastes at least 10 times more raw materials per passenger than a bus. This means more private vehicles are a "much bigger burden" on the planet. 2) Delhi government has in the past many years (except the few very recent ones) promoted private transport at the cost of severely neglecting public transport. Flyovers have been built left-right-and-center in various parts of the city. They definitely speed up motor vehicles, but add to the plight

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of pedestrians and cyclists. In fact, most of the flyovers don't even have mechanisms to allow pedestrians cross the road. While thousands of crores were spent on building such new infrastructure, DTC used to get limited budget to upgrade its fleet of buses. This has thankfully seen some change in the last year. Even in this year's budget, the fly-over projects get more than 4times the allocation to DTC for fleet up gradation. In earlier years, this ratio touched 8-10.

3) BRT is a project that upgrades the traffic sense of Delhi's commuters to safer levels. It promotes lane driving It offers higher priority to vehicles carrying larger number of passengers It offers safe travel opportunity to the people who travel in an ecofriendly way It prevents the kind of accidents that buses cause on other Delhi roads because they have to compete for road space. It makes roads safer for the huge majority of more vulnerable sections of the society (many of whom can't even afford insurance in case of death or injury) 4) Every such up gradation project - a project that brings about a change - is bound to see resistance from public. Even abolition of Sati saw resistance. It is in such times that the newspapers should take the lead to ensure that such up gradations are accepted more gracefully. It can be tried to interview a few bus commuters who benefited from the faster and less rash travel in Blue-lines on that route.

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5) Such projects that involve change in the way public behave are bound to see glitches. We have to tweak our designs after testing it. When we write a piece of article, we also review it and make changes. 6) In the case of BRT, the government started with a pilot project (did not spend exorbitantly on it when you compare it with numerous other flyover / construction projects). It must have definitely made some miscalculations in traffic volumes at the time of deciding the signaling duration etc. and hence landed itself into a mess. Such long jams are clearly not desirable even for private vehicles. 7) Top article on front-page of one of the newspapers (27-Apr-2008) harped about the Rs.4 cr additional cost in managing the Rs.60 crore project. This clearly is a 7.5% increase in expenditure. However, to put it in perspective, this cost is almost inconsequential when compared with the cost of other fly-over and road projects operated by the Delhi Govt. In fact, many of those projects - of which the government has so much of experience - also see similar and higher cost escalations. This was the first project of its kind, and if this cost escalation happens, it can be taken as a learning experience. While we should always bring financial impropriety to light and such financial imprudence shouldn't be spared, we should give the government enough leverage in the "first of its kind" initiatives, where they also don't have prior experience. Also DTC introduced A/C and also more comfortable buses on Delhi roads. At such times, such corridors promote use of public transport and hence reduce pollution, vehicle density, transport time and also curb inflation due to reduced fuel demand. Public transport should definitely be promoted - even if at the cost of inconvenience to private transport. Look at the example of Singapore where public transport

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(through taxis, buses, MRTS etc.) is the preferred modes of travel. Hope Delhi becomes a world-class city like that. Hope that we give due weight to the additional safety and benefit that this corridor offers to the majority of commuters in Delhi. If successful, we can hope to see better road sense prevail in other parts of the city and many other Indian cities. Hope that we respect the people who respect the environment and public health, as much as they respect their commuting experience and travel time - either due to need or due to their condition.

Vehicle Composition in the Corridor

Congested Chandni Chowk to get its own BRT

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Despite the bus rapid transport (BRT) corridor leading to traffic snarls in south Delhi, a similar plan is in the pipeline for thecrowded Walled City. The Chandni Chowk redevelopment plan entails a dedicated bus corridor as part of the traffic circulation plan for decongesting the area. "One part of the central verge will be dedicated to special buses similar to the open-air buses plying in Pragati Maidan while the other side will be for private vehicles to move out of Chandni Chowk. A detailed project report of the redevelopment plan has been submitted to Delhi Urban Art Commission (DUAC) for approval,'' said deputy commissioner city zone, Vijay Singh. According to Singh, this dedicated corridor is being built to encourage use of public transport within Chandni Chowk. Private vehicles entering from Delhi Gate and S P Mukherjee Marg will have to park in Parade Ground and Gandhi Maidan respectively and take the bus inside Chandni Chowk or walk inside. These vehicles will then exit from the Walled City via Town Hall, H C Sen or Church Mission Road and will take the motor lane. The idea of using trams as a mode of transport in Chandni Chowk has been put on hold. Said Singh: "Special emphasis has been laid on pedestrian walkways. A space of 6 meters has been dedicated on both

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sides on the road for footpaths. The cost of re-laying of the main Chandni Chowk road along with other roads in the Walled City and carrying out ducting of service lines is Rs 45crore approximately. We will build centralized plazas around Fatehpuri Masjid, Town Hall and Lajpat Rai Market which will serve as open public spaces.'' There are plans of reviving water canals and other water bodies that once existed in Chandni Chowk. The plans also includes facade improvement of government buildings. Shopkeepers will be encouraged to restore the facades of their properties.

Financial performance AnalysisThe work construction of BRTC from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate was awarded by M/s RITES in September 2006. The design approved for the corridor envisaged construction of bus lane, MV lane, NMV lane and footpath in concrete pavement. The concrete road was preferred for better strength, longer life and less periodic maintenance. When the proposal came up for consideration in the 12 th meeting of the EFC held on 28th December 2005, the Chief Engineer PWD had stated that the scheme off RITES envisages construction of cement concrete pavement. In other countries like Indonesia and China, rigid pavements have not been provided. Cities like Jakarta, Beijing as well as Kunning, the HCBS corridor system were using the existing lanes. Only one lane has been segregated by providing a detachable railing. It is therefore felt that in Delhi also we should go for existing flexible pavements for High Capacity Bus Corridors. This would not only reduce the cost of the project but would save great inconvenience to the road users during the period of construction.

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Despite such strong reservations from the PWD department, Government went ahead with cement concrete construction. However, it will not be out of place to mention that as per the information furnished by transport department (December 2008), the expenditure on C.C. pavement in Bus and MV lanes was 2320/- per sq. meter and the same was Rs. 1608/- per sq. meter in the Bituminous pavement. The department incurred an excess expenditure of Rs. 4.29 crore on construction of bus and M.V. lane of 110815 sq. meters in concrete from Ambedkar Nagar to Chirag Delhi. As mentioned earlier, BRT corridor is a dedicated lane carved out of an existing road which has bituminous surface. Thus adoption of concrete surface for the BRT would result in same stretch of road having two different pavement structures part of it concrete while the remaining the remaining part is bituminous. Half way through the construction, the agencies realized that there was difficulty in going ahead with a concrete surfacing as the deployment of heavy mechanical pavers were posing serious problems and the cost on account of concrete was working out much higher than the estimates. The matter was placed before the Cabinet and its approval obtained for switch over to Bituminous surfacing of MV lanes and bus lanes beyond Chirag Delhi and cycle track & footpath only will be in concrete. There was no recorded justification for retaining cycle track and footpath across the entire length of corridor in concrete pavement against the bituminous surfacing which was cost effective. It would thus be seen that there was no consistency in the bus design parameters of this project. Government invested heavily in creating concrete structures for the BRT corridor, which was later on abandoned after construction of only three kms. As per allocation of business, road maintenance and construction of roads are the responsibility of the Public Works Department. The BRT corridor is

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a dedicated lane within the existing road network, its construction and maintenance should have legitimately been allocated to the PWD. It is however, seen that the entire work of design construction and supervision was entrusted to the Transport Department which had no technical expertise or experience in taking up this kind of work. Cabinets approval was obtained for assigning the entire work relating to implementation of the BRT corridor by DIMTS on payment of consultancy fee of Rs. 1.50 crore, out of which a sum of Rs. 44.97 lakh has been paid as of June 2008 for monitoring /supervision of the BRT corridor. Rs. 6 crore were to be paid to RITES and Rs. 1.50 crore were to be paid to DIMTS. During the test check of records for construction of above HCBS corridor, it has been observed that an amount of Rs. 45.33 crore approved in the Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC) in its meeting was withdrawn by the Transport Department and kept in fixed deposit. That same amount was released to the concerned agencies i.e. Rs. 15 crore to RITES and Rs. 30.33 crore to DIMTS. Thus, the amount was withdrawn to avoid lapse of budget. Rs. 30 crore as revolving fund was sanctioned and payment was made to RITES in November 2006. There is no enabling provision in General Financial Rules to empower State Government to advance crore of Rupees to a Public Sector Undertaking for maintaining a revolving fund, thus keeping large funds out of Consolidated Fund. Out of Rs. 100.33 crore released to DIMTS during October 2006 to October 2007, it released only Rs. 48 crore during August 2007 to May 2008. Funds ranging from Rs. 10 crore to Rs. 90.33 crore were lying with DIMTS for the period ranging from 7 days to 7 months 2 days in excess of the requirement. Even if the DIMTS had kept the spare funds in saving account it could have earned interest of Rs. 2.32 crore. GNCTD should

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take measures to recover the interest amount from DIMTS. Release of funds in excess of requirements tantamount to undue financial assistance to DIMTS. In the first phase, when Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit presided over an Expenditure and Finance Committee (EFC) meeting to clear escalations in the cost of the Bus Rapid Transit Corridor (BRTC) pilot project from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate she found that due to escalation the cost of the BRT pilot project has risen from Rs 216 crore to Rs 361 crore. Then the consultants for BRT project DIMTS and RITES had put up an additional demand of Rs 119 crore for extra infrastructure on the Ambedkar Nagar-Delhi Gate corridor in October 2008. Strangely, the cost escalation increased to Rs 145 crore in March 2009 from Rs 119 crore in October 2008 even as prices of steel and cement came down. Recently, when Walia inspected the implementation of the present corridor said the Transport Department had sought an additional amount of Rs. 54 crore to build more parking space and foot-over bridges in the second phase of the project and eight foot over bridges will be coming up on the stretch of which five will be built at bus stops and three will built at other crossings. The 14.5-km Ambedkar Nagar-Delhi Gate project being built at a cost of Rs.18.19 billion will be a milestone for the infrastructure upgradation being carried out in the national capital for the Commonwealth Games in 2010. A few days back, the EFC (Expenditure Finance Committee) of GNCTD has cleared the proposal for undertaking these six BRT Corridors at a total

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cost of Rs. 1819.10 crore. Execution of the Project will begin on clearance of the proposal by the Cabinet of GNCTD.

Cutting from Hindustan Times

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Defying Media Spin, Poll Shows Public Support for Delhi BRT

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Strategies for BRTMarketing Strategy:Ahmedabad BRTS has the best marketing strategy. The specialty of the Ahmedabad Janmarg is that the best marketing strategy has been chosen, that of introducing free trials. The people of Ahmedabad get to see the bus operations and provide feedback well before the launch of the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS). The best awareness campaign should have three elements -- the abilities to enable, educate and enforce. And this should not be the other way round. The convention method of raising awareness, by raising hoardings in order to educate people about something, may not work as it may not explain the infrastructure of the system. The best way to make people understand something infrastructure. Although there is scope for improvement in respect to the waiting space at intersections, safety of pedestrians while crossing the road, traffic engineering etc. Reality Check: Car vs. bus drivers 65 per cent of car drivers feel the Bus Rapid Transit System(BRT) has made traffic congestion worse in the areas where the BRT runs. A whopping 75 per cent of bus drivers say the BRT is a huge improvement for buses. More than 50 per cent of car drivers say that the new bus stops in the middle of the road do not make driving more difficult. like this is by making them part of the

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Bus drivers say it's easier to pick up passengers from the new bus stops and 72 per cent of them say the middle-ofthe-road stops are working better than the earlier system. Most car drivers, 76 per cent, however, say that they are worried about hitting pedestrians crossing the road. 61 per cent of car drivers say driving is easier now that buses have their own lane bus drivers. 82 per cent of them say the new bus lanes for them make driving easier. Bus passengers 88 per cent of bus commuters feel the new BRT and its buses are an improvement on Delhi's public transport system 71 per cent believe it will help in reducing travel time - most bus users say their commute time has already been slashed by 50 per cent after the BRT was introduced. 60 per cent of bus commuters say there are enough Marshals and traffic policemen to help guide them to their buses. The scope of transit marketing Promotional tools are a must to ensure strategic marketing. The tools are branding and positioning, targeted marketing and special events. They also include customer information, fare, incentives etc. When transit customers board a bus or train, they are not just participating in a transaction they are making transit an integral part of their lives. Transit systems have responded with a customer-centered approach to marketing that moves beyond the conventional "product, pricing, promotion and placement" approach to product marketing. The full scope of transit marketing involves a broad range of actions to identify and meet customer needs. These include service planning and promotion, setting of fare structures and levels, public information and education, and management of community and customer relations. All these actions involve an iterative cycle of researching customer needs and strategic

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opportunities, planning and implementing measures, then evaluating and reviewing objectives and tactics. Key challenges Transit marketers face several unique challenges that are not shared by their colleagues in more conventional areas of product marketing. Diverse customer needs: The transit market includes a variety of groups including students, seniors and commuters. Each of these groups has different interests and lifestyles; each travels for different purposes; each chooses transit for different reasons; each responds to different messages; and each is best reached in different ways. This diversity requires marketers to think and work in multiple, parallel channels. The challenge of selling social benefits: Traditional marketing works by emphasizing a products direct benefits to consumers. However, transit provides several vital community benefits (social, economic and environmental) that can also be used to attract riders. Finding strategies to carry these social marketing messages effectively, however, requires creativity. Service development constraints: Transit systems are constrained in their ability to add or modify services in support of marketing objectives. Municipal budgets are limited, the logistics of route and schedule changes can be complex, and transit systems must mind their social objectives as well as their business goals. These factors can make it difficult for transit systems to respond quickly to new market opportunities. Limited resources: While effective marketing need not be expensive, it must compete for resources with the day-to-day operating needs of transit systems. By definition, marketing opportunities are almost limitless. It is a

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constant challenge to identify innovative, cost-effective strategies and delivery mechanisms that make the best use of available dollars. Strategy: Branding & positioning: Every transit system works to develop a positive brand, which is the sum of the perceptions and experiences of its customers. As such, a transit systems brand plays a large role in influencing the attitudes and travel decisions of both riders and non-riders. Brand creation or enhancement: Marketing tools can reshape or enhance a transit systems brand. The goal is to improve the competitive position of transit services, relative to car travel, as perceived by current and potential customers. Positioning campaigns: Marketing tools can also be used more subtly to position transit as an attractive and beneficial public service. A common positioning strategy is the development of messaging campaigns to strengthen the public perception of transit as a smart and sensitive way to get around. Strategy: Targeted marketing While branding and positioning strategies target a wide public audience, more selective approaches can bring other benefits. Targeted marketing campaigns let transit systems offer customized information to specific audiences like commuters, students, festival patrons, families on weekend outings, or tourists. Individualized marketing" is an emerging form of targeted marketing. It uses one-on-one consultation to identify and overcome obstacles that prevent individuals from taking transit more often. Strategy: Special events

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Transit marketers know that special events can encourage non-users to try transit, and create opportunities for free media exposure. A special event revolving around a major public concern like air quality can boost visibility and ridership while also benefiting a transit systems brand and competitive position. Strategy: Customer information Transit marketers know that potential customers can be discouraged when information is hard to find or understand. As a result, they have made rider guides and schedules easier to read and interpret, and expanded customer information onto the Internet with cutting-edge technologies like web-based trip planners. New operational and communications technologies have led to realtime arrival displays and multipurpose video displays at passenger terminals and bus stops. Such tools offer more than information.

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Human Resource(HR) Strategy:As an HR practice, BRT Training Workshops were held for the resources recruited for top level management for BRT in order to train them in the following domains. Overview of BRT planning Demand analysis Operational plan / Customer Marketing plan / Stakeholder analysis BRT infrastructure Modal integration Infrastructure design Technology plan Business and regulatory plan Financing BRT budget Measuring the impacts Implementation plan

Finance Strategy: To complete the BRT project, as envisaged now with six corridors, would cost the Delhi government Rs 2,100 crore Govt. released Rs 12 crore for construction of a parking lot and a portion of the road to help reduce the traffic load on the MoolchandAmbedkar Nagar stretch

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When 50 per cent work on the project was completed Rs 115 crore had already been spent.

SWOT AnalysisSTRENGTHS1. Bus only, grade-separated (or at-grade exclusive) right-ofway : The main feature of a BRT system is having dedicated bus lanes which operate separate from all other traffic modes. This allows buses to operate at a very high level of reliability since only professional motorists are allowed on the busway. A side benefit of this are lower construction costs since busways can be engineered to tighter standards and still remain safe compared to a roadway open to nonprofessional drivers.o

Such a right of way may be elevated; on rare occasions, the A bus street or transit mall can be created in an urban center

right of way may be a modified rail right of way.o

by dedicating all lanes of a city street to the exclusive use of buses.o

Low-cost infrastructure elements that can increase the speed

and reliability of bus service include bus turnouts, bus boarding islands, and curb realignments. However, the biggest benefit of this corridor will turn out to be uninterrupted traffic flow because of the segregated bus lanes in the centre of the Road. What has been the real cause of traffic jams is the mix of vehicles being driven on different speeds with different routes to follow. But now its all going to be specific for all range of vehicles. 2. Level boarding : Many BRT systems also use low floor buses (or high level platforms with high floor buses) to speed up passenger boarding and enhance accessibility. It has been observed that it is very difficult for the women, senior citizens and the physically challenged

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people to board the buses because of their stairs being at certain height, But corridor comes to its rescue in a way that the height of the platforms has been matched to that of the floor of the buses, so that passengers from all ranges can travel comfortably. Not only the boarding and landing will be eased up but also the accidents or the injury ratio will come down dramatically. It will increase the speed with which passengers can board and come out so saving the time of both, themselves and the bus as well and it might be able to take one more round on the day on an average term. 3. Saves Time And Money : As BRT intends to provide a service that is of a higher speed than an ordinary bus line, it is obvious that it will save a lot of time of the commuters. As observed it used to take somewhere around 35-45 minutes for crossing area ambedkar nagar to delhi gate but now after corridor it takes only 25-30 minutes which will further lessen after some improvements in the structure. Apart from this as the people reach home early it directly saves there fuel and thereby money. It is assumed that cars takes anything less than half the time taken by the bus to cover the same distance, but in these corridors there would largely remain any difference in time taken to reach same destination. So it will also increase the customer base and the number of person using public transport will be on a roll and thus it would further reduce traffic on the roads and thus bringing further efficiency. 4. Reduction In Accidental Rate : This corridor is an answer to killer line or the blue line. The reasons for so many accidents taking place on the roads with the buses was the merging of different sorts of traffics and the crowdiness. But corridors comes to the rescue in a way that now it will be separate lane for the buses and separate for other motor vehicles like bikes, scooters, cars, etc. it is expected that it will lower down the accidental rates dramatically.

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Now it is also that slow moving vehicles like bicycles, rikshaws, bullock carts, pedestrians can all move in their respective lanes without feeling the threat of those over speeding cars and bulky buses and trucks. They can move on as per their convenience and on their own speed. Also it will not interrupt further traffic and thus would not become the cause of traffic jams thereof. 5. Urban Rejuvenation : Once these corridors are made in any city, it definitely adds up to its infrastructural values and its level of urbanization. The flaunting of these corridors makes city look descent, disciplined, and stable as well. As the flyovers and underpasses adds up to its credentials , same way BRT corridors do but at higher rates even. The city definitely becomes the talk of the day and also it is been appreciated by the local commuters, national tourists and commuters and finally by international tourists.

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WEAKNESSES

1. Scarcity of Space : The biggest of the weakness of this BRT corridor is the limitation on the part of availability of space to construct this Corridor. Well successful implementation of this corridor, separate lanes have to be constructed for the high capacity buses, for different motor vehicles and also a different lane for slow moving vehicles and the pedestrians as well. It means that a total of 4 lanes are mandatory on each side of the road. Moreover motor vehicle would individually demand two adjacent lanes looking at heavy traffic of this type. Because of this deficiency, traffic jam problem could not arrive at a solution, and rather problem has actually stiffened due to reason that thousands of light motor vehicles travels every hour which needs more space. So non performance space management has become its most severe weakness. Most of the roads of delhi are just 12-15 metre wide, which are half of the requirements. To make shelters also a lot of space will be required which further needs expansion of roads . 2. Safety Compromised : In order to meet the deadlines of common wealth games , delhis safety is compromised . even geneva based International Road Federation has expressed concern at the safety and feasibility of this corridor and called for its immediate stacking. Latest example of this negligence is the crater on the BRT Corridor pathway which states that these corridors are constructed without prior testing of roads. The compatibility of the current roads is not checked to ensure further construction on them, which results in accidents and injuries only and even deaths sometimes. Since October 2007 to February 2008, there has been 12 major accidents with 4 of them leading to death. 3. Lack Of Proper Planning : lack of efficient planning made the BRT come across hard situation. If this corridor would have been planned properly keeping in mind all the parameters affecting it, it might result into a benefit for the city. Planning with respect to how to go about it, in

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which areas to make it and what should be the components, so that the things happens to be as per the requirements of the city. Planning should have been given the edge over just the implementation part as it has been Emphasized upon b y the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. 4. Lack of technical knowledge : just by copying the western countries, Corridor has been made in Delhi as well, but the reason for its turmoil is the lack of technical knowledge as to how to proceed for these corridors, without going into research work with respect to whether delhi needs it at the moment. Just copying is not going to benefit, it is also mandatory to know whether it is required or not. Moreover the structures which are created outside India, in countries like America, Europe etc.. are way ahead advanced with latest technologies which are installed in them. Also before creating , they also see to requirements of bro0adning the road width, which was absent in the case of Indian roads to a large extent.

OPPORTUNITIES1. Bus

priority / bus lanes : Preferential treatment of buses at

intersections can involve the extension of green time or actuation of the green light at signalized intersections upon detection of an approaching bus. Intersection priority can be particularly helpful when implemented in conjunction with bus lanes or streets, because generalpurpose traffic does not intervene between buses and traffic. Large green signals would allow passing of traffics quickly.2. Off-bus fare collection : Conventional on board fare collection slows

the boarding process, particularly when a variety of fares are collected for different destinations and/or classes of passengers. An alternative would be the collection of fares upon entering an enclosed bus station or shelter area prior to bus arrivals (similar to fare collection at a kiosk prior to entering a subway system). This system would allow passengers to board through all doors of a stopped bus.

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3. Increased capacity (bi-articulated or double decker) : Another

benefit of this corridor is that now it is possible to run high capacity buses normally called as double decker. Earlier it was difficult to run these buses because of limitation of space with respect to clear width and height as well, but this brt corridor takes care of all issues and is created in a way that nothing can stop them, no pole, no wire to interrupt etc.4. Serves a diverse market with high-frequency all day service : A

BRT network with comprehensive coverage can serve a diverse market (all income ranges) by moving people from their current location to their destination with high frequency and reliability while maintaining a high level of customer experience.In view of the commonwealth games which will be held in October ,2010. , it is expected that the work of these corridors would be finished way before its deadlines. Moreover these kinds of projects generally requires huge funds and delhi government is definitely eager to invest on it looking at its benefits to come in the coming years. So these games are an opportunity which needs to be grabbed as early as possible.

THREATS1. Road Congestion : The biggest threat to the existence of the BRT corridor is the congested roads not in the context of traffic but with respect to width which is not sufficient on most of the roads for segregation. If we segregate the road for the buses and the other vehicles, the problem is that buses would be able to move swiftly but the problem will be for thousands of other vehicles which will have to use area which is less than earlier. The frequency of buses is just 10% of that of other vehicles, so it is totally unfair that both kind of vehicles uses same space when the difference in their frequencies is almost 8-10 times.

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However the widening of roads could have been an ideal solution of this problem, but the difficulty in implementing this is that there is not enough space available along both the sides to expand the road width. Availability of service lanes can be helpful, but they are not that wide at every road and even at some points they do not even exist. So the planners will have to deal with it before they actually start making it, otherwise it would result into nothing but the wastage of time, money , and efforts and also roads would get busy meanwhile.Min. Width Comfortable Width 1. Bicycles only 1.5m 1.8m 2. Bicycles and Passenger Rickshaws 1.8m 2.0m 3. Bicycles and Goods Rickshaws 2.0m 2.2m 4. Passenger and Goods Rickshaw 2.2m 2.5m 5. Heavy Goods Rickshaw traffic 2.5m 3.0m

2. Failure Of First Stretch : The stretch from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate has been a big failure which increases the odds against the corridor. If this corridor would have been an success then there not have been anybody opposing it. But the problems, which came into limelight after its construction, have posed an threat to its future. To evade from this threat, the government will have to consider each and every problem, their causes and the probable solutions so that it comes to the rescue of the delhi commuters.

3. No Prior Tests :

In view of the CommonWealth Games, the

constructors are in a hurry to implement these projects, but the only result would be loss, loss and loss for the citizens of delhi. The implications of this hurry would be that the corridors would be constructed prior to tests which should be undertaken after checking their compatibility. So the quality with which they would be made will be way lower than expected, and the consequence of it would be that after few

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years only they might be required to made again quiet early and thus again investment, wastage of money, time and effort.

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RecommendationsMr. Manoj Aggarwal, Head of Transport DIMTS said, The concept of BRTS was designed and devised to empower each and every citizen of Delhi. We have made special efforts to ensure that persons with reduced mobility/ disabilities / visual impairment / hearing impairment have ease and convenience while commuting on the corridor. We are also thankful to Samarthyam for their support and we have ensured that their recommendations have been incorporated to make the BRT corridor easy and convenient to navigate. According to Mr. Sanjeev Sachdeva, Founder Member, Samarthyam, We appreciate the efforts of DIMTS that has made the dream of accessible transportation for the public a reality through the BRTS. We have been actively involved in studying this corridor and have given our suggestions to DIMTS on a regular basis. DIMTS has considered the specific requirements for differently-abled persons that would allow them from traveling comfortably. The new buses that would be plying on the BRT corridor will have low floors and would also be equipped with a ramp to enable people to board and disembark conveniently. In addition, these buses would also have reserved space to accommodate wheelchairs apart from having audio announcements and digital display for the hearing and visually impaired.

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InterpretationDelhi Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) a boon or a bane? This trial corridor, going through the extended South Delhi, is undergoing trials and every day we are treated to the specter of day long traffic jams. It is good for the newspapers as they can scream bloody murder! with banner headlines, and they do. I think the situation was equally bad even when the corridor was being built. It looked very much that not much lessons were learned form the construction procedural aspects of Delhi Metro. But one good thing indeed is happening. The lawlessness of Delhi traffic is for every one to see; no one can hide it: lane driving is for the birds. If it is a designated bus lane, you will know it by counting the number of cars on it, which will be non-zero within any time interval at a control section. How dare the pedestrians cross the street when I am driving through the red signal? I heard a car driver screaming. The notorious Blue Line buses do not stop the buses at the stops but park them to pick up as many passengers as possible nothing but the usual. The above scenes are witnessed when the number of traffic patrolmen outnumbers the number of vehicles. One thing for sure BRTS will give a boost to employment on this count!

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CONCLUSIONSThird model for Delhi BRT corridorEven as the fate of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridor from Ambedkar Nagar to Delhi Gate remains uncertain, the government has finalized a third design for the next corridor being planned in northeast Delhi from Shastri Park to Karawal Nagar. This time, the government has come up with a new model in which buses in both directions will run on one side of the existing road. Sources said this will help provide an exclusive passage for buses without disturbing traffic on the main road. In the new model, the existing road will not be disturbed. The 15-km stretch from Shastri Park to Karawal Nagar runs along Yamuna Pushta, where the land is largely for agricultural use. The plan is to widen the road from this side by about 8 metres and construct a dedicated corridor for buses on one side of the road. By doing this, the problems faced in the existing corridor traffic snarls due to road space being eaten into by the dedicated bus lane in the first model (Pilot A from Ambedkar Nagar to Moolchand) and then conflict of vehicles turning into establishments along both sides of the corridor in Pilot B (Moolchand to Delhi Gate) will not be encountered. After burning its fingers with two BRT different models on the pilot corridor, in which buses run on the extreme right (Pilot A) and extreme left lane (Pilot B) of the main road, the government has decided not to go ahead with either for the next BRT corridor. The new model will have the bus lanes on the side of the road where there is no habitation, said an official. The new model will be a close-loop BRT, where the transport department will have the advantage of adding as many buses as possible. The bus lane will be created by widening the existing road. Also, footpaths will be redone and cycle tracks will be added. The transport department anticipates problems at three intersections Khajuri Khas, Shastri Park and Bhajanpura during

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construction, which will also get sorted out once the bus lane is constructed. The corridor will have 30 bus stops and there is a proposal to extend it to Bhajanpura and Gandhi Nagar. The corridor will also have automated ticketing at all bus shelters. The major difference in this corridor and the existing one is the population demographics of the road. According to a survey, the share of non-motorized vehicles like cycles and cycle rickshaws is as high a 53.8% here, while the share of private cars ranges between 12-16%. The number of two wheelers (seen as prospective bus users) is also very high as it ranges between 21.8 and 42.5% on the road. The survey took into account traffic on Gandhi Nagar Road, GT Road, Shastri Park-ISBT Road, Yamuna Marginal Bund Road and Wazirabad Road (see graphic). A detailed project report (DPR) has been prepared by DIMTS and sent to the government for sanction of funds. The cost of the new BRT model has been worked out to Rs 20 crore per kilometre, including all the systems, which is about the same as the existing models. Sources said the corridor will become operational only after the Commonwealth Games.

Running WaysBRT systems in the United States have incorporated all types of running ways mixed flow arterial operation (Los Angeles, Honolulu), mixed flow freeway operation (Phoenix), dedicated arterial lanes (Boston, Orlando), at-grade transitways (Miami), and fully gradeseparated surface transitways (Pittsburgh), and subways (Seattle, Boston in late 2004). The only application in the United States of running way guidance occurred in Las Vegas with optical guidance used to provide precision docking at stations. The use of unique running way markings to differentiate BRT running ways was rare, with the use of signing and striping the most common form. This suggests that articulation of brand identity to running ways is still not yet widespread. There has been a broad range of sophistication and design attention in BRT stations.

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Almost universally, BRT station designs are significantly different than those of standard local bus stops, while the level of investment in the stations has generally been related to the level of investment in running way infrastructure. Exclusive transitways are most often paired with the most extensive and elaborate station infrastructure. Most systems incorporated stations designed to allow passing of vehicles at stations through the use of either adjacent mixed flow lanes or passing lanes. Only one system in the United States has platforms high enough to allow level boarding. The mix of station amenities varied across systems. The most common station amenities were seating and trash receptacles. Many systems (e.g., Los Angeles Metro Rapid, Bostons Silver Line, Las Vegas MAX, and AC Transits Rapid Bus System) have real-time schedule and/or vehicle arrival information. Communications infrastructure such as public telephones and emergency telephones are starting to be installed in systems. Most systems have intermodal transfer facilities where there are specially designed interfaces with other bus services and rapid rail systems (e.g., Los Angeles, Miami). Stations including park and ride facilities are generally part of systems with exclusive transitways (e.g., Miami-Dade South Busway, Pittsburgh Busways).

VehiclesEarly BRT systems used standard vehicles that were often identical to the rest of a particular agencys fleet. A mix of standard and articulated vehicles reflects the different levels of demand and capacity requirements across BRT systems. Three systems, Los Angeles Metro Rapid, AC Transits Rapid Bus, and Bostons Silver Line, began operation with standard size 40-foot buses with and are phasing in 60-foot articulated buses as demand grows. The use of vehicle configurations or aesthetic enhancements to differentiate BRT is gaining momentum. Some agencies have recently

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added differentiated liveries, logos, and color to these vehicles as a way to differentiate BRT service from other service. As agencies become more conscious of the visual impact of vehicles, they are slowly incorporating Stylized versions of their Conventional Standard and Articulated vehicles. The only case of the use of a Specialized BRT Vehicle is in Las Vegas.

Fare CollectionUse of alternate fare collection processes has been rare in the United States. The only implementation of anything other than a Pay On-Board process is the proof-of-payment system associated with the Las Vegas MAX system. Anecdotal observations suggest that The dwell times at high demand stations of some BRT systems has increased significantly as demand for BRT systems have grown. Over-all running times and reliability, therefore, have been negatively affected. This indicates an opportunity to introduce fare collection processes that allow for multiple-door boarding. Electronic fare collection using magnetic-stripe cards or smart cards is slowly being incorporated into BRT systems, but implementation is largely driven by agency-wide implementation rather than BRT-specific implementation. Smart cards are gaining wider application than magneticstripe cards among BRT systems. The most common ITS applications include Transit Signal Priority, Advanced Communication Systems, Automated Scheduling and Dispatch Systems, and Real-Time Traveler Information at Stations and on Vehicles. Installation of Security Systems such as emergency telephones at stations and closed circuit video monitoring is rare, but increasing as newer, more comprehensive systems are implemented.

Service and Operating PlansIn general, the structure of the routes correlated with the degree of running way exclusivity. The service plan for systems using at-grade

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arterial lanes, either in mixed flow or designated lanes generally incorporated a single BRT route replacing an existing local route or a single BRT route following the same route as a local route, which has its frequency reduced. For example, AC Transits Rapid Bus, Las Vegas RTCs MAX, Los Angeles Metros Metro Rapid have a single BRT route overlaid on a local route. Station spacing, generally between 0.5 and 1.0 miles for the BRT route, was higher than that of the local route. Service plans for systems that use exclusive transitways (Miami-Dades at-grade South Busway and Pittsburghs grade-separated transitways) are operated with integrated networks of routes that include routes that serve all stops and a variety of feeders and expresses with integrated off-line and line-haul operation. Service frequencies correlated with demand in the respective corridors. Individual BRT systems on arterials operated with headways between 5 and 15, with Boston and Los Angeles operating shorter combined headways in some corridors. Services operating on Pittsburghs exclusive running ways have the lowest combined headways observed in the United States for BRT, approximately 1 minute along the trunk transitway at the maximum load point.

Travel TimeWith respect to total BRT travel times, BRT projects with more exclusive running ways generally experienced the greatest travel time savings compared to the local bus route. Exclusive transitway projects operated at a travel time rate of 2 to 3.5 minutes per mile (between 17 and 30 miles per hour). Arterial BRT projects in mixed flow traffic or designated lanes operated between 3.5 and 5 minutes per mile (between 12 and 17 miles per hour). Performance in reliability also demonstrated a similar pattern.

ReliabilityAs expected, systems with more exclusive transitways demonstrated the most reliability and the least schedule variability and bunching. The ability to track reliability changes has been limited by the fact that most transit

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agencies do not regularly measure this performance attribute. Passenger surveys, however, indicate that reliability is important for attracting and retaining passengers. New automated vehicle location systems, may allow for the objective and conclusive measurement of reliability.

Image and IdentityPerformance in achieving a distinct brand identity for BRT has been measured by in-depth passenger surveys. The more successful BRT systems have been able to achieve a distinct identity and position in the respective regions family of transit services. BRT passengers generally had higher customer satisfaction and rated service quality higher for BRT systems than for their parallel local transit services.

Safety and SecurityData measuring the difference in safety and security of BRT systems as compared with the rest of the respective regions transit system have not been collected. Drawing conclusions about the efficacy of BRT elements in promoting safety and security is therefore premature. Data from Pittsburgh suggest that BRT operations on exclusive transitways have significantly fewer accidents per unit (vehicle mile or vehicle hour) of service than conventional local transit operations in mixed traffic. Customer perceptions of personal safety or security reveal that customers perceive BRT systems to be safer than the rest of the transit system.

CapacityFor virtually all BRT systems implemented in the United States, capacity has not been an issue. To date, none of them have been operated at their maximum capacity. On all systems, there is significant room to expand operated capacity by operating larger vehicles, higher frequencies, or both.

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RidershipThere have been significant increases in transit ridership in virtually all corridors where BRT has been implemented. Though much of the ridership increases have come from passengers formerly using parallel service in other corridors, passenger surveys have revealed that much of the increased number of trips have been made by individuals that used to drive or be driven, passengers that use to make the same trip by walking (e.g., the Bostons Silver Line Phase I) and by passengers taking advantage of BRTs improved level of service to make trips that were not made by any mode previously. Increases in BRT ridership have come from both individuals that used to use transit and totally new transit users that have access to automobiles. Aggregate analyses of ridership survey results suggest two conclusions: The ridership impact of BRT implementation has been comparable to that experienced with LRT investment of similar scope and complexity The ridership increases due to BRT implementation exceed those that would be expected as the result of simple level of service improvements. The implication here is that the identity and passenger information advantages of BRT are seen positively by potential BRT customers when they make their travel decisions.

Capital Cost EffectivenessBRT demonstrates relatively low capital costs per mile of investment. It is worth noting, however, that recently implemented BRT systems have focused on less capital-intensive investments. More capital intensive investments will begin service in the next few years. Depending on the operating environment, BRT systems are able to achieve service quality improvements (such as travel time savings of 15 to 25 percent and increases in reliability) and ridership gains that compare favorably to the capital costs and the short amount of time to implement

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BRT systems. Furthermore, BRT systems are able to operate with lower ratios of vehicles compared to total passengers.

Operating Cost EfficiencyBRT systems are able to introduce higher operating efficiency and service productivity into for transit systems that incorporate them. Experience shows that when BRT is introduced into corridors and passengers are allowed to choose BRT service, corridor performance indicators (such as passengers per revenue hour, subsidy per passenger mile, and subsidy per passenger) improve. Furthermore, travel time savings and higher reliability enables transit agencies to operate more vehicle miles of service from each vehicle hour operated.

Environmental QualityDocumentation of the environmental impacts of BRT systems is rare. Experience does show that there is improvement to environmental quality due to a number of factors. Ridership gains suggest that some former automobile users are using transit as a result of BRT implementation. Transit agencies are serving passengers with fewer hours of operation, potential reducing emissions. Most importantly, transit agencies are adopting vehicles with alternative fuels, propulsion systems, and pollutant emissions controls. Progress in reducing emissions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen is on pace to meet standards imposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This edition of the CBRT represents a snapshot of BRT experience as of the summer of 2004. It contains a wealth of data and information, but there is much about BRT that can be explored further. This is why the CBRT is intended to be a dynamic document, one that evolves along with the experience of the transit community with BRT. As the number and sophistication of BRT applications increases, CBRT will reflect this experience in future editions. Data on system experience in future editions will allow for the analyses to be more robust and for lessons

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learned to be more definitive. The FTA encourages the use of CBRT as a key tool to disseminate information on the evolution of BRT to the transit community.

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BibliographyWikepedia.org Delhi Transport Journal Need for BRT in Delhi, 2005, Kapil Nath, Govt of NCT of Delhi BRT Designsum, Dec 2005, TRIPP, Govt of NCT of Delhi Ay, M. A., Using Ordered Probit Modeling to Study the Effect of ATIS on Transit Ridership, Pergamon Transportation Research Part C, 2001 Darido, Georges, Managing Conflicts Between the Environment and Mobility: The Case of Road-Based Transportation and Air Quality in Mexico City, MIT, 2000 Diaz, Roderick and Donald Schneck, Bus Rapid Transit An Overview, presentation by Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. Washington, DC Fleishman, Daniel, Carol Schweiger, David Lott, and George Pierlott, Multipurpose Transit

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Date:- November 4, 2009 Submitted by:- 21 : Amarjeet Punia 22 : Pranesh Kumar Pathak 23 : Vikas Gupta 24 : Ashish Jain 25 : Anil Gupta PROJECT REPORT BRT CORRIDOR 26 : Tanvi Jindal 27 : Anshul Jain 28 : Vipul Singhal 29 : Vineet Kumar 30 : Ishita Dhingra UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA MBA- AB 2009-11
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