Brt report

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  • 1. Lessons learned from major bus improvements in Latin America and Asia modernizing public TransporTaTion

2. 2010 World Resources InstituteReport by: DARIO HIDALGO Senior Transport Engineer EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport [email protected] CARRIGAN Transport and Urban Planning Associate EMBARQ, The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport [email protected] and layout by DAVE K. COOPER 3. ConTenTS02 About WRI and EMBARQ 03 Foreword 05 Executive Summary 09 Overview 21 Synthesis of Findings: Lessons Learned 31 Conclusions and Recommendations 35 Acknowledgments 37 Sources This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. 4. The World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmentalThe EMBARQ global network catalyzes environmentallythink tank that goes beyond research to find practical and financially sustainable transport solutions toways to protect the earth and improve peoples lives.improve quality of life in cities.Our mission is to move human society to live in waysthat protect Earths environment and its capacity to Since 2002, the network has grown to include fiveprovide for the needs and aspirations of current and Centers for Sustainable Transport, located in Mexico,future generations.Brazil, India, Turkey and the Andean Region, that work together with local transport authorities to reduceBecause people are inspired by ideas, empoweredpollution, improve public health, and create safe,by knowledge, and moved to change by greater accessible and attractive urban public spaces. Theunderstanding, WRI providesand helps othernetwork employs more than 100 experts in fieldsinstitutions provideobjective information and ranging from architecture to air quality management;practical proposals for policy and institutional changegeography to journalism; and sociology to civil andthat will foster environmentally sound, socially equitable transport engineering.development. EMBARQ is a member of the Bus Rapid Transit: AcrossWRI organizes its work around four key goals:Latitudes and Cultures (BRT-ALC) Centre of ExcellencePeople & Ecosystems: Reverse rapid degradation (, funded by the Volvo Research andof ecosystems and assure their capacity to provide Educational Foundations.humans with needed goods and services.Governance: Empower people and support institutions to foster environmentally sound and socially equitable decision-making.Climate Protection: Protect the global climate system from further harm due to emissions of greenhouse gases and help humanity and the natural world adapt to unavoidable climate change.Markets & Enterprise: Harness markets and enterprise to expand economic opportunity and protect the environment. In all its policy research and work with institutions,WRI tries to build bridges between ideas and action,meshing the insights of scientific research, economicand institutional analyses, and practical experience withthe need for open and participatory decision making. 2 emBArQ: Modernizing public Transport 5. forewordForeword EMBARQ, WRI's Center for Sustainable Transport, promotes the use of bus rapid transit (BRT) around the world as a sustainable, high-impact and relatively low-cost transport solution. The data compiled for this report confirms that BRT can provide high-capacity WItH MORE Of tHE WORLDs POPuLAtION up to 45,000 passengers an hour in each direction LIVING IN uRbAN AREAs tHAN EVER bEfORE, with comparatively low capital investmentless than and the largest agglomerations now home to more thanUS$12.5 million per kilometer. Equally impressively, the 10 million people, cities today face urgent and complex modernized or new transit systems we looked at were development challenges. implemented relatively quicklyin only two to five years from concept to commissioningand were able In managing growth and providing services, planners to break even or require small operational subsidies. and politicians increasingly seek to balance economic priorities with sustainable development that meets social The report also summarizes common pitfalls and needs and mitigates environmental impacts. This reportshortcomings encountered in these 13 cities in examines efforts by major cities across Latin America and designing, financing and implementing BRT and Asia to apply such approaches to public transport.citywide bus systems.Urban transportation systems significantly affect cities We hope our findings will enable urban transportation quality of life and, through associated air pollution agencies in cities already pursuing sustainable solutions and greenhouse gases, the wider regional and global to learn from others experiences, improve their systems, environments. These impacts can be mitigated by and achieve greater transport, environmental and public sustainable transport policies which promote cleaner, health impacts. We also hope that cities embarking on more efficient public transport systems in order to new transportation projects can draw on our analysis reduce congestion, minimize travel times, reduce GHGto avoid the shortcomings of others approaches in emissions and local air pollutants, decrease road traffic delivering environmentally and financially sustainable injuries and deaths and improve public health.transport solutions.Sustainable urban transport can have measurable As the world searches for low-cost, low-carbon transport positive impacts and externalities, but in order to solutions, this report underlines that BRT projects should realize its full potential to transform cities, a transport be championed and prioritized, especially in developing project must be planned, implemented and operated countries where infrastructure financing options are effectively. This is far from an easy task, involving a more limited and rapid motorization is exacerbating myriad political, financial, technical, institutional and urban problems of congestion, pollution and road traffic communication challenges. injuries and deaths.In order to shed light on these challenges, Modernizing We thank the city officials, experts and professionals who Public Transportation: Lessons Learned from Major Bus shared their data and were candid about their transport Improvements in Latin America and Asia, presentsprojects challenges and shortcomings, in order that a comparative analysis of the performance of 13 others may learn from their experiences. We believe modernized bus systems in cities including Bogot,their willingness to share processes undergone and So Paulo, and Santiago, Jakarta and Beijing. The resultlessons learned will give rise to improved urban transport is an illuminating snapshot of the state of practice of planning, design, implementation and operation, bus transport in Latin America and Asia, highlighting ultimately bringing a better quality of life and cleaner both common hurdles and problems encountered, environments to the cities of the emerging world. and positive lessons learned, from recent efforts to make getting around mega-cities more efficient andJonathan Lash environmentally-friendly. President emBArQ: Modernizing public Transport 3 6. execuTive suMMaryexecuTive suMMary tHE MEGA-CItIEs Of LAtIN AMERICA AND AsIA in 13 Latin American and Asian cities. In particular, rely on public transport to keep their citizens it reviews and synthesizes information regarding moving and economies working while mitigating challenges experienced by transport system decision the negative environmental impacts of rapid makers in three key areas: planning, implementation motorization. Increasingly, these cities are upgradingand operations. In order to assist urban transport or even transforming their public transport systems planners and implementing agencies, the study also to better serve the needs of their populations andprovides recommendations on avoiding or mitigating the environment. Some of these efforts have beensimilar difficulties when introducing bus reforms more successful than others and some more widelyin developing world cities. publicized. To date, however, there has been no synthesis of benefits and shortcomings of the various The selected cities were chosen for several reasons approaches taken, in order to inform future urban including: long-term recognition in urban transport transport projects in emerging nations. There are several practices, multi-functional land usage practices for studies, for example, about the celebrated successesurban environments, and/or the recent1 completion of the TransMilenio bus rapid transit system in Bogot, of bus system improvements. The review includes the Colombia, and its counterpart in Curitiba, Brazil, butfollowing cities: Curitiba, Quito, Bogot, So Paulo, little literature on the shortcomings of these, and similar Len, Mxico City, Pereira, Guayaquil, Santiago and systems, creating an informational gap in constructiveGuadalajara in Latin America, and Jakarta, Beijing and advice on lessons to be learned.Ahmedabad in Asia. The cities vary in size and socio- economic characteristics (see table 1), but in each case This study seeks to fill that information gap bybuses account for a substantial portion of total public summarizing key findings and lessons learned from transport use and bus rapid transit (BRT) was introduced a comprehensive review of major bus improvementsas a component of reform. 1 completion within the past 15 years is considered recent.emBArQ: Modernizing public Transport 5 7. Table 1 Key Statistics of Selected Cities MetroAreA 2009HuMAnMetroAreA CityCountryPoPulAtionDensityDeveloPMentinDexPoPulAtion2006(PoP/kM2) vAlue(rAnk)aCuritiba 2,960,000 4,5680.813Brazil(75)soPaulo18,610,0009,456 0.878santiago Chile 5,700,000 2,896(44)0.772Beijing China10,850,000 14,505(92) Bogot 7,800,00015,0580.807 Colombia(77)Pereira 443,000631 3,236Quito1,550,0000.806 Ecuador(80)Guayaquil2,460,000 7,130 0.612AhmedabadInd

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