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Bullying : Prevention & Intervention Action Planning

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Bullying : Prevention & Intervention Action Planning. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports www.pbis.org. Bullying Defined. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Bullying: Prevention & Intervention Action Planning

Bullying: Prevention & Intervention Action PlanningTim Lewis, Ph.D.University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supportswww.pbis.org

Bullying DefinedA student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students (Elliott, 2002)Types of BullyingPhysicalVerbalEmotional Sexual

HarassmentIllegal act when an individual is verbally or nonverbally taunted and demeaned in relation to certain attributes such as gender, race or ethnicity, religion, and/or sexual orientationTeasingMost teasing among 8-10 year olds is mean spirited Friendly, acceptable teasing appears more characteristic among adolescentsTeasing among boys typically includes themes of intimidation, power, control, etc.Teasing among girls typically involves themes of social cruelty, deception, hurt feelings, being left outSome teasing is deliberate some set up by spontaneous/accidental circumstanceEveryone is teased at some point others are often targetedOverreacting to teasingBeing atypicalHaving atypical physical or behavioral attributesBeing socially or athletically unskilledMost teasing is done by groups to an individual

(Walker, Ramsey, & Gesham, 2004)

TeasingTeasing among friends is sometimes o.k. while teasing strangers is notPhysical size is a major factor among boysAdaptive responses to teasing include:IgnoringAsking them to stopLeaving the situationMaladaptive responses to teasing include:Teasing backName callingGetting madCrying, hitting or tantrumThreats8-10 year olds have firm belief in their effectiveness to stop teasing, but in actually have no effect or make it worse

(Walker, Ramsey, & Gesham, 2004)

Bullies and PeersPerpetratorVictimBystander - do not directly participate but reinforce the bullyNon-participant - do not participate, simply present, but take no action to preventVictimsPassive-submissive anxious, fearful, withdrawn, bully reinforced by occasioning the behaviorProvocative display annoying and aggressive responses & thereby inadvertently reinforce the bullyGender DifferencesBoys = direct physical / verbal intimidationGirls = indirect gossip and rumors

Males = larger numbers of both bullies and victimsBullysVictimsIndividualImpulsive, dominant, lacks empathyPositive attitude toward violenceDifficulty conforming to rulesPhysical strength (males)Gradual decrease in academic achievementAssume leadership roles in core groups of peers (female)More likely to bring weapons to school (52% males, 30% females)70% report weapons outside of schoolCautious, insecureDifficulty asserting themselves among peersPhysical weakness (males)Increase likelihood to carry weapons to school (36% males, 15% females)FamilyLack of parental involvementOverly-permissiveHarsh disciplineLack of parental supervisionPeerFriends/peers with positive attitudes toward violenceExposure to models of bullyingLack of close friendsSchoolLack of supervisionIndifferent attitude toward bullyingPresence of aggressive studentsLack of supervisionIndifferent attitude toward bullyingOutcomes of bullyingShort termBully - reinforced increases future bullyingVictim - somatic symptoms, fearful, avoidanceLong termBully 60% grades 6-9 had been convicted of an aggressive crime in adulthoodMore likely to be violent (Nansel et al, 2004).More likely to have children who bullyVictim depression, poor self esteem, suicide, school drop outOstracized by peersRecommendations From the FieldRecommended strategies for Teachers (U.S. Department of Education, 1998)Provide students with opportunities to talk about bullyingInvolve students in establishing classroom rules against bullyingProvide classroom activities and discussion around the harmful effects of bullyingDevelop a plan to ensure students know what to do if they observe bullyingTeach cooperation/compromise social skillsTake immediate action when bullying observed/reportedConfront bullies in privateNotify parents of both the bully and victim seek to resolve the conflict at schoolRefer both bully and victim to counselor if appropriateProvide protection for victims (e.g, buddy system)Listen to parents who report or express concerns about bullying and investigate immediatelyAvoid attempts to mediate in bullying situations power imbalance in the bully dynamic precludes this from happeningBully Prevention KeysSchool & home that is characterized as warm but sets firm limits for unacceptable behaviorWhen violations occur, non-hostile, nonphysical sanctions be consistently appliedCareful monitoring of student activities Adults should act as responsible authorities during all adult-child interactions, especially when bullying occursBully Intervention BasicsBully - discourage / appropriate sanctionsVictim teach strategies to appropriately avoid/escape situations that involve bullying & place in activities in which they can succeed to boost confidenceBy-standers make them aware of their supporting role and discourage them Non-participants teach them to discourage bullying and to not show approval if observedAction PlanningStart with Your DataIs Bullying a ProblemStudent DataProblem ScaredHow oftenTypesStaff DataProblemTypes & FrequencyAre There High Risk SettingsStudent & Staff LocationWhere Do Student Seek HelpWhoHave they contacted an adultWhere Do Adults Perceive Students Seek HelpWhoMost likelyComments60 students commented that they see bullying in gym, P.E., and the locker roomI felt embarrassed. I really didn't want to be in that situation I hate it, it hurts me a lot!!!!No one does anything enough to stop them anyway. There is too much of it. CommentsNot enough enforcement of the rules so more bullying is done.Sometimes grown-ups don't understand or you can't tell them what you are going through because you are afraid they will get mad at you.When there is bullying going on in the classroom some of the teachers see it and they hear but they don't do anything InterventionsStaff aware of District policy & proceduresTop 5 strategies would use5 Strategies would not useOther strategies listedAction PlanReplacement behaviors for noted types of bullying behaviorLinkage to school-wide/class-wide set of expectationLesson plans/teaching strategies (with schedule)Action Plan3. Supervision of high risk locationsCurrent supervision/ needed resourcesTraining & supportStrategies for victimsInstructional strategies & consequences for bullyingInstructionEnvironmental supportsConsequences

Implement and MonitorCurrent Data collection captures bullying?Office referralStudent/staff report

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