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Business 205. Review Hypotheses Critical Areas Critical t-values T-tests (One-sample)

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Business 205

Business 205


HypothesesCritical AreasCritical t-valuesT-tests (One-sample)


Survey EthicsSurvey DesignsMS4


Reliability and Validity

Since this survey is a training tool, it has not been formally checked for reliability or validity. However, since I have had a lot of feedback from various training classes, other trainers, and various sources, I feel that it is fairly accurate. If I did a formal reliability and validity analysis, I would probably have to charge for it. Please feel free to send me your feedback ([email protected]).

Purpose of a Survey

To be able to place a number on a construct

This enables a researcher to engage in statistical analysis

Constructs (DVs) are composed of MANY questions whose scores are averaged togetherThe average (mean) result is the number

statistics are performed on

Survey Ethics

Nazi Medical War CrimesTuskegee Syphilis StudyJewish Chronic Disease Hospital Study



National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1974)Belmont ReportCommon Rule


Three ethical principles are outlined in the Report:Respect for Persons

informed consentBeneficence

Do no harm, and maximize benefitsJustice

Equitable distributions of the burdens and benefits of research.

Common Rule

Requirements for assuring compliance by research institutions

Requirements for researchers’ obtaining and documenting informed consent

Requirements for Institutional Review Board (IRB) membership, function, operations, review of research, and record keeping.

Human Subjects Review Board (HRB) = IRB

Serves to ensure studies follow ethical guidelines

Controls research aspectsAllows those projects that do no harmMay stop a project at any given time

Administering a Survey

Pre-Survey Introduction

Name, general background of what your are studying, side-effects, VOLUNTARY, participation reward, contact information

Post-SurveyConcluding Remarks

Debriefing about your study, thank-you, give participation reward

Open-Ended Questions

Respondents asked to provide their own answers to the question


What is your favorite restaurant to eat at?

Closed-Ended Questions

Respondents are asked to select their answer from among a list provided


Please circle your age:

18 19 20 21 22 23+

Likert Scale

Strongly Agree/Strongly Disagree5 or 7 point scale (5 is more common)

1.) People who drink heavily at parties are popular.


2.) I can excuse someone more readily for obnoxious behavior because they were drunk.


* 7 pt: Strongly Agree, Somewhat Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Somewhat Disagree, Strongly Disagree

Semantic-Differential Scales

Polar oppositesNormally either a 5 or 7 point scale

Place an "X" or a check mark along the continuum between each pair of words. Placing the check mark closer to one of the words indicates that you feel that the word closely describes the language used in the message.

The language of the message is:

Strong Weak

Emotional Unemotional

*other pairs: Good/Bad; Wise/Foolish; Intelligent/Unintelligent; Honest/Dishonest; Reliable/Unreliable

Think about “splitting”

Must have question that will divide groups by IV You wanted to know about gender differences

Demographic question: I’m a Male Female

You want to know about Smokers and Non-Smokers

Demographic question: I smoke. Yes No

You want to know about people who drink 1, 2 or 3 drinks and hour

How many drinks an hour do you drink? 1 2 3

Watch for Erroneous Questions and Biases!

Double barreled questionsSlanted questionsEmotionally charged questions

Researcher biasAnswering bias

Writing Survey Questions

Writing questions that make sense to ask of the DVAsk questions that your group thinks may

be important to finding out information about the DV

Make sure that the questions are relevant

Rule of thumb: More than 3 questions per DV

Survey Reliability

Questions need to “hang together”

Reliability is from alpha = .70 or higher

To achieve this, “like” questions are added together to get the Mean for the DV


You want to know if gender affects how happy people are. You write a survey based on finding out how happy people are and divide the groups by gender.

Understanding Questionnaires

Person 1

I am a F

I am a very happy person.


I believe myself to be very blessed.


I am a very optimistic person


Person 2

I am a Female M

I am a very happy person.


I believe myself to be very blessed.


I am a very optimistic person


Milestone 4

Compose a surveyHave several demographic questions

Write at least 15 questions per DVThese questions can be a mix of all types of

survey questionsMake sure you have at least 10 that are of

Likert-type or Semantic-Differential

Excel for t-tests : 1 to many samples

DO NOT USE!!!Ttest(array, array, tails, type)