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C3 impact of target marketing on advertising attitudes[1]

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  • 1. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group)Nontarget Markets and Viewer Distinctiveness: The Impact of Target Marketing onAdvertising AttitudesAuthor(s): Jennifer L. Aaker, Anne M. Brumbaugh, Sonya A. GrierSource: Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 3 (2000), pp. 127-140Published by: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1480407Accessed: 26/11/2008 08:42Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=lebtaylorfrancis.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Erlbaum Associates (Taylor & Francis Group) is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve andextend access to Journal of Consumer Psychology.http://www.jstor.org

2. OFJOURNAL CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY, 127-140 9(3), ? LawrenceCopyright2000, ErlbaumInc. Associates,NontargetMarketsand Viewer Distinctiveness:The ImpactofTargetMarketingon AdvertisingAttitudes JenniferL. Aaker GraduateSchool of BusinessStanfordUniversity Anne M. Brumbaugh WeatherheadSchool of ManagementCase WesternReserve University Sonya A. Grier GraduateSchool of BusinessStanfordUniversity Thisresearchexamines effectof targetthe marketing members theadvertisers on ofintended audience wellas members inthetargetas notmarket: nontargetthe market. results 3 ex-Theof perimentsshow that unfavorablenontargetmarketeffects are stronger membersoffor nondistinctive groups(e.g.,Caucasian individuals,heterosexual and individuals) favorabletar- getmarketforofeffectsarestronger members distinctivegroups(e.g.,African Americanindi-homosexual viduals,Theof2 individuals). results Experimentdemonstrate thepsychologi- that cal processes whichtarget nontarget by and market effectsoccurdifferby viewergroup: Felt similaritywithsources anadvertisement in drives targetmarketeffectsfordistinctiveviewers, whereas targetedness felt drivestarget market effectsfornondistinctiveviewers. Finally,Ex- periment showsthat3 theseconsumer oforare feelings similarity targetedness associatedwith underlying processes identification internalization.of and Theoreticalimplications regardingof theimpact distinctiveness in theory consumerpersuasioneffectsandpotential socialeffects marketing discussed. of targetareImagineyou are channel surfingand find yourself watchingAlthoughconsumerbehaviorresearchhas focused on theBlack EntertainmentTelevision, a cable channelwhose pro-impactof targetmarketingon those in the targetmarket,con-grammingandadvertisingaregearedtowarda predominantlysiderablyless attentionhas focused on the impact of targetAfricanAmericanaudience.As a middle-agedWhiteperson,marketingon those not in the targetmarket-the nontargetyou are fascinatedby what you see, but you do not "get"allmarket.Froma theoreticalperspective,examiningattitudinalthatis going on. The show ends and a commercialfor Stoveeffects of the nontargetmarketcan lead to a greaterunder-Top Stuffing,just what you are aboutto have for dinner,ap-standingof the full range of responsesto persuasiveappealspears.You are amused and interestedto see this advertising(Friestad& Wright, 1994). Froma practicalperspective,ex-appealthat is very differentfrom any you have seen for theaminingthe reactionsof nontargetmarketmembersto adver-brandbefore. You are confused because they are calling it tising intended for others sheds insight on how to betterdressing, although the box clearly says stuffing. What aremanage multiple segments in an increasingly diverse andyour attitudestowardthe advertisementand brandnow?behaviorallycomplex marketplace.Thus, in this researchwe investigate the effects of targetmarketingon consumers not in the intended target market. for be toL.Uni-Stanfordshould sent Jennifer Aaker, We proposethatthe negative effects associatedwith feelingRequests reprints School Business, Memorial Stanford,Graduateversity, of 518Drive,CA excluded from a marketersintended audience have conse-E-mail:[email protected] quences for advertisingreactions that differ fundamentally 3. 128 AAKER, BRUMBAUGH,GRIERfroma merefailureto achievefavorabletargetmarketeffects.driven by consumersinference of similaritybetween someWe call these negative consequences nontarget marketef- characteristicsof the advertisement(e.g., source pictured,fects and explore the natureand impact of these effects inlanguage used, lifestyle represented)and characteristicsofthree experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrates the basicthe consumer(e.g., realityor desireof havingthe representedpropositionthat nontargetmarketmembersrespondless fa- lifestyle; Gronhaug Rostvig, 1978). Thus,persuasionis en- & vorablyto targetedmarketing efforts andhighlightsthe mod-hancedby a match between the characteristics the adver-in eratingcondition of viewer distinctiveness. That is, tisementand those of the consumer,relativeto when thereis individualsin numericallyraregroupsare more likely to ex-no such match (Whittler,1989; Whittler& DiMeo, 1991). hibittargetmarketing effects, whereasindividualsin a major-In contrast,negative nontargetmarketeffects may occur ity group are more likely to exhibit nontarget marketeffects.when the cues in an advertisement incongruent are with some Furthermore, results of this experimentsuggest thatper- thecharacteristic, need, belief, or value of the consumer.Forex- ceptionsof similarityto sourcesin the advertisement, wellasample,when an advertisement sourcehas characteristicsthat as perceptionsof inclusion in the targetmarketof the adver-differfrom those of the viewer (e.g., when the advertisement tisement, are related to targetand nontargetmarketeffects. featuresindividualsfroma groupof which the viewer is not a Experiment2 investigates two ways by which target andmember),these favorableeffects should not accrue. Rather, nontargetmarketeffects may occur and shows that the dis- viewers in the nontargetmarketmay perceive dissimilarity tinctivenessof bothconsumersandadvertisement sourcesin-between themselves and the intendedtargetin the advertise- fluence the specific processes driving target and nontargetment (as conveyed through source or nonsource targeting marketeffects. The combinedresultsof Experiments1 and2 cues). As a result, individualsmay infer that their tastes and imply that target marketinginduces identificationwith thepreferencesare differentfrom that of the intendedtargetand sources among distinctive groups and internalization theof thus fail to adoptthe favorableattitudetowardthe advertise- message among nondistinctivegroups. Experiment3 con- ment. Anecdotalevidence suggests thatindividualsviewing firms that these underlyingpsychological processes lead to an advertisement has not been designedto appealto their that targetand nontargetmarketeffects. The implicationsof the marketsegment are likely to view the advertisement dis- as existence of nontargetmarketeffects and the psychologicaltractingor irritating(Star, 1989), may feel ignored or ne- processesthatunderliethese effects arediscussed in the con-glected (Greco, 1989), or even become alienatedor offended text of our theoreticaland practical understanding con-of(Lipman, 1991). Thus, nontargetmarketeffects are marked sumerresponseto targetedmarketingefforts.not by a failureto achieve favorabletargetmarketeffects, butrathera decreasedpreferencefor an advertisement people bywho believe they are not the targetof the advertisement.1 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TARGETMARKETAND NONTARGETMARKETEFFECTSTHE MODERATINGEFFECT OFVIEWER DISTINCTIVENESSTargetmarketing refersto the identificationof a set of buyerssharingcommon needs or characteristics a companyde- that In the process of creatingtargetedadvertisements, singleacides to serve (Kotler,Armstrong, Starr,1991). It has argu- & islargemarket dividedinto separatesegmentson the basisof aably been the driving force behind the success of manymeaningfulvariable(s).The meaningfulnessof the specificwell-knownbrands(e.g., Pepsi, Mercedes-Benz,MillerLite) segmentationvariableis likely to influencethe strength tar-ofandprovidesthe basis of a predominant brandingstrategy,theget andnontargetmarketingeffects.Morespecific,research onuserpositioningapproach, which the brandis closely asso-inpersuasion effects suggeststhatanyvariable leadsindivid- thatciatedwitha particular orcustomer(e.g., Maybellineand user uals to makesimilarity judgmentsbetweenthemselvesandanthe girl next door). Underlyingthe use of targetmarketingis advertisement source(e.g., culturalorientation,Aaker& Wil-the premise that those who are targeted,or spoken to, willliams, 1998; social class, William & Qualls, 1989; ethnicity,have strongaffinityfor the brand(Aaker,1999). A numberofWooten, 1995) shouldimpactthe degree to which targetandresearchershave examinedhow varioustargetmarkets(e.g.,nontarget marketeffects occur.However,the morepersonallyolder consumers, women, African Americans)arrive at thehigherlevels of affinity for the brand.For example,researchhas shownthatracialsim

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