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CANADIAN ENGLISH (MAINLAND) A PRESENTATION BY BER!L ÖKTEM, MARKUS WIRTZ and FLORIAN ZÜNDORF.

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CANADIAN ENGLISH CANADIAN ENGLISH (MAINLAND) (MAINLAND) A PRESENTATION BY BER!L A PRESENTATION BY BER!L ÖKTEM, MARKUS WIRTZ and ÖKTEM, MARKUS WIRTZ and FLORIAN ZÜNDORF FLORIAN ZÜNDORF
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CANADIAN ENGLISH CANADIAN ENGLISH (MAINLAND)(MAINLAND)

A PRESENTATION BY BER!L ÖKTEM, A PRESENTATION BY BER!L ÖKTEM, MARKUS WIRTZ and FLORIAN MARKUS WIRTZ and FLORIAN

ZÜNDORFZÜNDORF

IntroductionIntroduction The report tries to show Canadian English as a variety of ASEThe report tries to show Canadian English as a variety of ASE

Canadian? Or American?Canadian? Or American?

Problems of Canadians Problems of Canadians Nowadays huge similarity to AE Nowadays huge similarity to AE

CE has its own features Phonology, vocabulary, etc.CE has its own features Phonology, vocabulary, etc.

Try to work out, that Canadian English has its own linguistic Try to work out, that Canadian English has its own linguistic historyhistory

““English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. It is spoken English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. It is spoken as a Canadian first or second language by over 25 million—or 85 as a Canadian first or second language by over 25 million—or 85 percent of—Canadians (2001 census [1]). Canadian English percent of—Canadians (2001 census [1]). Canadian English spelling can be described as a mixture of American, British, spelling can be described as a mixture of American, British, Franglais, and unique Canadianisms. Canadian vocabulary is Franglais, and unique Canadianisms. Canadian vocabulary is similar to American English, yet with key differences and local similar to American English, yet with key differences and local variations.”variations.”

HistoryHistory CE was first recorded in 1854/1857CE was first recorded in 1854/1857 Goose milk Goose milk or or corrupt dialect corrupt dialect (regardence of CE)(regardence of CE)

““Canadian English, though diverse in communities and Canadian English, though diverse in communities and variable in the speech of individuals, is not a composite of variable in the speech of individuals, is not a composite of archaic or rustic features or a potpourri of British and archaic or rustic features or a potpourri of British and American speechways but at true national American speechways but at true national language”[1982,152,emphasis added]language”[1982,152,emphasis added] R.Bailey R.Bailey

Despite some bibliographies and collections the variety Despite some bibliographies and collections the variety remains relatively understudiedremains relatively understudied

New interests in world varieties of English, multilingual New interests in world varieties of English, multilingual population are good for studiespopulation are good for studies

Nowadays it is generally agreed that CE is originated as a Nowadays it is generally agreed that CE is originated as a variant of NA Evariant of NA E

To understand Canadians and their ‘language” it is necessary To understand Canadians and their ‘language” it is necessary to take a look at the settlement historyto take a look at the settlement history

Settlement HistorySettlement History The reason for the homogeneity of CE over a huge distanceThe reason for the homogeneity of CE over a huge distance

Canadian English has been influenced linguistically through 2 Canadian English has been influenced linguistically through 2 waves 1.)British 2.)American ->French has an important role waves 1.)British 2.)American ->French has an important role

Newfoundland English settlers at the beginning of the 17th centuryNewfoundland English settlers at the beginning of the 17th century

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Islands changed New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Islands changed hands from French to English and finally remained English in 1713 hands from French to English and finally remained English in 1713 handed to England handed to England

Gaelic speakers settled at Cape Breton and German speakers in Gaelic speakers settled at Cape Breton and German speakers in Lunenburg County. They produced a complex pattern of rural Lunenburg County. They produced a complex pattern of rural dialectsdialects

Settlement by British Loyalists after the American Revolution in Settlement by British Loyalists after the American Revolution in 1783 tripled English speaking population1783 tripled English speaking population

BL had different dialects, Differences of CE and Maritimes EnglishBL had different dialects, Differences of CE and Maritimes English

Settlement HistorySettlement History Maritimes came from New England and seaports of NY StateMaritimes came from New England and seaports of NY State Central Canadians came from Western New England, NY and Central Canadians came from Western New England, NY and

Pennsylvania-> varieties evolved into SCEPennsylvania-> varieties evolved into SCE Formed 80% of the population of Upper Canada by 1813Formed 80% of the population of Upper Canada by 1813 Immigrants from England, Ireland and Scotland in the 1830s Immigrants from England, Ireland and Scotland in the 1830s

and 1840s, more influence on political and social institutionsand 1840s, more influence on political and social institutions BL settled in Quebec after 1783 moving to the Eastern BL settled in Quebec after 1783 moving to the Eastern

Townships southeast of MontrealTownships southeast of Montreal By 1831 British settlers were majority, dominated by 1867By 1831 British settlers were majority, dominated by 1867 Since 1974 Quebec is French and dominates Quebec EnglishSince 1974 Quebec is French and dominates Quebec English Uniformity of CE from Ontario west to Vancouver Island is Uniformity of CE from Ontario west to Vancouver Island is

usually explained by the settlement policy in 1867usually explained by the settlement policy in 1867 Fear of Americans the railway and settlement was moved Fear of Americans the railway and settlement was moved

westwards by the government westwards by the government

Settlement HistorySettlement History

Important positions were claimed by Important positions were claimed by people from Ontariopeople from Ontario

Children grew up speaking Canadian Children grew up speaking Canadian EnglishEnglish

Immigrants specially in the urban areas of Immigrants specially in the urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg and Montreal have preserved ties to their Montreal have preserved ties to their mother tongue 17%-30%mother tongue 17%-30%

Contribution to a multilingual CanadaContribution to a multilingual Canada

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS

Canadianisms Canadianisms : words which are : words which are native to Canada or words which native to Canada or words which have meanings native to Canadahave meanings native to Canada

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS Some Canadianisms are borrowings...Some Canadianisms are borrowings... ... from Canadian French:... from Canadian French: capelincapelin or or shantyshanty

... from the Aboriginal languages of Canada:... from the Aboriginal languages of Canada: kayakkayak from Inuktitut, from Inuktitut, chipmunkchipmunk from Ojibwa, from Ojibwa, saskatoonsaskatoon and and muskegmuskeg from Cree, from Cree,

sockeyesockeye from Coast Salish from Coast Salish

Many of more than 10,000 Canadianisms are archaic, rare or ruralMany of more than 10,000 Canadianisms are archaic, rare or rural For example: For example: chesterfield chesterfield – large sofa or couch in the 1940s and 1950s, now it has – large sofa or couch in the 1940s and 1950s, now it has

fallen out of general usefallen out of general use

Many other distinctly Canadian terms are current among the chiefly urban population Many other distinctly Canadian terms are current among the chiefly urban population of today Words for of today Words for specific holidays:specific holidays:

St. Jean Baptiste DaySt. Jean Baptiste Day Victoria DayVictoria Day Canada DayCanada Day

Words for government institutions or agencies:Words for government institutions or agencies: Throne SpeechThrone Speech CIDACIDA- Canadian International Development Agency- Canadian International Development Agency

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS FRENCH-ENGLISH RELATIONSFRENCH-ENGLISH RELATIONS anglophone : English-speaking person: English-speaking person Bill101 : The Charter of French Language, passed : The Charter of French Language, passed

in 1977, requiring, among other things, that in 1977, requiring, among other things, that public signs in Quebec be in French onlypublic signs in Quebec be in French only

francophone francophone :: French-speaking person French-speaking person language police language police : The officials of the Commision : The officials of the Commision

de protection de la langue francaisede protection de la langue francaise Quiet Revolution Quiet Revolution : The period 1960-6 in Quebec, : The period 1960-6 in Quebec,

marked by province-wide reforms and a growing marked by province-wide reforms and a growing separatist movementseparatist movement

separatist separatist :: A person who favors the secession of A person who favors the secession of Quebec (or of the Western provinces) from Quebec (or of the Western provinces) from CanadaCanada

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS NATIVE PEOPLESNATIVE PEOPLES Aboriginal rights Aboriginal rights : Rights guaranteed in the : Rights guaranteed in the

Charter of Rights and Freedoms to those Charter of Rights and Freedoms to those defined defined

as Aboriginal by the Constitution Act, 1982as Aboriginal by the Constitution Act, 1982 First Nation First Nation : An Indian band or community: An Indian band or community Native Friendship Centre Native Friendship Centre : An institution in a : An institution in a

predominantly non-Aboriginal community to predominantly non-Aboriginal community to provide social services to Aboriginal peopleprovide social services to Aboriginal people

status Indian status Indian : A person registered as an : A person registered as an Indian under the Indian ActIndian under the Indian Act

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS GOVERNMENT, LAW AND POLITICSGOVERNMENT, LAW AND POLITICS

Bell-ringing Bell-ringing : The ringing of bells in a legislative assembly to : The ringing of bells in a legislative assembly to summon members for a votesummon members for a vote

Confederation Confederation :: The act of creating the Dominion of Canada; The act of creating the Dominion of Canada; also the federation of the Canadian provinces and also the federation of the Canadian provinces and territoriesterritories

First Ministers First Ministers : The premiers of the provinces and the : The premiers of the provinces and the Prime Minister of CanadaPrime Minister of Canada

impaired impaired : Having a blood alcohol level above the legal limit: Having a blood alcohol level above the legal limit riding riding : a district whose voters elect a representative : a district whose voters elect a representative

member to a legislative bodymember to a legislative body RCMP :RCMP : A member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police A member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police transfer paymenttransfer payment: A payment from the government to : A payment from the government to

another level of governmentanother level of government

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS

FINANCEFINANCE

Bay StreetBay Street and and Howe Street Howe Street : The stock : The stock markets in Toronto and Vancouvermarkets in Toronto and Vancouver

GST GST :: The goods and services tax; a value- The goods and services tax; a value-added tax levied by the federal governmentadded tax levied by the federal government

PST PST :: Provincial sales tax Provincial sales tax

harmonized sales tax harmonized sales tax : A combination of the : A combination of the GST and PSTGST and PST

toonie or twoonie toonie or twoonie : A Canadian two-dollar : A Canadian two-dollar coincoin

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND PROGRAMSSOCIAL STRUCTURES AND PROGRAMS Child tax benefit (formerly family allowance) :Child tax benefit (formerly family allowance) : A payment made by A payment made by

the federal government to mothers of children under 18, also the federal government to mothers of children under 18, also baby baby bonusbonus

health card or care card :health card or care card : A card identifying a person as eligible to A card identifying a person as eligible to receive medical treatment paid for by a public insurance companyreceive medical treatment paid for by a public insurance company

multiculturalism multiculturalism :: An official policy advocating a society composed An official policy advocating a society composed of many culturally distinct groups, enacted into legislation in 1985of many culturally distinct groups, enacted into legislation in 1985

social insurance number or SIN social insurance number or SIN : A nine-digit number used by the : A nine-digit number used by the government for identification purposesgovernment for identification purposes

UIC UIC :: Unemployment Insurance Commission; also the insurance Unemployment Insurance Commission; also the insurance payment payment

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS SPORTSSPORTS Jeux Canada Games Jeux Canada Games :: An annual national An annual national

athletic competition, with events in athletic competition, with events in summer and wintersummer and winter

murderball murderball :: A game in which players in A game in which players in opposing teams attempt to hit their opposing teams attempt to hit their opponents with a large inflated ballopponents with a large inflated ball

Participation Participation :: A private, nonprofit A private, nonprofit organization that promotes fitnessorganization that promotes fitness

Stanley Cup, Grey Cup, Briar, Queen’s Stanley Cup, Grey Cup, Briar, Queen’s Plate:Plate: Championships in hockey, (Canadian) Championships in hockey, (Canadian) football, curling and horse-racingfootball, curling and horse-racing

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS FOOD AND DRINKFOOD AND DRINK all dressed all dressed :: A hamburger with all the A hamburger with all the

usual condiments on itusual condiments on it drink(ing) box drink(ing) box :: A small plasticized A small plasticized

cardboard carton of juicecardboard carton of juice Nanaimo bar Nanaimo bar :: An unbaked square iced An unbaked square iced

with chocolatewith chocolate screech screech :: A potent dark rum of A potent dark rum of

NewfoundlandNewfoundland smoked meat smoked meat :: Cured beef similar to Cured beef similar to

pastrami but more heavily smoked, often pastrami but more heavily smoked, often associated with Montrealassociated with Montreal

CANADIANISMSCANADIANISMS

EDUCATIONEDUCATION

bursary bursary :: A financial award to a university A financial award to a university student (also Scottish and English)student (also Scottish and English)

French immersion French immersion :: An educational program An educational program in which anglophone students are taught in which anglophone students are taught entirely in Frenchentirely in French

reading week reading week :: A week usually halfway A week usually halfway through the university term when no through the university term when no classes are heldclasses are held

residence or res residence or res :: A university dormitory A university dormitory

Like all dialects, Canadian English includes certain distinctive Like all dialects, Canadian English includes certain distinctive clipped formsclipped forms

emergeemerge < emergency room < emergency room cashcash < cash register < cash register physiophysio < physiotherapy < physiotherapy homohomo < homogenized milk < homogenized milk gradgrad < graduation ceremony < graduation ceremony CanLitCanLit < Canadian Literature < Canadian Literature

Canadian English also includes distinctive slang expressionsCanadian English also includes distinctive slang expressions chippychippy - ‘short-tempered’ - ‘short-tempered’ hoserhoser – ‘an idiot’ – ‘an idiot’ keenerkeener – ‘an overzealous student’ – ‘an overzealous student’ to have had the biscuitto have had the biscuit – ‘to be no longer good for anything’ – ‘to be no longer good for anything’ Molson muscleMolson muscle – ‘a beer belly’ – ‘a beer belly’

Linguistic features of Linguistic features of Canadian EnglishCanadian English

PhonologyPhonology

Morphosyntax and usageMorphosyntax and usage

SpellingSpelling

PhonologyPhonology Canadian raisingCanadian raising

Raised onset of the [ ] and [ ] diphthongs to Raised onset of the [ ] and [ ] diphthongs to [ ] and [ ] before voiceless consonants:[ ] and [ ] before voiceless consonants:– lout / loudlout / loud– bout / bowedbout / bowed– bite / bidebite / bide– fife / fivefife / five

Merger of [ ] and [ ]Merger of [ ] and [ ]Resulted in homophonous pairs:Resulted in homophonous pairs:– offal / awfuloffal / awful– Don / dawnDon / dawn

PhonologyPhonology Voicing of the intervocalicVoicing of the intervocalic

Canadians voice or flap intervocalic [ ] to [ ]:Canadians voice or flap intervocalic [ ] to [ ]:– metal / medalmetal / medal– latter / ladderlatter / ladder– atom / Adamatom / Adam

Yod droppingYod droppingCanadians consistently drop yod in the [ ] Canadians consistently drop yod in the [ ] diphthong after [ ] (suit) and variably do so diphthong after [ ] (suit) and variably do so after labials and verlarsafter labials and verlars

Retention of [ ]Retention of [ ]

Morphosyntax and usageMorphosyntax and usage

Verbal formsVerbal forms

Prepositional idiomsPrepositional idioms

Sentence-final Sentence-final eheh

SpellingSpelling

Mix of British and American EnglishMix of British and American English

Spelling varies from province to Spelling varies from province to provinceprovince

Spelling varies from word to wordSpelling varies from word to word

Canadians choose the Canadians choose the -ize / -yze-ize / -yze ending over ending over -ise / yse-ise / yse

ConclusionConclusion

Canadian English is the outcome of a Canadian English is the outcome of a number of factors. It is strongly number of factors. It is strongly marked by British English and marked by British English and because of the geographical because of the geographical proximity, Canadian English proximity, Canadian English continues to be shaped by American continues to be shaped by American English. The presence of a large English. The presence of a large French-speaking minority has also French-speaking minority has also had an effect on Canadian English.had an effect on Canadian English.

ReferencesReferences Barber, Katherine, editor (2004). Barber, Katherine, editor (2004). TheThe CanadianCanadian Oxford Oxford

DictionaryDictionary, second edition. Toronto: Oxford University , second edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press. Press. ISBN 0-19-541816-6ISBN 0-19-541816-6. .

Chambers, J.K. (1998). “Canadian English: 250 Years in the Chambers, J.K. (1998). “Canadian English: 250 Years in the Making,” in Making,” in The Canadian Oxford DictionaryThe Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed., p. xi. , 2nd ed., p. xi.

Peters, Pam (2004). Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English UsageThe Cambridge Guide to English Usage. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052162181X. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052162181X.

↑↑    Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, editors (2006). Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, editors (2006). American American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to CoastVoices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast, 140, 234-, 140, 234-236, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-236, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-2108-8. 2108-8.

↑↑    Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg (2006). Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American EnglishThe Atlas of North American English, 68, Berlin: Mouton-de , 68, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8. Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8.

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