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Candidate Style Answers PHYSICAL EDUCATION - OCR · Candidate Style Answers J587 ... rather than...

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GCSE (9–1) Candidate Style Answers J587 For first teaching in 2016 www.ocr.org.uk Examined units J587(01) – Physical factors affecting performance Version 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION Qualification Accredited
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GCSE (9–1)Candidate Style Answers

J587For first teaching in 2016

www.ocr.org.uk

Examined units J587(01) – Physical factors affecting performanceVersion 1

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

QualificationAccredited

Sample Candidate Answers

2

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

ContentsQuestion 1

Sample answer 3

Commentary 3

Mark scheme extract 3

Question 2

Sample answer 4

Commentary 4

Mark scheme extract 4

Question 3

Sample answer 5

Commentary 5

Mark scheme extract 6

Question 4

Sample answer 7

Commentary 7

Mark scheme extract 8

Question 5

Sample answer 1 9

Commentary 10

Sample answer 2 11

Commentary 12

Sample answer 3 13

Commentary 14

Mark scheme extract 15

Sample Candidate Answers

3

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 1

Explain three functions performed by the skeleton. [3]

Examiner commentaryMark = 2/3

This candidate has given two valid points that describes the functions of the skeleton, rather than merely naming the functions. The first point is given for maintaining good posture which is linked to how this performs its function by referring to the alignment of the back and neck (point to on the mark scheme).

The second mark is given for linking the function of mineral storage with calcium for bone health (point 6 on the mark scheme).

The answer could have been improved by adding a further function, rather than limiting the answer to only two functions.

Mark scheme extractQuestion Answer Marks Guidance

1 Any three from:

1. support – keeps body upright/provides framework to support muscles/tissues in body

2. posture – gives correct shape to the body

3. protection - protect internal organs (e.g. ribs protect the heart, reduces risk of injury/damage on impact)

4. movement – allows muscle attachment/provides leverage

5. (red) blood cell production – bone marrow in some larger bones produces blood cells

6. storage of minerals – bones release minerals in to the blood as needed (calcium phosphorus)

3

3 x (AO1)

Must explain the function to be awarded marks, examples may form part of the explanation e.g. cranium protecting the brain on impact.

Sample Candidate Answers

4

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 2

Describe the role of a fixator muscle during movement. [2]

Examiner commentaryMark = 0/2

This candidate did not score a mark for their response. The question asks for a description of the role of a fixator and the candidate describes the attachment without any reference to function. Candidates were expected to refer to stabilising the joint or to assist the agonist rather than simply referring to the location of the fixator.

Mark scheme extractQuestion Answer Marks Guidance

2 Any two from:

1. The fixator supports/stabilises the joint/body

2. It assists the agonist

3. It acts as a synergist

2

2 x (AO2)

Examples may be included as part of the response, e.g. deltoid supporting the movement during a biceps curl.

Sample Candidate Answers

5

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 3

Explain how the long term effects of exercise on the muscular system could be beneficial to a footballer. [4]

Examiner commentaryMark = 3/4

This candidate has identified three long term effects of exercise on the muscular system and has made some attempt to link these adaptations with a footballer as demanded by the question.

Stating that the muscles become bigger and denser is not worth credit on its own, but the candidate then goes on to link this with the footballer having more power and strength which is a valid point (point 2 on the Mark Scheme).

The candidate then identifies that the mobility around a joint will be effected giving more flexibility. This does not deserve credit on its own because there is no link with a footballer but

later at the base of the answer, the candidate states that this would then be ‘good to reach’... and therefore links flexibility with the goalkeeper and scores another mark (point 5 on the Mark Scheme).

Finally, the candidate identifies capillarisation as a long term effect and successfully links this with more blood and enabling the player to play for longer which together is worth credit for point 11 on the Mark Scheme.

To improve this answer, the candidate should have identified two further adaptations to the muscular system and again linked these to a footballer, eg an increase in speed that would enable a player to reach the ball before his/her opponent.

Sample Candidate Answers

6

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Mark scheme extractQuestion Answer Marks Guidance

3 Four marks from:

1. increase in size/mass/hypertrophy/growth (of muscle) e.g. – Easier for player to shield the ball away from opponent

2. increase in strength/stronger/power/tone/force e.g. – Able to kick the ball harder/further

3. increase in speed (of contraction) e.g. – Beating an opponent in a sprint to get the ball first

4. increase in muscular endurance or able to last longer/decrease in fatigue e.g. – Easier to perform for the entire game/90 minutes

5. increase in flexibility/able to stretch further/elasticity e,g. – Able to stretch for the ball further when making a tackle/less likely to get injured

6. increase tolerance to lactic acid e.g. – Able to keep playing for longer/ harder/increased chances of lasting 90 minutes

7. increase in recovery rate e.g. – Player ready for next game/training quicker

8. increased rate of removal of lactic acid e.g. - Able to keep playing for longer/harder/increased chances of lasting 90 minutes

9. greater potential for energy production e.g. - Able to keep playing for longer/ harder/increased chances of lasting 90 minutes

10. increase in size/number of mitochondria e.g. Able to compete in a game faster/longer

11. increase in capillaries/more oxygen/haemoglobin available e.g. the player is able to work harder/longer

12. helps to prevent injury/assists with recovery from injury e.g. – Less prone to injury during a game of football

4

4 x (AO3)

Only accept answers that are linked to how they may actually benefit a footballer.

Sample Candidate Answers

7

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 4

The heart is responsible for pumping blood around the body.

Describe the double circulatory system. [4]

Examiner commentaryMark = 1/4

This candidate scores a single mark out of a possible four marks.

The candidate is asked to describe how the double circulatory system performs its function.

This candidate attempts a description but is too superficial to score more marks. The mark is given for the candidate showing the blood entering the heart twice (point 2 on the MS).

For more marks to be scored, the candidate should have been more specific about the vessels leading to and from the heart and to and from the lungs as well as naming the pulmonary and systemic systems that make up the double circulatory system.

Sample Candidate Answers

8

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Mark scheme extractQuestion Answer Marks Guidance

4 Four marks from:

1. heart consists of two separate loops/circuits/one loop for heart and lungs and one for heart and rest of body

2. blood travels through the heart twice (during a complete cycle around the body)

(Sub-max three marks for):

3. pulmonary circulation

4. deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs

5. pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to lungs

6. oxygenated blood back to left atrium

7. pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood back to left atrium

(Sub-max three marks for):

8. systemic circulation

9. oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body/muscles

10. Aorta carries oxygenated blood to body tissues/muscles

11. deoxygenated blood back to right atrium

12. vena cava carries deoxygenated blood back to right atrium

4

4 x (AO1)

Accept drawing of double circulatory system of the heart as long as appropriately labeled. Labels must cover points from 3-7 and 8-12 on a diagram for full marks to be achieved.

Sample Candidate Answers

9

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 5 – Sample Answer 1

Using practical examples, explain how a personal trainer might reduce the risk of injury to a participant when delivering a training session in a fitness centre. [6]

Sample Candidate Answers

10

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Examiner commentaryMark = 3/6 (mark band Level 2)

This question is marked using a levels mark scheme that includes the quality of written communication.

This candidate has explained how a personal trainer might use a warm up and cool down and to check that the participant is not working too hard. There is some development of these points, for example ‘you don’t want to pull a muscle...’ The candidate also links cool down with removing lactic acid although this is incorrectly linked with stomach cramps. The candidate has a good idea of monitoring the well-being of the participant and therefore reducing the risk of injury but the second part of the question about how the general health, fitness and well-being of a participant influences their risk of injury is not addressed.

Overall the candidate’s response can be placed in level 2 of the levels mark scheme and a mark of three out of a possible six marks awarded. The candidate shows satisfactory knowledge and understanding and the candidate’s explanation is attempted with some success. The practical application of knowledge is at a satisfactory level, although the second half of the question was not effectively addressed. The candidate uses some technical and specialist vocabulary used with some accuracy and there is a logical line of reasoning presented by the candidate with some structure. The information presented is in the most-part relevant and supported by some evidence.

For this response to score full marks, the second part of the question should be addressed with reference to the general health of the participant being tested through health screening, along with appropriate fitness tests to assess suitability for exercise. The candidate should also have included a reference to the well-being of the participant, achieved through the personal trainer’s encouragement and suitability of the training session. Less repetitive material could have been included on the warm up and cool down. More material could also have been included on how to make the exercise environment safer, for example by carrying out an equipment check. The quality of written communication is sound but the lack of paragraphing leads to a continuous stream of information, rather than a structured response.

See page 15 for the mark scheme extract for question 5.

Sample Candidate Answers

11

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 5

Using practical examples, explain how a personal trainer might reduce the risk of injury to a participant when delivering a training session in a fitness centre. [6]

Sample Candidate Answers

12

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Examiner commentaryMark = 2/6 (mark band Level 1)

This question is marked using a levels mark scheme that includes the quality of written communication.

This candidate has been assessed as level 1 and shows basic knowledge and understanding of how a personal trainer might reduce the risk of injury. The candidate states how basic levels of fitness might be assessed but rarely goes beyond the superficial. For example ‘looking at cardiovascular health e.g. putting them on a treadmill’ is identifying a method but there is little development on this. The candidate goes on to state that walking on a treadmill might be the low level but does not link this to reducing the risk of injury. The candidate gives a sense of progression in training, for example stating that ‘you would want to push them further’ but again does not answer the question set linked to reducing injury. Near the end of the response the candidate states that they are less likely to pull a muscle by following such training but this again is not developed as an explanation.

The second part of the question is not addressed - how the general health, fitness and well-being of a particular participant influence the risk of injury. The candidate overall shows few attempts to develop their idea and although there are some practical examples of the training that might occur this is not linked to reducing the likelihood of injuries. Technical and specialist vocabulary is only basically described, for example showing some understanding of reps and cardiovascular fitness but not exploring these aspects of training and fitness to address the question set.

See page 15 for the mark scheme extract for question 5.

Sample Candidate Answers

13

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question 5

Using practical examples, explain how a personal trainer might reduce the risk of injury to a participant when delivering a training session in a fitness centre. [6]

 

Sample Candidate Answers

14

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Examiner commentaryThis question is marked using a levels mark scheme that includes the quality of written communication.

This candidate has been assessed at level 2. Although the work contains some spelling errors this does not detract markedly from the satisfactory quality of the answer. The development of points made is made with some success and there are few points developed well. The candidate uses some practical examples but these are less well developed. Technical vocabulary is used satisfactorily but rarely goes beyond the superficial

The candidate starts by identifying how the trainer might assess the initial fitness levels, ‘ask questions about their weight, BMI, age’. The candidate shows satisfactory knowledge of what should be assessed and shows some development by stating that observations could be made of the use of the treadmill ‘ to figure out how intense workouts are’. The idea of progression is illustrated but this is not directly linked to reducing injuries. ‘Teaching them how to use the equipment’ is a valid knowledge point and is linked to avoiding injury and this again is worth some credit. A warm up is recognised as important, along with a cool down but little mention of how this might relate to increased pliability of muscles that reduces the likelihood of injury. a final valid point although poorly expressed and under-developed links confidence with avoiding injury.

Overall a satisfactory attempt at answering the first part of the question, but the second half of the question is largely unanswered.

Sample Candidate Answers

15

GCSE (9–1) Physical Education

Copyright © OCR 2016

Question Answer Marks Guidance

5 Equipment/facilities

1. maintenance and regular checking of machines/equipment

e.g. – checking treadmill before the start of each training session

2. replace broken equipment/prevent from using broken equipment

e.g. – replace exercise mats that are worn/display an out of use/faulty sign on treadmill

3. ensure all equipment is put away

e.g. – stack step up boxes out of the way

4. ensure all equipment /machines/stations are safe distance from each other

e.g. - rowing machine a safe distance from the treadmill

5. use ‘spotters’

e.g. – use other people to prevent falling equipment when using (free) weights

6. clean floor so not slippy/rough/use mats for hard floor

e.g. – wipe up any spillages/water

7. ensure all litter/bags are put away to prevent slipping/tripping

e.g. – place water bottles in the bin

Readiness of participants

8. teach correct use of equipment/proper technique

e.g. – induction session demonstrating safe use of equipment

9. proper warm up before exercise

e.g. – suitable description of warm up

10. proper cool down after exercise

e.g. – suitable description of cool down

11. posters displaying correct technique/rules

e.g. – diagram showing correct way to bench press

12. fitness tests/exercise questionnaires before first exercise session

e.g. – suitable tests for components of fitness

6

3 x (AO2)

3 x (AO3)

Level 3 (5–6 marks)• detailed knowledge & understanding• effective analysis/evaluation and/or

discussion/explanation/development• clear and consistent practical application of

knowledge & understanding• accurate use of technical and specialist

vocabulary• there is a well-developed line of reasoning

which is clear and logically structured. The information presented is relevant and substantiated.

Level 2 (3–4 marks)• satisfactory knowledge & understanding• analysis/ evaluation and/or discussion/

explanation/development attempted with some success

• some success in practical application of knowledge

• technical and specialist vocabulary used with some accuracy

• there is a line of reasoning presented with some structure. The information presented is in the most-part relevant and supported by some evidence.

Level 1 (1–2 marks)• basic knowledge & understanding• little or no attempt to analyse/ evaluate

and/or discuss/explain/develop• little or no attempt at practical application

of knowledge• technical and specialist vocabulary used

with limited success• the information is basic and communicated

in an unstructured way. The information is supported by limited evidence and the relationship to the evidence may not be clear.

(0 marks)• no response or no response worthy of

credit.Points in bold type are more developed AO3 responses and as per the marks breakdown, answers scoring 4-6 marks would need to incorporate some development of this nature.Do not credit injuries or hazards as questions relates to reducing the risk of injury so stating there is a slippy floor is not a way of reducing the risk of injury.

Mark scheme extract

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