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Cbp Best Practice Simons

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Best Practices Support on: Where to plant – trees suitable for your area Which to plant – sources of tree seeds How to plant – good tree nursery practices What to plant – trees suitable for your purposes How to engage communities and scale up
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Page 1: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Best Practices Support on:

Where to plant – trees suitable for your area

Which to plant – sources of tree seeds

How to plant – good tree nursery practices

What to plant – trees suitable for your purposes

How to engage communities and scale up

Page 2: Cbp Best Practice Simons

The climate agenda

Solving the climate change problem is as much a social problem as it is a technical

and economic problem

“Why should I care about future generations – what have they ever done for me?”

Groucho Marx

Page 3: Cbp Best Practice Simons

The right tree for the right place

1. Trees for Products

2. Trees for Services

fruit firewood medicine income sawnwood fodder

soilfertility

carbon sequestration

soilerosion

watershedprotection

shade biodiversity

Page 4: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 5: Cbp Best Practice Simons

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Number of farms

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125

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125N

um

be

r o

f sp

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ies

fruitfirewoodmedicineconstructionsoil fertilityfodder

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Number of farms

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0

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boundaryfruitfirewoodmedicineconstructionsoil fertilityfodder

0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Number of farms

0

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175

0

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mb

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boundaryfruitfirewoodmedicineconstructionsoil fertilityfodder

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Number of farms

0

25

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125

0

25

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Nu

mb

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f sp

ecie

s

boundaryfruit/nutfirewoodmedicineconstructionfodder

Firewood

Medicine

Construction

Fruit

Soil fert.

Fodder

Cameroon Uganda

Western Kenya Meru, Kenya

Page 6: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Imagine there are 155 trees of 16 species in a farmer’s

field of 1.6 hectares. A farmer can do one of 4 things … ..

Page 7: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Woody InterventionsWoody InterventionsA. Replacement

harvest Grevillea, replant with Grevillea (improved or not)

B. Substitution

harvest Grevillea, replant with Vitex

C. Expansion

increase number of trees from 155, and increase number of species from 16, of both planted and nat. reg. trees

D. Management

better manage existing and new trees (spacing, thinning, pruning, harvesting)

Page 8: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 9: Cbp Best Practice Simons

1000 2000 3000 4000

60

08

00

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12

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16

00

18

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Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

ALP

BAM

DCO

DIF

DMF

EB

IAC

LAC

MCOMIF

MIX

MMFMSM

OGR

SETSWA

UAC

Interpolated surface layersAfro-alpine

Montane scrublandand moorland

Bamboo

Crosses indicate 10%-25%-75%-90% quantiles and are centred on mean

Altitude

Dry montane forest

Evergreen bushland

Upland AcaciaLowland Acacia-Commiphora

Pre

cipi

tatio

n

Page 10: Cbp Best Practice Simons

1500 2000 2500

80

01

00

01

20

01

40

01

60

0

Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

DIF

DMF

MIFMMF

Forests

dry montane

moist montane

dry intermediate

moist intermediate

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

60

08

00

10

00

12

00

14

00

16

00

18

00

Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

DIF

DMF

MIFMMF

Convex hulls delineate all observations; line types show concentric hulls after outer hull was left out

Altitude

Pre

cipi

tatio

n

Page 11: Cbp Best Practice Simons

800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

60

07

00

80

09

00

10

00

11

00

Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

LAC

UAC

Woodlands

Upland Acacialowland Acacia-Commiphora

500 1000 1500 2000

60

08

00

10

00

12

00

14

00

Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

LACUAC

Altitude

Pre

cipi

tatio

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Page 12: Cbp Best Practice Simons

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

60

08

00

10

00

12

00

14

00

Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

n

DCO

IAC

MCO

MIXUAC

SavannasMoist Combretum-Terminalia

Impeded Acacia

Dry CombretumUpland Acacia

Mixtures of evergreenbushland and broad-leaved savanna

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

60

08

00

10

00

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00

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Altitude

Pre

cip

itatio

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DCO

IAC

MCO

MIXUAC

Altitude

Pre

cipi

tatio

n

Page 13: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 14: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Correspondence to other vegetation classification schemes

What happened with evergreen and semi-evergreen bushland, semi-evergreenthickets and in the western part of the map?

Boundary between lowland Acacia types?

AT1005

AT0108

AT0108

AT0108

AT0108

AT0721

AT0711

AT0711

AT0711

AT0716

AT1313

Olson et al. 2001.

1:5,000,000From White

11a

11a

44

42

4242

42

45

19a

19a

45

45

19a

65

45

54

Page 15: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Current patterns of indigenous tree diversity around Mount Kenya

Survey by Ogi et al.

250 quadrats of 50 × 100 m2 within map

279 indigenous tree species(174 species also in literature description)

Page 16: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Total and shared species richness between literature and current species assemblages

Potential Natural Vegetation Type

n Species total (literature)

(Based on total shared)

Species confirmed by survey

% Species total (survey)

Kulczynski ecological distance

Moist intermediate forest

57 105 51 31 61% 82 0.41

Dry Combretum 40 23 21 18 86% 108 0.45

Dry montane forest 37 91 58 31 53% 83 0.42

Moist montane forest

37 99 46 30 65% 85 MIF (dif 0.005)

Lowland Acacia-Commiphora

25 92 48 35 73% 102 0.36

Evergreen bushland 16 44 38 18 47% 52 0.47

Dry intermediate forest

15 74 49 27 55% 63 0.43

Upland Acacia 7 22 20 6 30% 35 ST (dif 0.108)

Acacia (impeded) 6 28 18 5 28% 18 UA (dif 0.042)

Semi-evergreen thicket

6 29 19 6 32% 52 DC (dif 0.233)

Page 17: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Selection of species for agroecosystem diversification

• Select frequent species? Promote underutilized species? Balance with exotic species?

• Timber, for example– All confirmed species?– Faster growing primary species with relatively high current

frequencies?• Juniperus procera (49 and 27% of quadrats in dry forests)• Vitex keniensis (19 and 18% of quadrats in moist forests)

– Faster growing primary species with low current frequencies?• Hagenia abyssinica (1 quadrat), Zanthoxylum gillettii (none),

Podocarpus latifolius (none)

– Slower growing primary species?• Olea europaea (22%), Ocotea usambarensis (1 quadrat),

Cassipourea malosana (2 quadrats), Podocarpus falcatus (none)

Page 18: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Small-scale

saw mill

Large-scale

saw mill

Small-holder

production

Large-holder

production Industrial

plantations

Out-grower

schemes

Independent

growers

Page 19: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Tree management for timber

Page 20: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 21: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 22: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Nursery operators = extension officers of future

Page 23: Cbp Best Practice Simons

2008: Guideline for Allanblackia species germplasm (both seeds and vegetative materials) supply

produced.  Munjuga et al. 2008..Ghana

•Allanblackia gene banks established in Ghana (2008)

•Established 3 mother blocks (20 accessions each)

•Agroforestry plot established Allanblackia with Cocoa + forest trees

•Allanblackia + food crops trials set up•Demo plots with different propagules has been set up

Capacity building: (2007 onwards…)•3 PhD students• 2 M.Sc.•4 Undergraduates on AB projects•Training workshops in Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria

Page 24: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Timber management: pruning

Page 25: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Timber management: thinning

Page 26: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 27: Cbp Best Practice Simons

seed

Felled tree at farm gate

Nursery seedling

Sapling in field

Log at timber yard

Standing pole in field

sowing, watering, tending

Timber Value Chain (per standing tree)

Standing tree in field

Pole at farm gate

Pole in merchant yard Sawn wood at timber yard

Planting, weeding, protecting

thinning, pruning, protectingthinning, pruning, protecting

Felling, limbing, stacking

Transport, sizing, stacking

Felling, limbing, cutting, stacking

Transport, sizing, stacking

Sawing, grading, stacking

(year 1)

(year 2)

(year 9) (year 16)

Assumptions:For Vitex grown in MeruSeed germination 60%Nursery survival 85%Field survival 70%15 year rotationThree lengths 2.8m a 40cm dbhSawnwood recovery 40% Carbonprice $14 per tonneWood density 0.65 tree, 0.55 pole

Product value

$0.86 $2.52

$6.30

$6.30

$9.45

$0.01

$0.86

$1.15

Carbon value(total)

(If use half life cycle of 30 years and Roy and Phelps decay curve then 15% of carbon still stored at 100 years)

Farmer Project Manager Broker BuyerCarbon Value Chain

$8.08 $12.01 $14.00

Gross – with no:CommunityriskDNAverification

$0.01

$0.30

$7.14

$8.57

$17.14

$42.85

$50.00

$64.28

$128.57

If 15% is permanent

then it equals US$0.37

Page 28: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 29: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Tree Species Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

Avocado

Citrus

Parinari curatellifolia

Mangoes

Uapaca kirkiana

Strychnos cocculoides

Syzygium cordatum

Annona seneghalesis

Azanza garckeana

Flacourtia indica

Vangueria infausta

Vitex doniana

Adansonia digitata

Ziziphus mauritiana

Fruit Tree Portfolio For Fresh Fruits Year-Round

0

20

40

60

80

100

No.

of

hou

seh

old

s fa

cin

g sh

orta

ge Zambia

MalawiHungry/cropping season

Harvest/off- season

Page 30: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Wide variation even in one species

Page 31: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Example 1: African Plum

Creation of a cultivar

Page 32: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Noel cultivar (out of season variety, yield US$20 per tree per year)

… developing elite varieties

Page 33: Cbp Best Practice Simons

WCA-Sahel GRP1, GRP3 Baobab nutritional values

Site Samanko

A. digitataA. gibbosa

A. perrieriA. za

A. rubrostipa

Species

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Me

an

He

igh

t (m)

Nutritional parameters per 100 g leaf dry weight

Species Provenance B1 B2 Protein P K Ca Mg Fe

mg mg g mg mg mg mg mg N

A. digitata Bla 0.33 0.77 16.5 175 1587 1120 593 29 3A. digitata Cinzana 0.43 0.86 14.8 168 1437 1350 654 28 3A. gibbosa Logue R. 0.43 0.90 11.3 140 1480 1375 614 26 2A. perrieri Andohahela 0.73 1.31 15.5 182 1333 800 742 41 3A. za Andalatanosy 0.71 1.40 17.3 176 1247 970 631 49 3A. rubrostipa Toliary 0.88 1.87 20.7 192 1077 900 609 53 3

Page 34: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Cocoa Tree of Change Symposium28-30 October 2008

World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

Cocoa Biology and Ecology: the tree in the system

Page 35: Cbp Best Practice Simons

(shade as % canopy cover)

Number h/holds

surveyed

No shade

Shade

< 30%

Shade

30-60%

Shade

> 60%

Cameroon 1,852 8% 33% 44% 15%

Cote D’Ivoire 1,785 28% 44% 16% 12%

Ghana 1,873 28% 42% 25% 5%

Nigeria 3,101 3% 47% 48% 2%

Frequency of shaded cocoa in West Africa

Gockowski et al., (unpublished)

Page 36: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Land suitable for CDM Afforestation according to tree canopy cover as forest definition

% increase from 10-30%

Difference

(hectares)

Cote d’Ivoire 1583% 7.7 million

Ghana 1063% 6.8 million

Nigeria 446% 19.5 million

Page 37: Cbp Best Practice Simons
Page 38: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Kontalakiti (Chichewa)

Kontalakiti iyi ndi yapakati pa olemba ntchito ndi ICRAF – The World Agroforestry Centre (olembedwa ntchito) pantchito yodzala mbande za mitengo ya m’bawa pa malo anga a panyumba pano. Ndondomeko zili m’munsizi zidzagwila ntchito pa nthawi yokwanila zaka zitatu ndipo zidzatsatidwa.

Legality, conformity, consent and contracts

Pazaka zitatu za kontalakitiyi imeneyi:

1. Olembedwa ntchito (mwinimalo) adzachita izi: 1.1 Kukonza malo ake okwanila hafu la ekala kuti adzalepo mitengo.

1.2 Kudzala mitengo ya m’bawa pamalopa pa mlingo wothithikana wokwanila

mtengo umodzi pa mamitala okwana awiri ndi theka (2.5 meters)

1.3 Kubwera ku maphunzilo azakonzedwe ka malo, madzalidwe, ndi kasamalidwe

ka mbande za mtengo wa m’bawa okonzedwa ndi bungwe la ICRAF kapena

alangizi a zaulimi

1.4 Kusamala mbande za mitengoyi pa kupalira, kutsilira ndi zina zotero monga

mmene zimafunikira kuti mbewu zikule bwino

Page 39: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Influence of Distance to Market Centre and Tenureon Net Returns to Land

04km06km

08km10km

12km14km

16km18km

20km

Distance (km) from Market Centre

0

100

200

300

400N

et R

etu r

ns t

o La

nd (

$/h a

/yr)

Customary TenurePrivate Tenure

Page 40: Cbp Best Practice Simons

Rural Resource

Centre

satellite nursery

farmer’s fields

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

satellite nursery

1 Rural Resource Centre serves 10-30 satellite nurseries

1 Satellite nursery serves 20-50 farmers

1 farmer growing 10-100 trees

1 Rural Resource Centre for each 200-1500 farmers (av. 800)

1 RRC leads to 2000 – 150,000 (av. 40,000)

Page 41: Cbp Best Practice Simons

A suite of rapid assessment tools (IPGs)…

Page 42: Cbp Best Practice Simons

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