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Cellular Reproduction and DNA Offspring receive their traits from their parents- but sometimes the...

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Cellular Reproduction and DNA Offspring receive their traits from their parents- but sometimes the child looks nothing like the parents Slide 2 Cellular Reproduction and DNA Offspring receive their traits from their parents- but sometimes the child looks nothing like the parents Lamarkian biology- characteristics such as height, strength, and weight are determined by the activities of the parents. (FAIL.) Slide 3 The Father of Modern Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): an Austrian monk Gave first real explanation for how traits are passed on to offspring Conducted meticulous experiments on 29,000 pea plants Mendel's work was rejected during his lifetime, and it wasn't widely accepted until the 1930's and 1940's Genetics- the science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring Slide 4 Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA DNA governs an organism's traits and characteristics DNA's main function is to tell the cell what proteins to make Slide 5 Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA DNA governs an organism's traits and characteristics DNA's main function is to tell the cell what proteins to make Not every organism's traits are completely determined by a person's genes Genetic tendency- a range of possible characteristics set by DNA Slide 6 Genetic Tendencies People have a certain capacity for musical ability, or athletic ability Some people choose to fight against genetic predispositions such as alcoholism and obesity Consider an alcoholic whose father is also an alcoholic- you could argue that the son learned this through father, or that alcoholism is in his genes, or it's a combination of both Slide 7 Genetic Tendencies People have a certain capacity for musical ability, or athletic ability Some people choose to fight against genetic predispositions such as alcoholism and obesity Consider an alcoholic whose father is also an alcoholic- you could argue that the son learned this through father, or that alcoholism is in his genes, or it's a combination of both Gay rights activists are searching for a gay gene in order to justify their behavior However, many defects are transmitted through genes (eg. Down Syndrome, cystic fibrosis, color blindness) Even if a gay gene were found, a gene cannot force a person into a homosexual lifestyle- he is able to choose how to live, just like an alcoholic can choose not to drink alcohol Slide 8 Developmental Factors Characteristics completely from DNA: hair color, blood type DNA alone does not determine who you are or what you will become DNA provides the general framework within which you decide who you will become Slide 9 Characteristics completely from DNA: hair color, blood type DNA alone does not determine who you are or what you will become DNA provides the general framework within which you decide who you will become Genetic factors- traits determined by DNA Environmental factors- nonbiological factors that are involved in a person's surroundings (family, friends, school, choices they make) Spiritual factors- factors in a person's life determined by the quality of their relationship with God There is still much debate over how much influence each of these factors has over a person's development Developmental Factors Slide 10 Genes and DNA Gene- a section of DNA that codes for the production or portion of protein, thereby causing a trait Slide 11 Genes and DNA Gene- a section of DNA that codes for the production or portion of protein, thereby causing a trait The tasks that a cell can complete depend upon the proteins it produces If a cell produces certain proteins, it's a nerve cell, if it make other proteins, it's a blood cell Slide 12 Genes and DNA Gene- a section of DNA that codes for the production or portion of protein, thereby causing a trait The tasks that a cell can complete depend upon the proteins it produces If a cell produces certain proteins, it's a nerve cell, if it make other proteins, it's a blood cell A cell knows what proteins it should produce because the DNA tells it what to make Slide 13 DNA and RNA Slide 14 DNA Sugar: deoxyribose Structure: double helix Nucleotides: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine More stable, less likely to experience changes during duplication (less mutations) RNA Sugar: ribose Structure: single strand Nucleotides: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine Less stable Slide 15 Protein Synthesis- Part 1: Transcription 1. Transcription- building an RNA strand from a section of DNA RNA copies DNA by attaching corresponding nucleotide bases RNA is like a camera that produces a negative image (light in places it should be dark) T- A C- G A- U Slide 16 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation 2. Translation: the process of translating the nucleotide bases into amino acid sequences Slide 17 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation 2. Translation: the process of translating the nucleotide bases into amino acid sequences Messenger RNA (mRNA)- RNA that performs transcription and then goes to the ribosomes Slide 18 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation 2. Translation: the process of translating the nucleotide bases into amino acid sequences Messenger RNA (mRNA)- RNA that performs transcription and then goes to the ribosomes Transfer RNA (tRNA)- contains an anticodon bonded to an amino acid Anticodon- three nucleotide base sequence on tRNA Slide 19 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation Codon- a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to specific amino acid Slide 20 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation Codon- a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to specific amino acid Translation repeats until all amino acids that are called for by codons are linked together DNA RNA protein Slide 21 Protein Synthesis- Part II: Translation Codon- a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to specific amino acid Translation repeats until all amino acids that are called for by codons are linked together DNA RNA protein A given amino acid can be called for by several different codons. eg. cysteine can be called by UGC or UGU However, a single codon cannot call for more than one amino acid (eg. UGU is only for cysteine) Protein Synthesis Slide 22 DNA and RNA Exons- part of DNA with instructions for making a protein Introns- separates exons, must be removed before it becomes mRNA Slide 23 DNA and RNA Exons- part of DNA with instructions for making a protein Introns- separates exons, must be removed before it becomes mRNA Introns are also known as junk DNA because they don't appear to serve any purpose DNA is very thin-.0000002mm If all the DNA from one cell we strung together end to end, it would be six feet long. All DNA in body: 67 billion miles (16x distance of Pluto to Sun) Slide 24 How DNA is Packaged Histones- proteins that act as spools which wind up small stretches of DNA Nucleosomes- beads of DNA wrapped around histone Slide 25 How DNA is Packaged Histones- proteins that act as spools which wind up small stretches of DNA Nucleosomes- beads of DNA wrapped around histone Chromosome- network of DNA coils and proteins In nucleus Slide 26 How DNA is Packaged Histones- proteins that act as spools which wind up small stretches of DNA Nucleosomes- beads of DNA wrapped around histone Chromosome- network of DNA coils and proteins In nucleus Chromatin- strands of chromosomes, RNA, and proteins Condensed chromosome- most compact version of DNA Humans: 46 chromosomes horse: 64, crayfish: 200 Slide 27 Mitosis and Interphase Mitosis- a process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells Interphase- time interval between cellular reproduction Chromosomes not condensed Cell spends most of its time in this stage DNA remains in its chromatin form, except when making proteins Cell cycle- cycle between interphase and mitosis Slide 28 Mitosis -In order to reproduce, chromosomes must duplicate -Sister chromatids- duplicate chromosomes -The centrioles also duplicate, then mitosis starts Slide 29 1. Prophase -duplicated chromosomes coil into their condensed form Centromere- the region that joins two sister chromatids -aster- microtubules extended from centrioles -as centrioles migrate, the microtubules grow, producing spindle fibers - Spindle fibers make up the mitotic spindle Slide 30 2. Metaphase -chromosomes are lined up along equatorial plane Slide 31 2. Metaphase -chromosomes are lined up along equatorial plane 3. Anaphase -microtubules separate the sister chromatids from each other -sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides Slide 32 2. Metaphase -chromosomes are lined up along equatorial plane 3. Anaphase -microtubules separate the sister chromatids from each other -sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides 4. Telophase -spindle begins to disintergrate -plasma membrane begins to constrict along equatorial plane Slide 33 4. Telophase -spindle begins to disintergrate -plasma membrane begins to constrict along equatorial plane -two cells begin to form -nuclear membrane forms around each chromosome - chromosomes uncoil from their condensed form back into chromatin -the end result is two identical daughter cells Slide 34 More About Mitosis Each daughter cell gets at least one of each organelle If the two cells have only one organelle between them, the organelle is split DNA can build up or make new organelles as needed The mitochondria has its own DNA so it can replicate itself Slide 35 More About Mitosis Each daughter cell gets at least one of each organelle If the two cells have only one organelle between them, the organelle is split DNA can build up or make new organelles as needed The mitochondria has its own DNA so it can replicate itself Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction Every eukaryotic organism performs mitosis Mitosis produces new cells as the organism grows, and replaces dead cells Millions of red blood cells die every minute Slide 36 More About Mitosis Plant mitosis: due to cell wall, the plasma membrane cant constrict Cellulose is fo

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