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CG IMLC0304 Mortar

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1 MORTAR EMPLOYMENT IN THE OFFENSE AND DEFENSE IULC
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    MORTAR EMPLOYMENT

    IN THE OFFENSE ANDDEFENSE

    IULC

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    Overview

    Defensive Considerations

    Priority of Targets

    Priority of Fires

    Ammunition

    RSOP

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    MORTAR UNIT

    DEFENSIVE MISSIONSUsed to button up armor with PROX

    Air defense vehicles (SEADS)

    Enemy mortars

    EN that is maneuvering

    3

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    Used against Dismounted

    Break up formations

    Canalize

    Troop Concentrations

    Enemy trying to reach FR. Obstacles

    Cover dead spaceFPF

    Deny Terrain

    4

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    Mortars can also

    Break up the enemys formations.

    To suppress and neutralize supporting

    weapons.

    To destroy as much of the enemy force

    as possible.

    Also Illuminate, Screen, Mark

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    Priority of Fires

    Order of requests

    Can change as situation changes

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    Priority targets should lie in the sector of the company orplatoon having priority of fires to prevent confusion.

    Priority targets are not always fired on using HE

    ammunition.

    Final Protective Fires (FPF) are the highest type of priority

    targets and take precedence over all other fire requests.

    PRIORITY OF TARGETS

    IN THE DEFENSE

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    General Support (With

    Priority of Fires)When two or more observers are call for

    fire at the same time, the mortar platoon

    has clear guidance as to whom theplatoon should support first.

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    This delivery of fires on a specific target takes precedence

    over all other fires for the mortar section or platoon.

    It lays its mortars on this target when not engaged in other

    fire missions. If any observer calls for the priority target to be

    fired, the mortar platoon does so immediately, even ifengaged in another fire mission.

    PRIORITY OF FIRES/TARGETS

    General Support (With Priority Targets)IN THE OFFENSE

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    MORTAR AMMUNITION

    Fins- Stabilize the round during flight.

    Charge- Propellant for the round.

    Obsturating Ring- Swells to keep all

    gasses from being expelled, causing the

    round to rise.

    Fuse- Used to detonate the round.

    Body- Contains the explosives of

    the round.

    Primer- Ignites the charge when struck by the firing pin.

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    DEFINITION

    Recon is the examination of terrain to determineits suitability for use in accomplishing the mortar

    platoons mission.

    Continuous/aggressive recon is essential to timely andaccurate fire support

    Ldrs continuously performs recon/plan for contingency

    Given location or proposes it to higher

    Process know as reconnaissance, selection, andoccupation of mortar positions (RSOP)

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    METHODS OF

    RECONNAISSANCE

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    METHODS OF RECONNAISSANCE

    3 Methods:

    Map

    Air

    Ground Combo of all three is best if feasible

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    METHODS OF

    RECONNAISSANCE (cont)Map:

    Any recon begins with a map recon

    Potential new routes chosenFast and eliminates unsuitable routes

    Helps identify ambush sites

    Might be only recon available

    2 major disadvantages

    Terrain changed or does not exist

    Surface conditions (soils)

    Photos supplemented if possible

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    METHODS OF

    RECONNAISSANCE (cont)Air Reconnaissance:

    If time and resources allow (cobras)

    Beneficial in selecting routes and pos fast

    Surface conditions distorted

    Flight plan may compromise routesMay not be available to Ldrs

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    METHODS OF

    RECONNAISSANCE (cont)Ground Reconnaissance:

    Best method because of physical

    inspection

    True condition of terrain fully examined

    Disadvantage

    Becomes slowest method/time restraints

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    POSITION SELECTION

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Based on:

    Mission

    accomplishment Tactical situation

    Range

    Target area coverage

    Survivability

    Overhead and mask

    clearance

    Surface conditions

    Communications

    Routes

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Mission Accomplishment.

    Pos must allow sect/plt to accomplish its primarymission

    Most important factor

    Tactical Situation.

    Must know tactical situation, friendly loc and threats

    Provides effective fire support and mortar security

    Range Criteria.

    Maximize fires without reducing support

    to 2/3 of range to front of forward elements

    Far enough back to cover rifle plts defensive pos

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Survivability.

    Many threats to mortars (counter, air/ground)

    Consider active and passive defensive measures:

    Cant be hit by direct or low-angle fire (defilade)

    Can be entered w/out enemy obs

    Offers good cover/concealment Avoids obvious ave of approach

    Multiple entrance and exit routes

    Takes advantage of existing terrain features/natural

    obstacles

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)

    Defilade

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Overhead and Mask Clearance.

    Overhead Mortar into max elevation/look up along side to

    estimate a rounds line of flight

    Mask Mortar elev down to min and visually inspect

    clearance from end of mortar tube to front

    Notify FDC if exists

    Deep defilade is suggested even w/ restrictions

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)

    Overhead and Mask Clearance

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Surface Conditions.

    Soil well drained and firm (plates)

    Construct fire pads if neededFrozen groundchop slots into earth

    Extra time allotted to emplace mortars

    Freezing conditions ensure baseplate does not get frozen into

    surface

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    POSITION SELECTION

    (cont)Communications and Routes.

    Comm is key

    Within units/internal mortar sqds to FDCRadio checks conducted at new pause

    Wire reduces electric signature

    Pos close to access routes, speed resupply &displacement

    Dont compromise concealment

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    OCCUPATION

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    OCCUPATION

    Advance party starts occupation of new

    firing position

    Continuation of actions by advance party

    until Plt arrives

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    OCCUPATION (cont)

    Advance party starts by:

    Verifying pos location

    Checks for mines, NBC, and enemy Establish local security and OPs

    Marks mortar pos

    Sets up M2A2 and determines Az/DOF

    Direction stakes

    Completes a rough lay of mortar pos (compass/M2A2)

    Useful for night Ops

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    NIGHT OCCUPATIONS

    Must establish detailed SOP and training

    Utilize wire comm important

    Guides briefed/routes paced Plt elementsColor code Sqds for easy ID of gear (NADs/chem)

    Maintain light discipline

    Even w/chem lights Plt conducts sustainment ops as needed

    Fire capped 1st, then priorities of work

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    TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS

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    TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS

    Three types of occupations: Deliberate, hasty and emergency

    Deliberate Occupation Procedures:Has been plannedand adv party conducts preparations

    Guide meets Plt at pickup point/entrance: Adv party lead Sqds to firing point

    Issues initial Def and DOF to Sqd

    Previously laid wire for comm. used w/FDC Plt Sgt implements security to available personnel

    Occupation time increased

    Guides know vehicles order of march for linkup

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    TYPES OF OCCUPATION

    (CONT)Hasty:

    Planned but short on time;necessary b/c of rapidcombat ops or unforeseen circumstances

    Plt requires more time to occupy hasty Limited prepared tasks available

    Limited recon and pos selection results in:

    Delay in vehicles moving into pos Laying by voice

    Increased lay time (no guide prep)

    Increased FDC preparation time

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    TYPES OF OCCUPATION

    (CONT)Emergency:

    CFF received while making movement

    First available spot is occupied without prep

    Better known as a hip shoot

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    DISPLACEMENT PLANS DURING

    OFF/DEF AND RETROGRADE

    OPERATIONS

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    DISPLACEMENT PLANS DURING

    DEF/OFF/RETROGRADE (cont)

    Detailed displacement planning aids in providingimmediate responsive fires (SOPs)

    Offensive Plan.

    Must permit rapid displacement/immediate fire support Flexible to SOM changes

    Sit, dist, supp requirements determine displacetechniques

    Defensive Plan. Same requirements as offense

    Ldr plans extensive use of alt/supp positions

    Anticipate future ops for displacement into offense

    Same factors affecting displacement in offense apply

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    DISPLACEMENT PLANS DURING

    DEF/OFF/RETROGRADE (cont)

    Displacement Timing.

    Bn Cmdr controls displacement of Plt in one of 2ways:

    Displace on order.

    Bn cmdr restricts or delegates authority to FSO

    Mortar ldr must report when he covers less than 1/3 or morethan 2/3 of battle area

    Mortar ldr stays abreast of unit mvmnt and situation Keeps cmdr informed on displacements (requests permission)

    If comm is lost w/higher ldr uses best judgment to displace

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    DISPLACEMENT

    TECHNIQUES

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    DISPLACEMENT

    TECHNIQUESDependent upon METT-T factors:

    SOM of supported unit

    Enemy activity

    Trafficability of terrain

    Number of sect/mortars in Plt

    Availability of supporting arty Time available

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    DISPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES

    (cont)DISPLACEMENT BY PLATOON.

    Little immediate likelihood of enemy contact or whenarty can provide adequate supp

    Plt displaces all at once

    Limited fire supp/response (hip shoots)

    Movements from AA to initial firing pos

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    DISPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES

    (cont)DISPLACEMENT BY SQD/SECT

    Same as sect, but less mortars

    Utilize successive or alternating bounds

    (Traveling/bounding)

    Displacement is rapid w/elements = Alternate

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    TYPES OF BOUNDS

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    MORTAR SECTION AND

    PLATOON FIRING

    FORMATIONS

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    MORTAR SECTION AND PLATOON

    FIRING FORMATIONS

    Always consider METT-T

    Emphasis is on mission accomplishment

    Considers appropriate dispersion

    Need for pos hardening and available

    camouflage and concealment

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    TERRAIN MORTAR

    POSITIONINGUsed when dispersing

    over a larger area

    Maximizes use of natural

    cover and concealment

    W/out regard to set

    distances between

    mortars or effects on

    parallel sheaf

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    LAZY W FORMATION

    Lays mortars on amodified line

    Provides better flank

    security with almost sametgt coverage as parallelformation

    If all mortars fire same data

    When terrain affords

    little cover andconcealment

    Adds depth to sheaf

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    DIAMOND FORMATION

    Allows a 4-mortar Plt to fire

    in all directions with equal

    ease

    When 6400-mil coverage is

    required

    Creates a tight, defensible pos

    against ground attack

    Excellent in restricted terrain

    Formation is more vulnerable toair attack

    Useful in built-up areas (sheaf

    patterns)

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    DIAMOND FORMATION

    (cont)

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITY

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITYLdr must consider a number of threats

    Greatest dangers to mortars are:

    enemy counterfire

    ground attacks air attacks

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITY (cont)

    Mortars face intense counterfire threat:

    Reduces fire support from friendly mortars Radar, sound ranging, and recon methods all

    used against us

    Can be located by radio direction-finding

    Array of detection equip w/ huge amounts of

    enemy arty

    presents major threat to survivability of US mortars

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITYRadio direction finding locatestgts w/in 300m accuracy (2-6mins)

    Adversaries have begun amassive expansion in arty andheavy mortar assets

    Adversary doctrine calls for

    massive indirect fire before anattack (prep)

    Some rnds contain enhancedblast subprojectiles (Flechette rounds)

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITY(cont)Ground attacks:

    During offensiveOps Chance contact w/enemy bypassed forces (greatest

    threat)

    During defensiveOps Greatest threats are enemy recon and main forces.

    Enemy recon teams may encounter mortars by chancecontact can be given specific mission to locate mortar pos

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    THREATS TO MORTAR

    SURVIVABILITY(cont)

    Air attack

    Difficult in concealing firing pos from aerial

    observation

    Ldr employs passive air defensive measures as

    per SOPs

    Armed Helos pose a major threat

    Due to standoff acquisition ability

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    SURVIVABILITY

    TECHNIQUES

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    SURVIVABILITY

    TECHNIQUES (cont)Mortars can occupy

    behind large hill massesand tall buildings

    Can still fire out of

    defilade to hit tgts(trajectory)

    Deep defilade

    partly reduces max range ofa mortar (mask/clearance)

    protects pos from fieldguns/howitzer fires (directfires)

    not from enemy mortarfires

    (Deep defilade coverage)

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    SURVIVABILITY

    TECHNIQUES (cont)Mortars should not be positioned close to glass

    Short bldgs dontprovide much dead space butwill stop enemy frags

    Dead space depends on Wpn, rnd, charge, rng combo,and elev difference between Wpn and tgt

    Incoming rnds have to be almost a direct hit todamage mortar sqd

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    MORTAR POSITIONS

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    MORTAR POSITIONS

    All mortar Sqds dig in during defensive Ops and

    cont to improve their pos

    Takes more time and material to harden pos

    A very slow and fatiguing process by hand

    Engineers assistance is quicker w/ less fatigue

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    MORTAR POSITIONS

    DISMOUNTED MORTAR POSITIONSOnly one type of dismounted dug-in mortar position (dog leg or L shape variations)

    Standard dismounted dug-in mortar pos has 3 stagesofconstruction: STAGE I-Gun pit

    STAGE II-Gun pit w/ personnel shelters

    STAGE III-Gun pit w/ personnel shelters and ammo bunkers

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    QUESTIONS?

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    Summary

    Characteristics for RSOP

    Characteristics for selecting mortar position

    Characteristicsfor occupation of mortar positionCharacteristics for mortar formations

    Characteristics for displacement of mortars

    Characteristics for mortar survivability techniquesCharacteristics of a dug in mortar position

    Characteristics of FDC bunker

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    MORTAR EMPLOYMENT IN THE

    OFFENSE AND DEFENSE


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