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Chap6 IT Ethics and Issues

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 1

    Tomorrows Technology

    and You8th Edition

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 2

    Tomorrows Technology

    and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Networking and Digital Communication

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 3

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/eChapter 8

    Objectives

    Describe the basic types of technology that make

    telecommunication possible.

    Describe the nature and function of local area networks

    and wide area networks.

    Discuss the uses and implications of email, instant

    messaging, blogging, teleconferencing, and other formsof online communication.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 4

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Objectives (continued)

    Explain how wireless network technology is

    transforming the ways people work and communicate.

    Describe current and future trends in

    telecommunications and networking.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 5

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Arthur C. Clarkes Magical ProphecyClarkes laws

    If an elderly but distinguished scientist says

    that something is possible, he is almostcertainly right, but if he says that it is

    impossible he is very probably wrong.

    The only way to find the limits of the possible

    is to go beyond them into the impossible.

    Any sufficiently advanced technology isindistinguishable from magic.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 6

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Arthur C. Clarkes Magical Prophecy Arthur C. Clarkes most famous work was the

    monumental 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey,

    in which he collaborated with movie director

    Stanley Kubrick. Clarkes most visionary work may be a paper

    published in 1945 in which he predicted the use

    ofgeostationary communications satellites

    satellites that match the Earths rotation so they

    can hang in a stationary position relative to thespinning planet below, relaying wireless

    transmissions between locations on the planet.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 7

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    A computer network is any system of two or

    more computers that are linked together.

    How is networking important? People share computer hardware, thus reducing

    costs.

    People share data and software programs, thus

    increasing efficiency and production.

    People work together in ways that are otherwise

    difficult or impossible.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 8

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network AnatomyNetworks Near and Far

    In a local area network (LAN) computers are physically close to each other,usually in the same building.Computers are linked within a building or

    cluster of buildings.

    Each computer and peripheral is an individualnode on the network.

    Nodes are connected by cables, which may beeither twisted pair (copper wires) or coaxial cable.

    In a wireless network each node has a tiny radio (or, less commonly, infrared)transmitter connected to its network port.

    Computers send and receive data through the air rather than through cables.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 9

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network AnatomyA metropolitan area network (MAN) links two or more LANs within a city.

    A wide area network (WAN) extends over a long distance.

    Each networked LAN site is a node on the WAN.

    Data transmitted over common pathways called a backbone.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 10

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Communication frequently happens between LANs and WANs

    Routers: hardware devices or software programs that route messages as they travel

    between networks

    Mesh networks:an alternative to todays networks; rely on centralized routers

    Used to set up small, temporary communication systems

    Example: emergency personnel use at fire scenes to coordinate actions

    Pretty soon youll have no more

    idea ofwhat computer youre using

    than you have an idea ofwhere your

    electricity comes from.Danny Hillis, computer designer

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 11

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Specialized Networks: From GPS to Financial Systems

    Global Positioning System (GPS)

    GPS is a specialized network developed by

    U.S. Department of Defense.

    It includes 24 satellites that circle the Earth.

    Each satellite contains a computer, an atomic

    clock, and a radio.

    On the ground, a GPS receiver can use

    signals broadcast by three or four visible

    satellites to determine its position.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 12

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Networks that keep our global financial systems running:

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM):a specialized terminal linked to a banks main

    computer through a commercial banking network

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 13

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network AnatomyThe Network Interface

    A network interface card (NIC) permits

    direct network connection:

    Adds an additional serial port to the computer

    Controls the flow of data between the computers RAM

    and the network cable

    The most common types of networks today require some kind of Ethernet card

    or port in each computer.

    Ethernet is a popular networking architecture developed in 1976 at Xerox.

    Most newer PCs include an Ethernet port on the main circuit board, so they dont

    require NICs to connect to Ethernet networks.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 14

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Communication la Modem

    Modem: a hardware device that connects a

    computers serial port to a telephone line

    (for remote access)

    May be internal on the system board or external,

    sitting in a box linked to a serial port

    Modem transmission speed measured in bits per second (bps)

    Transmit at 28,000 bps to 56.6K bps

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 15

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Computers send digital signals.

    The modem (modulator/demodulator) converts the digital signals toanalog so that the message can be transmitted through telephone lines andconverts it back on the other end.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 16

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Broadband connectiona connection with much greaterbandwidth than modems have

    DSL uses standard phone lines and is provided by phone companies in

    many areas.Cable modems provide fast network connections through cable

    television networks in many areas.

    High-speed wireless connections can connect computers to networksusing radio waves rather than wires.

    Satellite dishes can deliver fast computer network connections as wellas television programs.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 18

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Wireless Network Technology

    A lightning-fast network connection to your desktop is of little use if youre

    away from your desk most of the time; when bandwidth is less important thanmobility and portability, wireless technology can provide practical solutions.

    The fastest growing wireless LAN technology is known as Wi-Fior802.11b.

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 19

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    Bluetooth: another type of wireless technologyNamed for a Danish king who overcame his countrys religious differences

    Overcomes differences between mobile phones, handheld computers, and PCs, making

    it possible for all of these devices to communicate with each other regardless of

    operating system

    T T h l d Y 8/

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    2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Slide 20

    Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e

    Chapter 8

    Basic Network Anatomy

    With Bluetooth its possible to create a

    personal area network (PAN)a network that

    links a variety of personal electronic devices so they can

    communicate with each other.

    Bluetooth techno

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