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CHAPTER 5 CARBOHYDRATES. LEARNING OUTCOMES Identify the major types of carbohydrates and give...

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  • LEARNING OUTCOMESIdentify the major types of carbohydrates and give examples of food sources for eachList alternative sweeteners that can be used to reduce sugar intake and know how they workDescribe recommendations for carbohydrate intake and health risks caused by low or excessive intakesList the functions of carbohydrates in the body*

  • LEARNING OUTCOMESExplain how carbohydrates are digested and absorbedIdentify the cause of, effects of and dietary treatment for lactose intoleranceDescribe the regulation of blood glucose, conditions caused by blood glucose imbalance, types of diabetes, and dietary treatment for diabetesExplain the basis of low carbohydrate diets and low glycemic index diets and the pros and cons of following them*

  • CARBOHYDRATESComposed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygenProduced by plants via photosynthesisSimple carbohydratesMonosaccharides and DisaccharidesComplex carbohydratesPolysaccharides, Glycogen and Fiber*

  • CARBOHYDRATESSources of carbohydrates in the diet: PlantsPlants use carbon and oxygen from the CO2 in the air and hydrogen from H2O and energy from the sun to make glucose (carbs).PastaRicePotatoesBreadFruitsVeggiesMilkLegumesThese foods should make up 45-65% of our daily intakeDesserts


  • MONOSACCHARIDES6 carbon, single unitsGlucoseBlood sugar, corn syrup FructoseFruit sugarGalactosePart of lactoseSugar AlcoholsXylitol, mannitol and sorbitolPentoses (5 carbon)Ribose and Deoxyribose*

  • MONOSACCHARIDES (SIMPLE SUGAR)Each contains 6 Carbons12 Hydrogen6 Oxygen atomsbut in different configurations


  • DISACCHARIDES (SIMPLE SUGAR)Two monosaccharides linked by a condensation reaction (loss of H20 molecule in this case.)MaltoseGlucose and Glucose-alpha bondSucrose Glucose and Fructose-alpha bondLactoseGalactose and Glucose-beta bond


  • DISACCHARIDESSucroseAlpha bond

    MaltoseAlpha bond

    LactoseBeta bond (harder to break down)


  • OLIGOSACCHARIDESOligo (means few and is 3-10 in this case)Raffinose- Stachyose (found in some vegetables, grains and beans)

    Our bodies cannot break down oligosaccharides they get to our small intestines where the bacteria there metabolize them and turn them into gas.Beano can break down these sugars for us


  • DIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDESPolysaccharidesContains many glucose molecules (hundreds to thousands)Alpha or beta bond determine digestibilityStarch Amylose-straight chainAmylopectin-branchedGlycogen- digestibleStorage form of glucose in human body*

  • DIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDESAmylose (1-4 alpha bonds broken by amalase)

    Amylopectin (1-4 and 1-6 alpha bonds- broken by alpha-dextrinase)


  • DIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDESGlycogen (alpha bonds) - Storage form of carbohydrates in animals

    The liver can store about 90 grams of CHO (360 kcals)The muscles can store about 300 grams of CHO (about 1200kcal)*


    These carb bonds are not digested by humans so they pass through the SI to the LI where they are metabolized by our gut bacteria and produce S-CFA and gas. S-CFA provide kcals for gut flora*

  • TOTAL FIBER = DIETARY FIBER (SOLUBLE + INSOLUBLE) + FUNCTIONAL FIBERDietary Fiber (beta bonds)Soluble FiberDissolves in waterForms gel and can slow down digestion- good for regulating blood glucose, weight, and can interfere with cholesterol reabsorption.Used commercially to thicken foodsFound in oat bran, fruits, beans PectinsSome hemicelluloseGums and mucilages


  • TOTAL FIBER = DIETARY FIBER (SOLUBLE + INSOLUBLE) + FUNCTIONAL FIBERDietary Fiber (beta bonds) Insoluble FiberGood for treating constipation Adds bulk to stool and increases transit time in large intestineFound in whole grains




  • INDIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDESFunctional fiber also called isolated fibers. These are faux fibers added to foods for potential health benefits and clever marketing. Just like dietary fiber, these fiber additives pass undigested through the gastrointestinal tract, so the FDA accepts them as the real deal. Yet no scientific studies link these artificial fibers to the health benefitsincluding a lowered risk of heart disease and obesityCant turn junk food into a health food *

  • INDIGESTIBLE POLYSACCHARIDESThe most common isolated fibers manufacturers use to bulk up not-so-fibrous foods include:MaltodextrinInulin (chicory root)PolydextroseOat fiberResistant starchPectinGum*

  • WHOLE GRAINSWhole grains, or foods made with whole grains contain all the essential (an naturally occurring) parts of the entire grain seed. AmaranthBarleyBuckwheatCornMilletOatsQuinoaRice (brown)RyeSorghumTeffTriticaleWheat*

  • WHOLE GRAINSSince whole grains lose so many nutrients, food manufacturer must add back iron and the B vitamins riboflavin, niacin thiamine (1973), and folic acid (1998) this called enriched flour.*1997

  • WHOLE GRAINS16 grams of whole grains = 1 servingRecommend 3 servings or 48 grams dailyWhich cereals are whole grain? TotalSpecial Kcorn flakesshredded wheatcream of wheat


  • IS THIS A GOOD SOURCE OF WHOLE GRAINS?16 crackers - 2 gram fiber- 23 grams CHO150 kcal


  • IS THIS A GOOD SOURCE OF WHOLE GRAINS?2 slices of bread- 4 gram fiber- 25 grams CHO130 kcalEnriched Wheat Flour [Flour, Barley Malt, Ferrous Sulfate (Iron), B Vitamins (Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Folic Acid)], Water, Whole Wheat Hour, High Fructose Corn Syrup or Sugar, Yeast, Wheat Gluten, Brown Rice Flour, Soy Fiber, Calcium Sulfate, Contains 2% or Less or Soybean Oil, Salt, Vinegar, Cornstarch, Wheat Starch, Soy Flour, Honey, Dough Conditioners (Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate, DATEM, Mono and Diglycerides, Ethoxylated Mono and Diglycerides, Dicalcium Phosphate, Calcium Dioxide and/or Azodicarbonamide), Yeast Nutrients (Ammonium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Monocalcium Phosphate and/or Ammonium Phosphate), Enrichment [Vitamin E Acetate, Ferrous Sulfate (Iron), Zinc Oxide, Calcium Sulfate, Niacin, Vitamin D, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (B6), Folic Acid, Thiamine Mononitrate (B1) and Vitamin B-12], Calcium Propionate (to Retain Freshness), Whey, Soy Lecithin.*

  • IS THIS A GOOD SOURCE OF WHOLE GRAINS?1 English muffin- 3 gram fiber- 23 grams CHO 120 kcalWhole Wheat Flour, Water, Yeast, Wheat Gluten, Honey, Farina, Cornmeal, Salt, Cracked Wheat, Preservatives (Calcium Propionate, Sorbic Acid), Grain Vinegar, Calcium Sulfate, Soybean Oil, Wheat Starch, Mono- and Diglycerides, Datem, Natural Flavor, Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate, Ethoxylated Mono- and Diglycerides, Wheat Sour, Dextrose, Calcium Carbonate, Guar Gum, Lactic Acid, Molasses, Fumaric Acid, Whey, Soy Flour (Trivial Amount of Soy Flour), Caramel Color, Acetic Acid, Sucralose, Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate, Natamycin (a Natural Mold Inhibitor), Potassium Sorbate (Preservative), Nonfat Milk.*

  • IS THIS A GOOD SOURCE OF WHOLE GRAINS?2 waffles- 3 gram fiber- 21 grams CHO 140 kcalIngredients: Water, Enriched Flour (Wheat Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamin Mononitrate [Vitamin B1], Riboflavin [Vitamin B2], Folic Acid), Whole Wheat Flour, Wheat Bran, Egg Whites, Sugar, Vegetable Oil (Soybean Oil, Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil with TBHQ and Citric Acid for Freshness), Contains Two Percent or Less of Leavening (Baking Soda, Sodium Aluminum Phosphate, Monocalcium Phosphate), Salt, Nonfat Dry Milk, Natural Flavors, Calcium Carbonate, Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids, Malt Flavoring, Modified Cornstarch, Whey, Soy Lecithin, Vitamin A Palmitate, Guar Gum, Niacinamide, Reduced Iron, Thiamin Hydrochloride (Vitamin B1), Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Calcium Pantothenate, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12.


  • SWEET*

  • HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP? Starts out as cornstarch, which is enzymatically degraded to glucose and some short polymers of glucose and then again into fructose- now similar to sucroseSome believe that your body reacts differently to high-fructose corn syrup than it does to other types of sugarAccording to commercials High-fructose corn syrup is made from corn, has no artificial ingredients, has the same calories as sugar and is okay to eat in moderation.Can extend the shelf-life of foodsSubsidized commodity = In almost everything*


  • SUGAR ALCOHOLSAdd energy (about 1.5- 3kcal/g) sorbitol, mannitol, xylitolCariesSugar alcohols are usually incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestine which generally results in a smaller change in blood glucose than "regular" sugar (sucrose).Popular sweeteners among diabetics and people on low-carbohydrate diets.Like many other incompletely digestible substances, overconsumption of sugar alcohols can lead to bloating, diarrhea and flatulence because they are not absorbed in the small intestine*

  • NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS (ALTERNATIVE, ARTIFICIAL)Yield no energy so are used to provide sweetness to a lot of productsSaccharinCyclamateAspartameNeotameSucraloseAcesulfame-KTagatoseStevia


  • ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERSSaccharinOldest alternative sweetenerCannot be used in cooking300 times sweeter than sugarUsed to be thought to cause cancer in large amounts (bladder cancer in rats)ADI (Acceptible daily intake: 5mg/kg (154#, 70 kg person this is three, 12 ounce cans of soda, or 9 packets)Some fountain beverages


  • ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERSAspartame (Equal)In diet sodsContains phenyalanine (PKU)Cannot be used in cooking, Very sweet (180-200 times sweeter than sucrose) so only small amountsneeded (does provide 4kcal/g)ADI for adult is 50mg/kg (18 cans of soda or 80 packets)


  • ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERSACE-KSunette200 times sweeter than sucrose0kcal/kgCan be used in baking


  • ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERSSucralose (Splenda)600 times sweeter than sucroseMade from sucrose-can be used in cookingSubstitutes Chlorine for hydroxyl groupsBody cannot use it for energyCan be used for cookingPassed all safety testsSplenda same ADI as sacharrin 3 x 12 oz diet sodas or 7 packets/day


  • ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERSSteviaFrom a shrub in S. America, 100-300x sweeter than sugarHerbal supplement- only specific highly refined and purified extracts of stevia have been approved for use in food products.Concern it may cause infertilityADI is 4mg/kg*

  • NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS (ALTERNATIVE, ARTIFICIAL)Are they safe?Determined by the FDAADI are set at 100 x less than the level at which no harmful effects were seen in animalsPersonal preference especially during pregnancy*

  • Non-nutritive sweeteners Are they safe?SaccharinMany studies on animals have shown that saccharin can cause cancer of the urinary bladder. In other rodent studies, saccharin has caused cancer of the uterus, ovaries, skin, blood vessels, and other organs. Other studies have shown that saccharin increases the potency of other cancer-causing chemicals. And the best epidemiology study (done by the National Cancer Institute) found that the use of artificial sweeteners (saccharin and cyclamate) was associated with a higher incidence of bladder cancer.*

  • NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS ARE THEY SAFE?Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet)Might cause cancer or neurological problems such as dizziness or hallucinations.A 1970s study suggested that aspartame caused brain tumors in rats. However, the Food and Drug Administration persuaded an independent review panel to reverse its conclusion that aspartame was unsafe. *

  • The California Environmental Protection Agency and others have urged that independent scientists conduct new animal studies to resolve the cancer question. In 2005, researchers at the Ramazzini Foundation in Bologna, Italy, conducted the first such study. It indicated that rats first exposed to aspartame at eight weeks of age caused lymphomas and leukemias in females. However, the European Food Safety Authority reviewed the study and concluded that the tumors probably occurred just by chance.*NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS ARE THEY SAFE?

  • NON-NUTRITIVE SWEETENERS ARE THEY SAFE?In 2007, the same Italian researchers published a follow-up study that began exposing rats to aspartame in utero. This study found that aspartame caused leukemias/lymphomas and mammary (breast) cancer. It is likely that the new studies found problems that earlier company-sponsored studies did not because the Italian researchers monitored the rats for three years instead of two. The Italian tests remain controversial, with the industry contending that they were flawed in several ways and with the FDA stating its scientists couldn't evaluate the studies because the researchers refused to provide their original data.


    *************Total and shredded wheat*www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1841910,00.html#ixzz1XI0dMZLu

    *****4 kcal/g, not sweet when cooked, 14 cans of soda or 80 packets*****

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