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Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry
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Page 1: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Chapter1:Laboratory Safety Precautions

Biochemistry Clinical practiceCLS 432

Dr. Samah KotbLecturer of

Biochemistry2015

Page 2: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Lab Safety Precautions

• Bio-safety guidelines:1. Treat all specimens (blood, urine, sputum, etc) as

potentially infection source.2. Wear protective gloves and a lab gown while drawing

blood and handling specimens.3. Do not, eat, drink, or smoke in the lab.4. Do not keep food in the lab refrigerator.

Page 3: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Lab Safety Precautions

5. Do not wear open toe footwear in the lab.6. Clean up spills with an appropriate disinfectant.7. Decontaminate all instruments and materials with an

appropriate disinfectant.8. Dispose of all waste, including test kits, in a

biohazard container.

open toe footwear

Page 4: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Safety management plan

• Development, implementation and enforcement of a quality safety management program → WORKER SAFETY.

• Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – risk assessment of each lab task.

Page 5: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Safety management plan

• Well written ‘Safety manual’ – defines the program and identifies responsible people.

• World Health Organization (WHO) has published laboratory safety guidelines and ACDP ( Advisory Committee on Dangerous pathogens) has formulated biosafety levels for all microbes.

Page 6: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Phlebotomy safety

• Injuries may occur when drawing blood or using a finger stick or heel stick to obtain a blood specimen, or testing with sharps (blood collection needles, lancets, cutting blades, glass pipettes or slides, broken plastic or glass, etc.).

• When possible, use single-use vacuum blood collection tubes with safety needles rather than a syringe and needle.

Page 7: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Sharps disposal manner

1) If possible, only use vacuum tubes and a needle to draw blood (instead of syringe and needle).

2) DO NOT recap, bend, break, or manipulate needles by hand.

Page 8: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Sharps disposal manner

3) After you use sharps, put them in a puncture-resistant, leak-proof trash container right away. DO NOT place sharps in regular trash containers.

4) Report all injuries involving sharps to the (person in charge of safety) at your centre or at the district level.

Page 9: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

• PEP is the use of antiretroviral Drugs (ARV) to reduce the risk of HIV infection following accidental exposure.

• PEP should be available for all staff members following exposure of non-intact skin (through percutaneous sharps injury or skin abrasion) or mucous membranes (through splashes to the eyes, nose or oral cavity) to a potentially infected body fluid from a source that is HIV-positive or has unknown HIV status.

Page 10: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

• PEP includes:1) a staff person trained to provide prompt clinical

advice; and2) access to antiretroviral (drugs to prevent HIV

infection) as soon as possible after exposure and within 72 hours.

Page 11: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Safety Resources

http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/biosafety/en/Biosafety7.pdf

Page 12: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Hazards in the lab

• Biological : exposure to blood and body fluids and specimens that harbour HIV, HBV, HCV etc, bioterrorism).

• Chemical : acids, alkalines, toxic chemicals.• Radiological : ineffective radioactive waste disposal.• Fire.• Electrical accidents.

Page 13: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

1. Biological hazards

• Infectious agents transmitted through body secretions or tissue.

• HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Mycobacterium tuberculosis etc.

Page 14: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

2. Chemical hazards

• Label lab chemicals with their hazard classification – irritant, corrosive, flammable, carcinogen etc.

• Store reactive chemicals separately ( acids x bases, oxidizers x reducing agents). Flammables are stored in flammable safe cabinets.

Page 15: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

2. Chemical hazards

• Use of carcinogens / toxic chemicals to be used only by trained personnel and in designated area.

• Chemical hygiene plan, engineering and work practice controls, exposure monitoring and waste management.

Page 16: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

3.Physical hazards

• Fire.• Electrical accidents – shock, short circuit.• UV light exposure.• Compressed gases.

Page 17: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

4.Radiation hazards

• Type of radiation – α, β or ϒ, quantity and source of exposure (internal /external).

• Time, distance, shielding – engineering and work practice controls (designated areas, lead aprons, monitoring badges).

Shielding

Distance

Time

Page 18: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Factors determining the impact of hazards

• 1. Exposure levels.• 2. Duration of exposure.• 3. Toxicity or pathogenecity of the hazardous

material.• 4. Safety controls.• 5. Number and types of contact with the hazard.• 6. Host factors – age, health etc.

Page 19: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Routine safety precautions

• 1) Centrifugation

– Check tubes/vials for cracks.– Properly balanced.– Wait for a complete stop.– In case of breakage, clean the buckets with disinfectant.– For infectious agents, seal the tubes.

Page 20: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Routine safety precautions

• 2) Electrical safety– Must know master switches and circuit breaker

boards.– All electrical equipment must be grounded.– All shocks to be investigated.

Page 21: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

Routine safety precautions

3) Corridor cautions– Swinging doors ; should open into corridors.– Use only one side of corridor for storage of

equipments.– Look for spills, glass etc on the floors.– Always walk, never run .

Page 22: Chapter1: Laboratory Safety Precautions Biochemistry Clinical practice CLS 432 Dr. Samah Kotb Lecturer of Biochemistry 2015.

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