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Chinese literature

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  • 1.CHINA China , officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion. The PRC is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The PRC also claims Taiwanwhich is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entityas its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved

2. The nation of China has had numerous historical incarnations. The ancient Chinese civilizationone of the world's earliest flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (approx. 2000 BC) and ending with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured 3. Classical Literature It refers to the earliest period and covers works from three thousands years ago to the late Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911), and is a virtually unbroken strand enduring dynastic changes. Written in an ancient form of language that is very different from present day Chinese, it needs to be carefully studied to be understood. Since it was nearly always developed under the reign of centralized and unified government, it is imbued with the thoughts of a culture that embraced slavery and a feudal society. It was steeped in an enclosed environment that hardly had any real links with religion or least of all the literature of foreign cultures. 4. Modern Literature It refers to the periord from the Opium War in 1840 to the May Fourth Moverment in 1919. As the decadent reign of the Qing failed to inspire the minds of people, the literary forms had remained unchanged; till the Opium War in 1840. Then they absorbed the impact of western thoughts as foreigners poured in China and established their colonies. Novels, poetry and other works began to appear with a theme of patriotism 5. Contemporary Literature It spanned the period from 1919 to the foundation of modern in 1949 and took on a new vigor, despite the fact that Chinese was in the throws of checkered and complicated times. This period was distinctive as it brought into being a new and revised literary language, form, content and skills allowing it to evolve into an independent and open art available to the whole of society. It attached great attention to people's lives and a future with strong political tendencies. Influenced by the tide of the world literature, it provided wide and amiable communication between writers and 6. Present-Age Literature It is that which has evolved since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949. During this time, there was a logjam as a consequence of the Cultural Revolution that lasted for nearly 10 years. That era is now long past and we now have a favorable turn on events and a great number of responsible writers deepen the literary forms and content. Nowadays literature prospers. As the Chinese nation is a racial mix of Han people together with 55 other ethnic groups, literature reflects this. The various ethnic groups have contributed 7. The Analects, or Lunyu ;( literally "Selected Sayings"), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is the collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been written by Confucius' followers. It is believed to have been written during the Warring States period. 8. "To learn something and then to utilize it gives one a harmonious sense of attainment. To have friends come from far away to visit is uplifting. To be indifferent to recognition by others of one's talents is a keystone to a life of peace and harmony." 9. "Manipulating words and a well-to-do appearance are seldom the bearers of peace and harmony." 10. "At the end of everyday, I ask myself three questions. 1) In my acts for others, have I been worthy of their trust? 2) Have I been true to my word? 3) Have I practiced what I taught? 11. "Cutting, chiselling, filing, polishing one's life, acquiring and maintaining peace and harmony, is the nature of life. And what you have said is an example." 12. "You should be indifferent to the possibility that others do not recognize or appreciate your abilities. But on the other hand, you should be concerned that you may not recognize or appreciate the abilities of others." 13. CHINESE POETS 14. Luo Binwang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Lu Binwng; Wade Giles: Lo Pinwang, ca. 640 December 29, 684), courtesy name Guanguang (/), was a Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. His family was from modern Wuzhou, Zhejiang, but he was raised in Shandong. Luo is grouped with Wang Bo, Yang Jiong (/) and Lu Zhaolin (/) as one of the Four Greats of the Early Tang as the most outstanding writers of their time. 15. Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: Laozi; Wade Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Lao Tu, Lao- Tzu, Lao-Tsu, Laotze, Laosi, Lao Zi, Laocius, and other variations) was a mystic philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism (pronounced as "Daoism"). He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of the Taoist religion, which often refers to Laozi as Taishang Laojun, or "One of the Three Pure Ones". Laozi translated literally from Chinese means "old master" or "old one", and is generally considered honorific. 16. Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. Kindness in words creates confidence. Kindness in thinking creates profoundness. Kindness in giving creates love. If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. 17. Be careful what you water your dreams with. Water them with worry and fear and you will produce weeds that choke the life from your dream. Water them with optimism and solutions and you will cultivate success. Always be on the lookout for ways to turn a problem into an opportunity for success. Always be on the lookout for ways to nurture your dream. 18. Hanshan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hnshan; literally "Cold Mountain", fl. 9th century) was a legendary figure associated with a collection of poems from the Chinese Tang Dynasty in the Taoist and Chan tradition. He is honored as an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Manjusri in Zen lore. In Japanese and Chinese paintings he is often depicted together with his sidekick Shide or with Fenggan, another monk with legendary attributes. 19. My five word poems total hundreds Seven word seventy-nine Three word twenty-one Altogether maybe 600 poems All written on ancient rocks Boasting, my brushwork is strong Who understands my poems Is the mother of Buddha 20. Although Confucianism, both as a term and as a category of religious tradition, has been the subject of much controversy, reasons to regard and teach Confucianism as an authentic East Asian religious tradition are both abundant and sound. Problematizing and historicizing Confucianism as a religious tradition are necessary first steps toward understanding how Confucian ideas, institutions, and practices both accommodate and challenge understandings of religion. These in turn can benefit both teachers 21. This chapter begins with an introduction that surveys some of the ways that the Confucian Analects has been read and argues that any attempt to reconstruct an original meaning of the text must locate it in its historical context. It proceeds to examine three quotations from the textone on the Odes, one on sacrifice, and one on Confucius's relationship with his discipleswith some remarks on the way these quotations have been read. Once these aspects of the Analects are recontextualized, it becomes clear that despite the fact that these passages have been read in variety of ways, they originally expressed a religious vision that differed from the norm at the time of its composition. 22. This chapter outlines the disagreement between Mencius and Xunzi and the deeper ethical issues these thinkers confront under this organizing principle, as they help articulate some of the most powerful and influential visions of personal formation ever produced. The essay closes with a discussion of how Mencian and Xunzian material lends itself especially well to teaching courses on Chinese or Confucian thought, East Asian culture and society, religious ethics, philosophical ethics, and virtue ethics. The Mencius-Xunzi Debate in Early Confucian Ethics 23. The four books are the 1 Analects, 2 Mencius, 3 The Higher Education, 4 The Doctrine of the Mean. The five scriptures are The Book of Poetry (Shih), Book of History (Shu), Book of Changes (Yi), Book of Rites (Li), and Spring and Autumn Annals (Ch'un-Ch'iu). Most people use the five scriptures as the material they teach, while the four books record the opinions and the theories of Confucius. 24. The Doctrine of the Mean mostly describe the philosophy and thoughts of Confucianism. This is the best source of information if you want to learn about the Confucian philosophies. It is thought that Tzu-si, the grandchild and the teacher of Mencius, wrote this book. The Higher Education is the first book of the four book, and it is also the first book children have to study when they go to school. The Doctrine of the Mean and the Higher Education is very useful for the children if they memorize them in their early years. The Higher Ed

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