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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD). COPD Definition: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary...

Date post: 23-Dec-2015
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
  • Slide 1
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
  • Slide 2
  • COPD Definition: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is not one single disease but an umbrella term used to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow (World Health Organization) Types of COPD: Asthma Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis
  • Slide 3
  • Symptoms of COPD Dyspnea Difficulty breathing Shortness of Breath (SOB) Fatigue Coughing Sputum (phlegm) Production
  • Slide 4
  • COPD Diagnosis The main test for COPD is Spirometry During the test, a technician will ask you to take a deep breath and then blow as hard as you can into a tube connected to a small machine
  • Slide 5
  • Facts About COPD According to the American Lung Association, COPD is the 4 th leading cause of death in the United States Behind heart disease, cancer, and strokes Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD Long-term exposure to secondhand smoke can also increase a person's risk for COPD Industrial exposures, such as toxic fumes or dust, can increase a person's risk of COPD as well
  • Slide 6
  • What Is Asthma A chronic disease that causes: Bronchial constriction and spasm (tightening of the muscles around the airways) Inflammation of the bronchioles Airways that are overly sensitive to allergen and irritant triggers Excessive mucus production in the bronchioles There may be periods when there are no symptoms but the airways are swollen and sensitive to some degree all of the time
  • Slide 7
  • Symptoms of Asthma Breathlessness Nighttime or early morning coughing Coughing or wheezing after physical activity Breathing problems during particular seasons Coughing, wheezing, or chest tightness after allergen exposure Colds that last more than 10 days Relief when medication is used
  • Slide 8
  • What Is Asthma Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQEjzM TSzAYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQEjzM TSzAY
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Risk Factors for Developing Asthma Smoking Environmental Pollutants Allergies Family History African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to be hospitalized for asthma attacks and to die from asthma It often starts in childhood. More boys have asthma than girls, but in adulthood, more women have asthma than men.
  • Slide 11
  • Asthma Triggers Exercise Viral Illness Weather Changes Exposures to Airborne Chemicals Dust Tobacco Smoke Animal Dander (cats more of a problem) Cockroaches Dust Mites (tiny insects that eat dead skin) Grass, Mold, and Pollens Stuffed Animals
  • Slide 12
  • Additional Asthma Triggers Wood Fires Charcoal Grills Perfume and Scented Soaps Household Sprays Paint Gasoline Expressing strong emotions like anger, fear, or excitement When a person with asthma laughs, yells, or cries hard, natural airway changes may cause wheezing or other asthma symptoms
  • Slide 13
  • Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA) Tightening of the muscles around the airways Distinct from other types of asthma because it only happens with exercise Can be prevented by taking pre-exercise medication and by warming up/cooling down About 10% of the general population without asthma, have EIA when they exercise
  • Slide 14
  • Symptoms of Exercise Induced Asthma Coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath Coughing is the most common symptom of EIA and may be the only symptom The symptoms of EIA may begin during exercise and will usually be worse 5 to 10 minutes after stopping exercise
  • Slide 15
  • Symptoms of Exercise Induced Asthma Symptoms range from mild to severe and often resolve in 20-30 min Occasionally some individuals will experience "late phase" symptoms four to twelve hours after stopping exercise Late-phase symptoms are frequently less severe and can take up to 24 hours to do away
  • Slide 16
  • Causes of Exercise Induced Asthma When you exercise you breathe faster due to the increased oxygen demands of your body. Usually during exercise you inhale through your mouth, causing the air to be dryer and cooler than when you breathe through your nasal passages. This decrease in warmth and humidity are both causes of bronchospasm Exercise that exposes you to cold air such as skiing or ice hockey is therefore more likely to cause symptoms than exercise involving warm and humid air such as swimming
  • Slide 17
  • Preventing Exercise Induced Asthma Proper warm up for 6 to 10 minutes before exercise Proper cool down Carefully monitor respiratory status before, during and after exercise Use medication (Albuterol) 15-30 minutes before exercise begins Check outdoor ozone/air quality levels If your client is complaining of breathing difficulty- BELIEVE IT and take action Never encourage your client tough it out when having asthma symptoms
  • Slide 18
  • Training Considerations Clients with asthma can participate in exercise/sports without restrictions If your client is having trouble exercising, their asthma may not be in good control If clients are having symptoms with activity, encourage them to use their rescue inhalers
  • Slide 19
  • Training Considerations Aerobic exercise should be guided by the clients shortness of breath Intermittent exercise with frequent rest breaks at a ratio of two parts exercise to one part recovery A circuit training format is recommended emphasizing breathing control and rest as needed between sets If a client is experiencing unusual dyspnea during exercise, stop exercise Upper extremity exercises cause increased dyspnea and must be monitored
  • Slide 20
  • Training Considerations Good Activities that involve only short bursts of exercise or intermittent periods of activity are usually better tolerated Walking, volleyball, gymnastics or baseball Swimming that involves breathing warm and moist air, is often well tolerated Bad Aerobic sports are more likely to cause symptoms Distance running, soccer or basketball Cold air sports such as ice hockey or ice- skating may not be tolerated as well
  • Slide 21
  • Exercise Guidelines Mode: Treadmill walking, cycling, elliptical trainers Frequency: 3-5 days per week Intensity: 40-60% Duration: 20-45 minutes Resistance Training: 1 set of 8-15 repetitions 2-3 days per week Allow for sufficient rest between exercise
  • Slide 22
  • Asthma Medications Two categories of medications: Controller Medications Taken every day to prevent swelling in the lungs Examples may be Inhaled Corticosteroids such as Azmacort, Pulmicort, Flovent, Advair These medications must be taken every day, regardless if there are symptoms or not Reliever or Rescue Medications Taken only when needed to relieve symptoms Taken before strenuous exercise to prevent exercise induced asthma (EIA) from developing
  • Slide 23
  • Reliever or Rescue Medications Examples: Albuterol, Proventil, Ventolin, Maxair Should be taken 10-15 minutes before strenuous or aerobic activity begins Taken when needed to relieve symptoms Should be immediately and easily accessible You should be aware that your client is using this medication
  • Slide 24
  • What is an Asthma Attack? Occurs when a person is exposed to a trigger and their asthma symptoms start to appear This can occur suddenly without warning, or develop for days before the symptoms begin Attacks are preventable by avoiding exposure to triggers and taking medications
  • Slide 25
  • Handling an Asthma Attack Remain calm and reassure the person If the person has an inhaler with them, they should take it Have the person sit up and breathe slowly- in through the nose, out through pursed lips slowly Have the person sip room temperature water/ fluids If the person is a minor, contact the parent or guardian as necessary Do not leave the person unattended
  • Slide 26
  • Call 911 If Lips or nail beds are bluish Person has difficulty talking, walking or drinking Quick relief or rescue meds (albuterol) is ineffective or not available Neck, throat, or chest muscles are pulling in (retracting). Nostrils flare out when trying to breathe Obvious distress Altered level of consciousness/confusion Rapidly deteriorating condition.
  • Slide 27
  • What is Emphysema? Damage to the lungs that is Permanent and Irreversible Destruction of the alveoli The lungs become less efficient at gas exchange The lungs also lose their elasticity and the person experiences difficulty exhaling Loss of elasticity results in lung enlargement. The enlarged areas are ineffective in eliminating CO2 and in transferring O2 from the air into the blood stream
  • Slide 28
  • What is Emphysema Damage to the alveoli not only results in difficulty breathing, but the heart also has to work harder to circulate blood through the lungs. All these changes make less O2 available to the body
  • Slide 29
  • Symptoms of Emphysema Shortness of Breath (SOB) Cough with Phlegm Dyspnea-difficulty breathing Coughing Wheezing Excess Mucus Cyanosis-bluish color of the skin
  • Slide 30
  • Causes of Emphysema Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of emphysema Smoking is responsible for approximately 80-90% of deaths due to COPD Environmental Conditions Pollution Work Environment (miners)
  • Slide 31
  • Complications of Emphysema People with emphysema eventually die from it, or from complications resulting from: Recurring chest infections, pneumonia, the flu, colds Pulmonary Hypertension: Abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs Cor Pulmonale: Enlargement and strain on the right side of the heart
  • Slide 32
  • Emphysema Treatment Two surgical procedures can be done to help people with emphysema: Lung-Volume Reduction Surgery: The most severely diseased parts of the lung are removed allowing the remaining lung tissue and muscles to work better Lung Transplantation: Last resort for people with emphysema
  • Slide 33
  • Emphysema Treatment Quit smoking The single most important factor for maintaining healthy lungs Bronchodilator Antibiotics/Steroids Exercise
  • Slide 34
  • Whats In a Cigarette Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHVW8 wojWgA&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHVW8 wojWgA&feature=related
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 36
  • What is Chronic Bronchitis? Inflammation of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles causing excessive mucous production and inflammation of the bronchial walls
  • Slide 37
  • Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis Persistent cough that produces mucus, which may be blood streaked Shortness of breath aggravated by exertion or mild activity Frequent respiratory infections that worsen symptoms Wheezing Fatigue Ankle/foot and leg swelling Headaches
  • Slide 38
  • Causes of Chronic Bronchitis Cigarette Smoking The longer and heavier a person smokes, the more likely it becomes that the person will get chronic bronchitis Secondhand Smoke Viruses Air Pollution Infection Allergies
  • Slide 39
  • Chronic Bronchitis Treatment Quit Smoking! Drinking Water-lung secretions will be thinner and easier to clear when the person is well hydrated Bronchodilator Medications Vaccines-annual flu shot Humidifier Corticosteroids Exercise