INTERNSHIP report on BHARAT PRIDE PARK
INTERNSHIP report on BHARAT PRIDE PARK
The internship report in broad-spectrum contains four chapters in which we try to explain my one month experience in my hosting company. The content of all chapters is broadly explained and it is constructed from the practical basis of the site work. In the opening chapter I give details to the company background including its mission, vision, the project those runs through the company consultation. In this chapter we put all record or history and futurity of my hosting company with its official address. So, it is give details of the company in terms of reader can easily know and access the company. The second chapter is the most hunted chapter which explains my overall internship familiarity in one month. This chapter is the main chapter and we record on it the overall work I have been executing. It gives a high light what I have been doing and main works of the construction industry. After all those chapters explained above we goes to the third and forth chapter and explains the main benefits of the internship in terms of different aspects and areas. It is obvious that the internship has a plus in terms of improving skills and different abilities as a whole. The advantages and gains of the internship putted in short and prices way to grasp the attention of readers and evaluators. The final and fifth chapter is conclusion, means what we learnt and understand from this internship programme.
CHAPTER 1.BHARAT PRIDE PARK1.1 INTRODUCTION. A breathtaking venture, consisting of innovative architecture and planning, with a concept designed and developed to bring luxurious yet affordable living to kalaburagi. This venture envisages to change the landscape of real estate in kalaburagi. Situated in the heart of the city, Bharat Pride Park gives the standard lifestyle. A fully vaastu compliant project.
Figure 1. Key Plan1.2 AREA.This project is developing on a total area of 11 acres and 17 guntas, in which for residential area 9 acres 29 guntas is to be used and 2 acres 28 guntas is to be used for commercial purpose.Residential ground coverage area of just 34% with 66% being open to sky. And total floors are 2B+G+6 (2 basement +ground floor +6 floors). Ample parking space with levels of parking. Great garden views from all flats. 1.3 ECO-FRIENDLY. 148 rainwater harvesting pits planned throughout the project. First project in kalaburagi to be approved by state level Environmental authority. A landscape green area of 29% of the total area.
1.4 LUXURIOUS.Comprising of 2-3 BHK spacious flats. Well designed, cross-ventilated apartment with double basement parking. First gate community project in north Karnataka. Health club with a world class gymnasium, yoga and meditation Centre, indoor games and a swimming pool. 18000 sq.ft. Clubhouse with guest rooms, clinics, grocery stores. Independent flats without any common walls, assuring complete privacy. The project also embraces itself with 24 hours power backup for lifts, fire safety equipments delivering apartments compliant with the most latest fire safety and environmental norms.
1.5 EXCELLENCE.They are resilient and persistent in talking on challenging goal and setting higher performance benchmarks that helps them to excel in every way that is meaningful to clients, employees and vendors.
CHAPTER 2PROJECT CONSULTANTN.R Architecture and Engineering Consultancy is a multi-disciplinary Consulting firm, a reputation for responsive, innovative yet practical design approaches to complex Architectural & Engineering problems. Through their experience and dedication to the construction industry N.R consulting firm is committed to provide with the most professional, efficient and cost effective consultancy services. The goal of the company is to satisfy the most demanding construction needs in INDIA or elsewhere in the world. N.R is an architectural & engineering partnership providing design, supervision, consultancy and project management services and engineering solution for various categories of projects. With core staff strength of all professionals in affiliated engineering firms, and the use of the most recent information technology in the production of contract information, the firm has over the years acquired a thorough capability to execute medium to large scale project from feasibility through design and contract administration to completion and project administration. N.R Architecture & Engineering Consultancy is a dynamic organization of innovative professionals who share a common goal to render the best and most effective services to the demanding construction industry, which is sensitive to both cost containment and service levels.2.1 VISION:Their vision to the future is becoming one of the leading Architectural & Engineering consultants in India.2.2 MISSION: Guided by their vision, they shall provide quality services exceeding clients expectations while adhering to the highest standards of technical and individual excellence through continuous improvement training and innovation. a) Adding value to clients. b) Nurturing and promoting talents. c) Respecting employees intense efforts and contribution. 2.3 ADDRESS: BHARAT PRIDE PARK Bharat dall and oil industries Humnabad road, kalaburagi 585104Karnataka, tell 08472-255611Email: [email protected]: www.bharatprojects.com
Figure 2 Location of Bharath pride park.
N.R. CONSULTANTS AND PLANNERS INDIA PVT LTD.# 901 TO 905 , Taramandal complex ,Saifabad Hyderabad 500 004Email: [email protected]: www.n.r.consultants.orgMalinath devarmani kalaburagiEmail: [email protected]
Figure 3 ELEVATION
Figure 4 COURTYARD 1
Figure 4 COURTYARD 2
Figure 4 COURTYARD 3
Figure 5 PARKS.
Figure 6 CLUB HOUSE.
CHAPTER 3OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE
3.1. JOINING OF THE COMPANY. After completion of 2ND M-tech SEM I got the application letter for internship from the PDA College of engineering. So, I have been searching a hosting company but I dont get any company that satisfy my own interest because they dont have the ability and the capacity to teach intern student and also some company reject student because student from other colleges apply first. So, we were approached BHARAT PRIDE PARK project manager Mr. Ramesh sir for internship program and they were given a chance for our internship program. Then we went there at the site to begin the work and join with their Engineers and workers. They introduce the overall site, drawings and staff with respect to their working department. These Engineers were given us an orientation about the overall work we perform throughout the whole internship.
3.2. SECTION OF THE COMPANY WORKED.
N R consultancy has many projects in our country as we mentioned in the consultancy profile. Thus from those listed we have been working in the BHARAT PRIDE PARK project. The project consists of a 2B+G+6 (2 Basement +ground floor + 6 floors). our project in divided into four wings wing A , wing B , wing C and wing D But when I was arrived at the site were the only wing C and wing D are ongoing project. Structure of wing A and wind B is not fully completed finishing work is ongoing.
3.2.1. Flow in the section
The working flow of the owner and the contractor has many advantages in order to work every task closely and to solve problems arise between them. In every work there is a work flow whatever small is the section, my working site at BHARAT PRIDE PARK work flow was look like the chart below. As shown in the chart every work was executed based on this flow.
A. Design and supervision team The team includes structural engineer, architectural engineers, sanitary engineers, electrical engineers and other experienced engineers in other professions. The design and supervision team is a team from the consultant side which guide every work executed in that site and gives supervision for the contractor based on the drawing and the specification (bill of quantity). This team mostly comes to the site when there is a miss understanding on drawings, working techniques, drawing detailing error, and for meeting between the three parties. The team provides continuous service to the project from start to finish, establishing and maintaining the quality and integrity of each design.
1. Resident engineer
Position is responsible for multiple construction projects or a single project of a large scale requiring multiple disciplines. This includes reviewing design; supervising construction progress and scheduling; starting up process systems/equipment or facilities for turning over to the owner's personnel. Supervise field staff and contractors on the site with responsibility for quality construction in accordance with plans and specifications. He/she also responsible for approval of change orders, invoices, and payment applications which may include final payment. So, the resident engineer mostly control every work as much as possible in terms of their quality, cost and time. Testing of materials delivered at site and safety of workers starting from managers to daily labors also the duty of the resident engineer.
2. Project manager
The project manager has so many responsibilities at the site and in our site these positions is accountable for the contractor or the owner and are appointed by the owner of the construction company. The main duty of the manager is Manages the whole site work execution, Makes payment to sub contract workers, Approves material request, Analyses the work processes, Executes sub-contracting agreements, Reviews and checks the reports made by the office engineer.
1. Site engineer
Site engineer shall be accountable for the following tasks and responsibilities: Studying the work plan submitted by the contactor and suggests any modifications. To watch and inspect the construction work and assure that it is done in full accordance with the drawings, technical specifications and bills of quantities. Supervising the works on site in accordance with the contract documents and using the template and procedure established by the consultant. Inspecting and testing materials prior to their use at site as per sample approved by the consultant and ensuring removal of rejected material out from site. Ensuring the correct implementation of the works according to technical specifications, to designs and quality of materials Checking of layout and setting out of buildings with respect to existing structures and site levels. Checking and testing of completed works before they are covered by the contractor, taking photos on a regular basis and also on account of defective work. Ensuring that health and safety measures are adopted and followed to the full extent. Prepare weekly report and suggest and instruct additional safety measures if needed. Maintain a filing system for all site memos and instructions, measured quantities of Work and materials on site, reports and other documents and correspondence pertaining to the construction activities. Maintain a site order book to be made available for the consultants and senior officers to write comments or defects in construction noticed during site visits and carrying out compliance at site.
A foreman is the worker or tradesman who is in charge of a construction crew and is a skilled supervisor who is responsible to work side by side with the project manager, property owner, and other construction design engineers in order to complete a project in a given time limit. His job is to employ the suitable workers on the various tasks to complete the job, and supervise all phases of the construction project from start to end or supervise only a portion of the building process Normally the foreman is a construction worker with many years of experience in a particular trade who is charged with organizing the overall construction of a particular project. Typically the foreman is a person with specialist knowledge of a given trade who has moved into the position and is now focused on an overall management of all trades rather than any particular specialized group.
A good foreman is the keystone of their projects since they control every work more closely than the others like project manager, site engineer etc. the Forman also have a duty of motivating workers and choosing good workers for every aspects of work.
In any construction a surveyor is mandatory so, in our site the surveyor works starting from setting out to checking verticality, keeping the natural level of the building, checking elevation of columns.
4. Skilled and non-skilled persons
This group includes masons, carpenter, bar benders and the daily laborers. In our country workers of such group are appointed only by experience these have its own advantage on the constriction. They work everything as they ordered by withier the Forman or the site engineer.
3.3 OFFICE WORK
In my one month internship period I experience Office works that are worked mostly at the site this includes some tasks performed by office engineer and quantity surveyor. Such as; i. Taking off ii. Bill of quantity iii. Report writing iv. Reading and interpreting drawings
3.3.1 Taking off. This is the process of preparing / defining a detailed list of all labor and materials necessary for the work and entering the items on properly dimensioned paper. The standard form used for entering the dimensions taken or scaled from drawings to determine the accurate quantity in each trade of work, except reinforcement steel, is called take off sheet or dimension paper. The main aim of this sheet is for payment and cost estimation for purchasing and preparing bill of quantity. The dimension paper used for taking off shown below
Column 1 is used for stating the number of times an item occurs . Column 2 is called dimension column as it is used to enter the dimensions of the items of works. The dimensions are entered in the order indicated below: Length, Width, Height or thickness. Column 3 is called squaring column. The stated dimensions in column 2 are multiplied to determine the quantity of the work either in ml, m2, m3 or in Pcs. or No. Whereas column 4 is called description column and description of the work item is briefly stated. Based on the above format I have been calculating the quantity of concrete in m3, formwork in m2 and excavation in m3. A separate sheet (Bar Schedule) is used to prepare reinforcement quantities as shown below. Bar schedule is used to know the amount of rebar used on the site and to tell the bar bender that the amount of bar needed in some position of the building and its number. The following tasks are part of the taking off (used to facilitate defining the quantities): Describing the item, bracketing (relating the description to the quantity) , deduction of items, correction of dimensions .
Format 1 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE.
This numbers is drive from the formula Weight per unit length for 6 is 0.222 kg/m; for any other diameter d with weight per unit length W = (d*d) /162.
3.3.2 Bill of quantity.
The traditional purpose of bills of quantities is to act as a uniform basis for inviting competitive tenders, and to assist in valuing completed work. Bills of quantity are first designed to meet the needs of estimators, although some estimators say the bill format has changed to assist the consultants, in cost planning exercises through the widespread use of elemental bills. A contractor can also make use of the bill of quantities in many ways, for example:
1. To plan material purchasing (note the danger in ordering from a bill: the contractor should always order materials from drawn information and the specification, making the contract administrator aware of any differences) 2. Preparing resourced programs. 3. Cost control during the contract to ensure work is within budget. 4. Data collection during construction for bonus systems and feedback information for estimators.
It is the format which is used in a bill of quantity to list (include) a short description of the specification along with its measuring unit, quantity and unit prices to determine the total Cost for each trade of item. In the site the bill of quantity is done by consultant with the contract document but at site we work it again for payment.
Format 2 BILL OF QUANTITIES.
There are four clearly defined steps in preparation of Bill of Quantities: Taking off Squaring Abstracting Writing the bill off quantity
3.3.3 Report writing. Reporting is a controlling / informative mechanism which will help in evaluating the status of a project. It entails us how we are accomplishing our set targets at the onset of a project. It will also help decision makers to follow the status of the project without being present physically on the site. The reports should explain the history of the project .It should be realistic and self-explanatory. Numbers in a report are far important than number crunching. Putting numbers for a report writer like 10 % or 90% may be simple but the meaning for the decision makers is very vital. Putting wrong figures knowingly or unknowingly are devastating.
Report Types The types of reports to be submitted in a project depends on project type; complexity, working habit etc. In our project we work the following reports
Weekly report monthly report Daily report
Weekly Progress Report: This is the lowest report form. ( lowest means the level of view of the project is high).In short - it evaluates the accomplishment of the weekly plan and puts the next week schedule .This report will show the achievement/ drawbacks of the project at the broadest level and help the project manager ( PM) or Resident Engineer (RE) to solve the shortcomings at the grass root level.
Major Contents of a Weekly Report: Project data ,Accomplishment of weekly Plan, Weekly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the week , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next week , next week plan.
Monthly Progress Report: This is a report with a view of many eyes. This will be thoroughly seen by second level observers. The contractor, the client and the Consultants representative will make an in-depth view of the report to have full information about the project status. This is a report where major bottle necks of the project will be narrated and the performance of the parties will be vividly seen.
Major Contents of a Monthly Report: Accomplishment of monthly Plan, Monthly labor and Machinery Deployment, Material Delivered to the site, major Problems of the month , Solutions given to the major problems, Anticipated problems to be solved for the next month , next month plan..., Contractual matters -Delay Notifications (if any) , variations.
3.3.4 Reading and interpreting drawings.Drawings are the means by which the designer conveys the physical, quantitative, and visual description of the project to the contractor. The drawings are a two-dimensional representation of the physical structure that meets the objectives of the owner. They are also known as plans or blueprints.
In our site there were 4 types of drawing; 1. Architectural drawing 2. Structural drawing3. Sanitary drawing 4. Electrical installation drawing
This drawing is the main language between the architect, designer and any worker at the site or office to build the model in position as specified by the designer and the client, based on the agreement. Thus to work as an engineer in the construction site it is mandatory knowing drawings and any other specification. Drawings are the most common means of communication for all types and sizes of project. Thus I understand each drawing and knew every symbol abbreviation for every section and I able to communicate with different workers using it.
3.3.5. Site work.
The site work was the very important task for me because the internship main objective lies over her and I have gain many knowledge from the site like communication skill, handling workers, management skill etc. within four month I have the ability to see many works from the project.
The work task I have been executing at site is:
Supervising of works Inspecting the worked element and how they work Checking the work based on the given check list Testing materials
The site work in general overlay over the supervision part so I have been working as supervisor based on the given check list that our company give to us. Every work must be checked wither it is executed based on the methodology that the contractor provides to the consultant or not. If not the contractor must report the case why they didnt execute upon it.
PROCEDURES ADOPTED WHEN PERFORMING WORK TASKS.
The site work I have been perform was controlling how the work is going on and supervising the work based on the given check list which was given to us from the office. The checklist for site supervisors is issued in order to ensure a uniform system of supervision of building construction projects and as a result ensure the quality of construction. In the checklist the responsibilities, liabilities and limitations of the supervisor are briefly mentioned in the steps to the general terms.
Details of construction are specified in the drawings, technical specifications and in the general and special conditions of the contract. The duty of mine was to ensure that the construction works are executed in accordance with the contract requirement. In the application of the checklist the details specified in the contract document always precede before the application and use of it. There are also tables and forms in the checklist that help as records of the incidences affecting the work and as references. In addition the standard technical specification was used as reference on the preparation of the checklist and shall always have precedence over the checklist. Therefore, I have been work most of my time at site to become more familiar with site works and to get more practical knowledge. Site work in general includes every kind of work executed at the site starting from setting out till finishing works based on the given specification and methodology. The site work that I have been trough in the fore month internship period was in the sub structure work and super structure work exclusively. A normal building consists of two parts in general this are the super structure and the sub structure.
Any structure below the ground floor slab level including the basement, retaining walls, ground slab, grade beam, and foundation is called a substructure. In most of the cases, substructure work can be categorized as earthwork, concrete work and masonry work. I have seen that how the excavation was done, concrete pouring, masonry work and back filling.
Super structure is the part of a building which extend above the grade beam or everything above the sub structure includes slab(1st floor slab), column, walls, roof etc. the purpose of the super structure is to enclose and divide space as well as spread load safely in to the sub structure.
4.1. Setting out
A building is set out in order to clearly define the outline of the excavation and the center line of the columns, so that construction can be carried out exactly according to the plan. The basic coordinates of each building will be set in position in accordance to the given bench mark. Surveying will be carried out by total station through skilled professional. Performing the job by the cited instrument will enable the respective professional to decide and limit the real topography of the site. I didnt see this work but I try to grasp some knowledge by asking the engineers how it was worked and its main procedures.
Excavation is the first step of construction. It refers to the process of removing soil or rock from its original location, typically in preparation for constructing foundations, basements, and underground utility lines and for grading of the ground surface. Excavated material required for backfill or grading fill is stockpiled on the site for subsequent use. Excavation work I have seen was bulk excavation. The main aim of the excavation work is to remove organic soils or unwanted soil for the safety of the building from chemical attacking. Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in the excavation. Excavation is carried out nearly 25feet below ground level by using machines such as JCB and HITACHI. I was there on excavation of wing D.
Figure 7 EXCAVATIONSPoints to be remembered during excavation
Study a sufficient number of trial pits for exact data of the strata. Confirm the strata in consultation with the consultant, before proceeding for PCC. Excavate the foundation at same level and avoid resting of the footing on the sloping strata. Remove all the loose excavated material and clean the strata. Carry out shoring in case of black cotton soil, to avoid accidents. De-watering of the pits should be well planned and de-watering should be laid in storm water drain. Necessary approvals to cut the trees, stock (dump) the material on public property etc. should be obtained from the local authorities. Safety precautions should be observed while excavating. Sufficient light arrangements should be made for work in the night shift. Ensure that the foundation of adjacent buildings is not exposed while excavating the basement. Give the size of exaction pit to avail the working space for worker to fix and remove the shuttering box of PCC.
Check list for excavation which is used on our site
Fill work will follow the erection of foundation column. Bulk excavations need to be back filled with a better soil type, which will have better compaction character and would bring the minimum required proctor density. In order to attain the minimum standard as mentioned on the Bill of Quantity, they deploy appropriate machineries.
Filling is on our site by using Murom and compacted by using roller as shown in image.
Figure 8 FILLING
4.4 PCC WORKThe term PCC stands for Plain cement concrete. Before starting any RCC or masonry work directly on the excavated soil, PCC is done form a levelled surface.
Preparation for pcc works Check the center of the excavated pit or center line for footing. Check the dimensions and orientations of the excavated pit (length, breadth and depth). Get the strata checked and approved from the consultant. Clean the pit by removing all loose materials. Water the excavated pit and ram it for better compacted strata. If the surface of the pit is uneven, do the soling or plum concrete to avoid excess depth of pcc. Prepare the shuttering box of pcc size and placed it in position. Get the required materials stocked a day in advanced. Keep all tools and machineries ready by cleaning, washing, lubricating etc.
Figure 09 PCC WORK
4.5. CONCRETE FORM WORK As fresh concrete is in plastic state when it is placed for construction purpose so, it becomes necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and support the concrete till it gains sufficient strength for self-supporting. This temporary structure is called form work. Concrete formwork serves as a mould to produce concrete elements having a desired size and configuration. It is usually erected for this purpose and then removed after the concrete has cured to a satisfactory strength. In some cases, concrete forms may be left in place to become part of the permanent structure. For satisfactory performance, formwork must be adequately strong and stiff to carry the loads produced by the concrete, the workers placing and finishing the concrete, and any equipment or materials supported by the forms.In the site the form work material we use was the steel plates which have a good surface finish.
The general step used to construct a formwork in the site is: Prepare the false works in the desired position and level. Preparing the form work in a desired shape based on the drawing or the size of the structure that is going to be cast. Painting with a releasing agent if needed. fixing it with appropriate bracing element and false work.
Formwork for slab
Formwork for slab-cum beam
Formwork for columnThe formworks of any type and of any place will be required:
To be rigid enough to confine plastic concrete at the lines grades and dimensions indicated on the form plans without bulging or sagging under the load. To be constructed as mortar tight as possible to prevent the loss of concrete ingredients throughout the joints between the sections. To be easy to remove with minimal damage to the concrete surface.
CHECKLIST FOR ON-SITE INSPECTION
NOTE:- Please appropriate box or enter readings as per requirements
Sl. No.To be checkedYESNONARemarks/ Clarifications
1Name, date and number of the drawing
2Are the latest "Good for Construction" drawings available?
3Is adequate quantity of shuttering material available?
4Has the required barricading and safety measures been taken?
5Are safety measures required for the neighboring construction activities?
6Is the area compatible with the drawings that are provided?
7Has the shuttering material been properly cleaned before use?
8Is the foam strip around the column starter in place to avoid slurry leakages?
9Does the level of the slab and beam shuttering correspond to the levels given in the drawing?
10Has the shuttering been checked for proper fixing and sufficient support for concreting?
11Is the shuttering checked for vertical and horizontal alignment?
12Are the required tools available?
13Are the beam bottoms of inverted beams fixed at right angles?
14Are all the required cut outs and shaft openings in place and checked for correct measurement?
15Have the peripheral areas and cutouts been provided with sufficient cover blocks?
16Is the brown tape in place and the oil properly applied?
17Is the DE shuttering time as per specification and done in an orderly and safe manner?
18Has the consultant inspected the formwork before before concreting?
Checked by:Approved by:
Concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression. Its tensile strength is approximately 10% of its compressive strength. Therefore, concrete is generally used in conjunction with steel reinforcement, which provides the tensile strength in a concrete member. The use of plain concrete without steel reinforcement is limited to pavements and some slabs-on-ground. Steel is the ideal material to complement concrete because the thermal expansion of both materials is the same. In other words, when heated or cooled, both steel and concrete expand or contract equally. Consequently, no stress is caused by differential expansion or contraction. Composite materials that expand differentially are subjected to such stresses.
Steel also bonds well with concrete. In a composite material, the bond between two materials is necessary for it to function as a single material. The bond between steel and concrete is due to the chemistry of the two materials, which produces a chemical bond between them. Additionally, as water from concrete evaporates, it shrinks and grips the steel bars, making a mechanical bond. Excessively rusted bar should not be used.
Before bulk purchase and transporting to the site they are conducting tensile strength test from the store, by taking sample from a place where they are intending to buy the material. Such sampling will involve the Office and the result will be communicated. When they receive approval, as it fulfills the expected minimum tensile strength, they proceed to the purchase of the same. Place of deposit was made ready before its arrival on site where it should be damped. A platform elevated from the top surface of the soil, that would ensure the avoidance of minimum contact were prepared. Then placed there, and was protected from any detrimental moisture, grease or oil or other substances that may affect its quality. Shop drawing or bar schedule was produced by the quantity surveyor (office Engineer), in accordance to the structural design. This shop drawing or bar schedule was submitted to the Engineer and upon his approval mass production will be induced. Bar bending workshop were situated in a place where it could be close to the site where the bar is going to be placed in position. The bending of all types of reinforcement bars was take place within the workshop. Except the column reinforcement bars all was tied and placed in position exactly in a position where they are intended to be situated. After placing in position of the reinforcement bar and before the concrete pouring any dust particle was removed or cleaned. On horizontal structures like the reinforced concrete in order to maintain the allowable concrete cover depth or thickness concrete spacers was produced and cured and placed in position.
Column, beam and slab reinforcement Bending machine and cutting machine
Reinforcement of water storage tank and retaining wall
CHECKLIST FOR QUALITY
NOTE:- Please appropriate box or enter readings as per requirements
Sl. No.To be checkedYESNONARemarks / Clarifications
1Name, date and number of the drawing
2Are the latest "Good for Construction" drawings available?
3Is the area prepared for starting reinforcement (shuttering complete, cleaned, oiled, taped)?
4Are test results of bars available at site before starting the fabrication work?
5Has the required barricading and safety measures been taken?
6Is the area to be reinforced compatible with the drawings that are provided?
7Are the required tools available at site to ensure correct work?
8Is the reinforcement kept ready on wooden runners to keep them clean?
9Is the reinforcement free from oil, mud, grease and other forms of contaminations?
10Is the overlapping ensured and the laps are staggered?
11Has the anchoring been checked?
12Are the dowels for columns, beams and slabs in place and checked for proper length?
13Are the required hooks fixed and is the chair height for the upper layer of reinforcement correct?
14Is the reinforcement done as per specification and drawing?
15Are cover blocks provided and fixed in a systematically correct manner and as per specifications?
16Have beam and column joints checked for sufficient cover blocks?
17Is the lock set properly mixed and the reinforcement turned into the fresh lock set?
18Has the consultant inspected the reinforcement before the concreting has started?
19Has adequate lap lengths been provided for all the column bars?
20Is the steel scrap and the rings used for bundling collected in a safe place to avoid any accidents?
Checked by:Approved by:
4.7. CONCRETE Concrete is a composite consisting of the dispersed phase of aggregates (ranging from its maximum size coarse aggregates down to the fine sand particles) embedded in the matrix of cement paste. This is a Portland cement concrete with the four constituents of Portland cement, water, stone and sand. These basic components remain in current concrete but other constituents are now often added to modify its fresh and hardened properties. This has broadened the scope in the design and construction of concrete structures. It has also introduced factors that designers should recognize in order to realize the desired performance in terms of structural adequacy, constructability, and required service life. These are translated into strength, workability and durability in relation to properties of concrete. In addition, there is the need to satisfy these provisions at the most cost effective price in practice. Since our building is a reinforced concrete structure the concrete work was commenced every day for constructing/development of every part of the building.In our site the plant is placed for manufacturing of concrete. Weigh batching is using on our site. The bucket size of our plant is 0.2 cubic meter (it means that concrete mix in our site is 0.2M3 at one time). In our site they are using Cement (OPC cement from Vasavadatta cement company malkhed stored in silo), Sand (natural sand) and coarse aggregates (10mm, 12mm and 20mm down size), admixtures ,Robo sand also using on our site and fly ash using and replacing with cement.
Concrete plant on site Grades of concreteIn our site different grades of concrete are using. For pcc of footing M20, for rcc of footing M25, column M25 and for beams and slabs they are using M20 grades of concrete. Proportions are using according to the mix design of concrete.Tests on concreteTestes conducted at site for concrete work was the slump test and the cube test.Joints
Any joint, as in a physical break or gap between members, in a concrete structure or building is a potential weak link which may lead to serviceability problems, lack of durability or structural failure. Yet seldom, if ever, is a building constructed without them. In many situations they are necessary requirement.
The word joint is used in building parlance to cover elements which have to perform quite different functions e.g. beam-column joints and isolation joints. In the former the joint has to provide continuity of structural action between the members meeting at the joint. In the latter the joint has to ensure separation between the adjacent members to allow one member to move independently of the other. Expansion joints were provided to maintain a minimum resistance at a joint. Reinforcements dont extend across expansion joints. The joint was filled by a material called Styrofoam. An expansion joint prevents the continuation of cracks formed due to differential settlement, variation in temperature and long span of the building from one structure to the other. Expansion joint runs through the entire building from the ground floor (or the basement, if provided) up to the roof. Two columns are used at the expansion joint. However, a combined footing may be used for the two adjacent columns. Construction Joint A special type of static joint that is provided between two concrete placements is called a construction joint or cold joint.
However, in our site expansion joint is provided by the designer in order to separate the building to protect from anticipated accident.
Pouring of concrete After the concrete is manufactured the next step is casting or pouring the concrete in to the required place. Before commencing the casting process supervision is made for the bars, spacers, different installations and the formwork if it was in the expected quality for casting. In our site transit mixers are used for transporting of concrete and placing is done by using pumping and sometimes workers (where the pump cant reach) and needle vibrators are used for compaction of the fresh concrete.Transporting of concrete by using transit mixer and placing is done by pumping
Casting of slab and beam by using pumping and compacting by using needle vibratorCURING The hydration reaction begins as soon as water and cement come into contact, but the rate at which this reaction proceeds is extremely slow. It takes up to 6 months or longer for concrete to gain its full strength. However, approximately 80% of concrete strength develops in 28 days. Approximately two thirds of the 28-day strength is obtained in the first 7 days and approximately half in the first 3 days. This is true only if sufficient water and favorable temperature are available for the hydration reaction to continue. That is why concrete test cylinders are kept in a moist chamber until tested. Providing moisture to concrete continuously for hydration is called curing of concrete. A well-cured concrete is denser and, hence, stronger and more durable. On construction sites, curing is begun as soon as the concrete has fully set (solidified), which is generally 12 to 24 h after placing the concrete. Curing in the initial stages of hardening is extremely important and should continue as long as possible, not less than 7 days. It is the process of preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete while maintaining a satisfactory temperature regime. Curing is essential for producing good concrete that has the desired strength, impermeability and durability, and is of particular importance in situations where the water-cement ratio is low, or the cement has a high rate of strength development. So, curing must be conducted using potable water and covering of the structural element using covering material for at least 7 successive days to retain the moisture lost.
In our site curing of concrete starts from the finishing of the pouring and ends in a 7 days. Mostly they cure at morning, night time. Some workers are placed for curing at any time after placing of concrete.
Curing at site CHECKLIST FOR ON-SITE INSPECTION
ACTIVITY: CEMENT CONCRETE
NOTE:- Please appropriate box or enter readings as per requirements
Sl. No.To be checkedYESNONARemarks/ Clarifications
1Name, date and number of the drawing
2Are the latest "Good for Construction" drawings available?
3Have the required barricading and safety measures been taken?
4Are the required number of cement bags available on site? (or adequate quantity of RMC been ordered )
5Are the required tools available at site to ensure correct work?
6Have the vibrators been checked before start of the concrete?
7Are calibrated farm available for measurement (weigh batcher in case of weigh batching).
8Is the platform and scaffolding material secure?
9Is the necessary shuttering and reinforcement complete and in place?
10Has the shuttering material been properly aligned using appropriate equipment?
11Are spare hessian cloth or tarpaulin sheet available as protection from the elements?
12Have the dimensions and orientation of the excavated pit been checked?
13Has the pit been cleaned by removing all the loose materials?
14Has the excavated pit watered and rammed for better compacted strata?
15Is the surface level of the pit even?
16Does the shuttering box fit in position?
17Has the pit been button marked?
18Has the anti-termite treatment been done?
19Has the strata been checked and approved by the concerned authority?
CHECKS DURING EXECUTION
20Are all the labourers wearing gum boots while concreting?
21Is the right grade of concrete being used?
22Has the level of P.C.C maintained?
23Has the leveling and finishing of P.C.C done?
24Has it been ensured that hessain cloth is provided and curing done?
25Has it been ensured that no loose earth has fallen on the P.C.C bed?
Checked by:Approved by:
4.7 MASONRY WORK
Masonry are works that are executed by laying building material units such as stone, brick and solid blocks of specified dimension by providing a binding material such as mortar. Blocks are used of a sizes of 0.6x0.2x0.1 and 0.6x0.225x0.2, bricks size is 0.23x0.1x0.007 are used. These blocks and bricks are manufactured in a company and burnt in a kiln, some blocks and bricks are light in weight.
Work procedure for masonry Before use, ensure that the blocks are semi-dry. Blocks of successive courses should be laid so that vertical joints are staggered. The joints should be 5 to 10mm thick and should be uniform. The mortar used for block construction work should be in the proportion of 1:6. The blocks used for masonry work should have water absorption less than 10%. For a 100mm thick masonry work RCC bed is must for every three feet height and for opening in masonry work provide bed at sill level. When the masonry work of brick is complete, raking should be done with the help of wooden batten. In a days work, allow a mason to do the masonry work up to a height of 1meter only.
Block work and brick work
CHECKS DURING EXECUTION
13Is the blockwork checked in vertical and horizontal directions?[ ][ ][ ]
14Is the marker/ lowest course of hollow blocks filled with concrete 1:3:6 (12mm jelly)?[ ][ ][ ]
15Is the mortar in proportion 1:5 on MS sheet using farma box?[ ][ ][ ]
16Has the check for diagonals & dimensions been done?[ ][ ][ ]
17Has the thickness for joints been checked?[ ][ ][ ]
18Has raking and pointing of joints been done?[ ][ ][ ]
19Is the RCC band for 100mm walls done?[ ][ ][ ]
20Has the procedure of not constructing more than 5 courses a day been followed?[ ][ ][ ]
21Has the top course been packed below the concrete beam?[ ][ ][ ]
22Has the curing of blockwork done for atleast 7 days?[ ][ ][ ]
23Has care been taken of not entertaining excessive chasing?[ ][ ][ ]
24Has a nail been driven to test the strength of joint after 7 days of curing?[ ][ ][ ]
Checked by:Approved by:
4.8 PLUMBINGPlumbing is the system of pipes , drains ,fittings, valves and fixtures installed for distribution of potable water for drinking , heating and washing and waste removal. Plumbing also refers to the skilled trade which deals with installation and maintenance.
Dos and Donts for plumbing workRough finish (tile application/first coat)?
26>Smooth, even finish (textured coatings)?
27Is curing carried out for a min.of 10 days, with the date of plastering on wall with permanent marker
28Has lime been properly applied, if required?
29Has all mortar spillage been cleaned?
Checked by:Approved by:
4.9 OUR PERFORMANCE DURING ACCOMPLISHING WORK TASKS:
Absolutely good the reason behind this performance was I integrate with all workers within a short time and get involved in different site works to gain more knowledge about the working environment in the site and improve myself with more site works and office work. Since the site work is very repetitive I have been working in different section to get involved and pass through different peace of works. Especially the work tasks I have been performing in the office work were very impressive because I didnt have any knowledge about the quantity works, cost and report writing etc. In general in the last one month I perform all my duties nicely and get knowledge of the practical world and relate it with the theory I have learnt in the class. Also I transform myself to another level of skill, ethics, knowledge and leadership using this internship class and I perform it well.
Construction projects are complex and time-consuming undertakings that require the interaction and cooperation of many different persons to accomplish. The construction industry is typically divided into specialty areas, with each area requiring different skills, resources, and knowledge to participate effectively in it. In order to integrate and work closely in each section it is a challenging task to one person especially when he/she is fresh or beginner. In fact some challenges may be solved by me but some are above my limit and even the workers at the site also. In general I have faced the following challenges in the internship period. Communication problem with workers in the office and at the site. Shortage of working drawings like structural, architectural, sanitary, electrical and some other details. Weather condition of the site. Shortage of knowledge in some portion of the work at the site. Underestimation by workers such as engineers, Forman. Unsatisfactory answers for questions from engineers. Safety facility.
OVERALL BENEFITS OF THE INTERNSHIP Internship is a class healed at site to provide an enhanced understanding of the outside working environment before the student post graduate. Student like civil and environmental engineering and other fields also take this practice. The main aim of this practice (internship) is that to teach students communication with different workers or employees, to improve practical skill what they learned at class, up grading the theoretical knowledge in addition to the class, improve their leadership skill, team playing skill and etc. In my one month internship at the BHARAT PRIDE PARK PROJECT with N.R consultant I have acquire much knowledge in different tasks as explained below in different section. Those different knowledge gets me a good performance in the internship period and I gain an experience that helps me after the post-graduation in the upcoming working era of mine.
5.1. IMPROVING PRACTICAL SKILL The aim of the internship is to address more practical knowledge for student. So, I found a practical knowledge at the site as much possible within the one month. The knowledge we have learn in the class is helpful to get those practical or real work in the site and totally different from the actual knowledge gained from the class. Thus I found some knowledge in the site which helps me to work with the site environment or site peoples.
Some of the practical knowledge I gain from the internship class was: Construction of formwork for some reinforced concrete structure. In any construction work the first stage before casting of concrete is designing and constructing of form work. As I explained in the work procedure the formwork and false work must be stiff and must resist the fresh concrete till the concrete gain its strength. Thus the construction stage of form work was new to me since Im new for the practical world now I gain practical knowledge about how it is worked and erected. Bar bending, positioning, splicing and tying, according the specified drawing. After the formwork and false work is ready the bar bending, positioning and tying work goes next. This work is done based on the working drawing provided in the working drawings (structural drawing) by the design team of that specified structure. In most case it was new for me to see such work since it is a practical work only performed at the site. Surveying on building construction. We conduct the surveying class in the field for its lab session of the course in the normal class. But we dont know about how it is going to be in building construction in particular and in which particular stage of the construction work it used either the super structure or sub structure. Casting and pouring of reinforced concrete structure and equipment used for casting Concrete is a vital material in any construction of reinforced concrete and is the main constituent or ingredient of any reinforced concrete structure. Thus it is mandatory to know this material in practice including how it is treated, placed (poured), mixed and the equipment used for those work. I got the practical knowledge in terms of those listed aspects of concrete. Different construction equipment (machines) and their use in construction site. Many of great structures before are a product of numerous human power and countless days inspired by great powers. Machines are capable of handling tough work which may be beyond the scope of human labor to be performed. They can be expected to work with fair degree of effectiveness even under adverse weather, climate or topographical conditions. I generally know how equipments are used in the site including their specific purpose.
3.2. UPGRADING THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE The internship class is not only depending on the practical aspect but it also help students to upgrade or increase knowledge on already that they have. I try to integrate the practical knowledge with that of the theory learned in the class in different place in order to get more knowledge than the theory we learned on the class. I got the internship class very interesting in terms of upgrading a theoretical knowledge and I learned from the site some theories that we havent learn in the class room by searching different related literature.Some of this is: Quantity surveying Structural design of shear wall and its advantage Construction equipment Report writingI learned those things in exclusive cause it is hard to read and understand everything from books and asking some peoples at site to those things ashamed me. Generally I change myself a lit bit after the internship period in my knowledge than before I took it.
5.3 UPGRADING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLSCommunication is sharing or exchanging information or ideas with others in order to get some messages and knowledge. The communications systems within the building design and construction enterprise has taken on a large role in the achievement of profitability and efficiency. A basic understanding of communication systems is beneficial to all building professionals and trades, as they all play a part in the success of the construction. Construction is one of the places that ask a good communication skill either managing every trade of work or asking what is gowning on over there. So, communication is an important way of learning, which can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills and sharing what we know. Cool communication is important in the real constructions world and it can appear in different forms as speaking, writing, and listening. In the site the most things I gain is due to communication with other workers like engineers, skilled and non-skilled workers, Forman etc. in some place/case it is very difficult to talk workers and ask them what we want because of that they underestimate us and sometimes they are not eager to tell. But I improve and know how to communicate with different classes of workers in the site.
5.4. IMPROVING TEAM PLAYING SKILL Team playing skill for construction work Team works, especially for engineers, involve in every piece of task and achieving good team playing skill is essential for Effective completion of tasks and Increasing productivity. This skill already exists in my personality in the campus due to different assignment and project works that I work together with student. But this skill is more than this in the construction site. In the construction site the work is already a team work and it needs more closeness of workers to solve problems arise in different aspects, misunderstanding in the drawing or working methodology and consult every work. We the student at the site also works together as a team to get more understanding and share ideas. More or less I improve my team work status by working together with different professionals, student and workers as a whole in the civil engineering works and consulting.5.5. IMPROVING LEADERSHIP SKILL Leadership is the process of influencing individuals or groups to accomplish an organizational goal or mission. I have seen how each worker is controlled and organized to perform its day to day activities. Among all other managements I have seen that human resource management is the most important one. I have actually observed the method of controlling the working time and amount of work done by each worker so that the work proceeds according to the work plan (schedule).Leadership is a skill to guide, control and monitor peoples. For effective leadership I understood that personal values like confidence, effective communication and devotion are very important.
In order to be good Leadership the following criteria should be fulfilled.
Those are:- Be technically proficient (skilled with different knowledges). Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions. Make sound and timely decisions. Know your people and look out for their well-being. Keep your workers informed. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished. Use the full capabilities of your organization. Listening to others. Being organized. Able to communicate clearly and efficiently.
In the site it was impossible to us to lead anything because we go to the site to learn about the site work and we dont have enough ability to handle such works in such short time but we have learned how to become a good leader and the main signal of a good leader. Finally what I take hold of is Becoming a leader isnt easy because it takes a conscious commitment and consistent effort to develop ones leadership skills. But on the positive side, anyone who is willing to make the effort can become a good leader.
The internship is a bridge between the theoretical knowledge and the practical or the reality work at the field of construction or civil engineering work. We all who take the internship class go to companies that already working either as a consultant or a contractor. The responsibilities of the hosting company are to teach student and shape them in the one month as a real site workers. My hosting company and a consultant team they help me and my friends who took the internship session in this company in acquiring different knowledge in different positions. They collaborate with the contractors to teach us in that section and they believe that the civil engineering work is more important for us than the consulting office.
This program played an important role to break the conventional thought that field works can be only implemented by students who hold a degree or people who have an experience in building construction. We were able to acquire a high level of confidence to deal with problems that arise in a building construction.
Since I took my internship session in the project BHARAT PRIDE PARK.I get an opportunity to work in the different party of the construction work which helps me to gain more knowledge by seeing what they work in their own office and what is their main responsibilities to the client and also each other. Working with a consultant N.R team gets me more knowledge than that of the contractor in case that the consultation work includes the duty of the site engineers and in the consultant office .That are more important for me to upgrade my knowledge in different aspects of work. The consultant team by its nature includes designer team including structural engineers, architects, sanitary, electrical and mechanical engineers, the contract administration and supervision team includes site coordinators, supervisors and quantity workers and the financial office. This helps me to get more knowledge than the contractors.
From the design team especially from the structural designers I got some clues about how to design and the phases and different procedure in the designing of any structure starting from the roof to the footing. The architects also helps me to know every symbols used in any drawing and room orientations, how each room of the specified space can be together without being disturbed by one another. In the sanitary and electrical engineers also help us by teaching us about the riser diagram and installation of each junction in place for a building. They help me to understand what is going to be when I work in the consultant office. The contractors also avail practical knowledge for us to improve our practical knowledge status in the field. And also the contractors make us more familiar with site works starting from communication skill, handling of different site works equipment utilization manpower control to finishing of the work within the time scheduled by the client.
However, this internship program was not free from challenges. The most challenge was the amount of money allocated to the project was insufficient to handle all the expense of the students during the internship experience and shortage of resource for student like computer, class rooms for student only and any other problem exist. But they come up with the challenges and teach us how we must gown to be in the field after the graduation. Overall the internship program laid sound foundation for us to start our career. We are proud to be able to contribute towards nation building during the country's extremely critical period of the history. It will be definitely sensible to scale this practice up and to replicate in other disciplines as well.
SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF OUR RUNNING WORK
WING A AND WING B
THANK YOUBHARAT PRIDE PARKDEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MOHAMMED MOHSIN AND SYED GOUSEPAK 63PDACEG.