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Classification of Living Things - · PDF file...

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  • CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

  • CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE

    • Biochemical evidence breaks life into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya.

    • Bacteria/Archae (prokaryotic cells) are structurally simple with no nucleus nor membrane-bound organelles.

    • Eukarya (eukaryotic cells) have a membrane- bounded nucleus.

  • CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE

    • Archaea vary from regular bacteria; all Archaea live in water, cannot tolerate oxygen, and have ability to survive harsh temps, salts, and acids similar to what was found on the primitive earth.

    • The Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria are not yet characterized into kingdoms.

    • Eukarya contains four kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

  • KINGDOM PROTISTA

    • Heterotrophic or Autotrophic

    • Unicellular or Multicellular

    • Mostly aquatic

    • Mostly asexual

    • Motile or Nonmotile

    • Ex: Algae, Kelp, Slime Molds, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates,

  • KINGDOM FUNGI

    • Heterotrophic

    • Unicellular or Multicellular

    • Mostly terrestrial

    • Asexual or Sexual

    • Nonmotile

    • Important decomposers in the terrestrial environment

    • Ex: mushrooms, molds, yeasts, lichens

  • KINGDOM PLANTAE

    • Autotrophic

    • Multicellular

    • Mostly terrestrial

    • Asexual or Sexual

    • Nonmotile

    • Ex: trees, mosses, ferns, flowering plants, sea lettuce, seaweed

  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA

    • Heterotrophic

    • Multicellular

    • Terrestrial and Aquatic

    • Sexual (few asexual)

    • Motile (few nonmotile)

    • Invertebrate (no internal skeleton) 8 Phyla

    • Vertebrate (internal skeleton made of bone/cartilage) 1 Phylum

  • Label and color the following diagram in your booklet.

  • Marine Biology Classification Activity

    With the people at your table, try and group the following organisms with the appropriate phylum based on your previous knowledge on the white board. Look for common features and characteristics to help you group them correctly.

    Once everyone is finished, we will fill out the

    “Characteristics of Different Phyla” section. After each section of phylum, we will discuss the answers and what you should write down on the example line.

    You will draw, color, and label examples of organisms for

    each phylum in the box provided.

  • PORIFERA – INVERTEBRATE

    • These animals are asymmetrical that live attached to rocks.

    • They are filter feeders by means of flagellated cells.

    • Filter feeders pump in water so that they can obtain their food from what is in the water.

    • In some cases, the exit door or osculum can been seen with the naked eye.

    • Examples?

  • PORIFERA – INVERTEBRATE Ex: Sponges

  • CNIDARIA– INVERTEBRATE

    • Cnidarians have medusa and polyp cycles.

    • The medusa cycle is free swimming such as a jellyfish.

    • The polyp cycle is stationary such as an anemone.

    • They have radial symmetry with stinging cells called nematocysts on tentacles that surround a single mouth opening.

    • Examples?

  • CNIDARIA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: Jellyfish, hydroid, anemones and coral.

  • PLATYHELMINTHES– INVERTEBRATE

    • They are unsegmented worms that are flattened dorso-ventrally (top and bottom).

    • They move by contracting muscles down its body (ungulates).

    • They have bilateral symmetry with two eyespots, that are sometimes visible.

    • Examples?

  • PLATYHELMINTHES– INVERTEBRATE Ex: Flat worms (Mexican skirt dancer).

  • NEMATODA– INVERTEBRATE

    • They are unsegmented round worms with bilateral symmetry.

    • Most of these worms are benthic and parasitic.

    • Examples?

  • NEMATODA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: Horse hair worms.

  • ANNELIDA– INVERTEBRATE

    • They are segmented worms with bilateral symmetry.

    • Each of their segments have a pair of parapodia for movement, which are usually visible to the naked eye.

    • Examples?

  • ANNELIDA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: Fire worms and tube worms.

  • ARTHROPODA– INVERTEBRATE

    • These animals have bilateral symmetry and segmented bodies.

    • They also have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton made of chiton that is shed (molted) as they grow.

    • They have compound eyes, in which usually sit on stalks, such as a crab's eyes.

    • Examples?

  • ARTHROPODA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: horseshoe crab, crabs, shrimp, barnacles, lobsters

  • MOLLUSCA– INVERTEBRATE

    • Mollusks have bilateral symmetry and a mantle.

    • In snails, chitons, and bivalves, the mantle secretes their shell.

    • In a squid, the mantle secretes a pen. They also have a muscular foot to help with movement.

    • Cephalopods (octopus and squid) lack a shell and the foot has been modified into arms and tentacles.

    • They also have a radula which is a feeding structure, much like a rough tongue.

    • Examples?

  • MOLLUSCA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: squid, clams, oysters, octopus, chiton, scallop

  • ECHINODERMATA– INVERTEBRATE

    • Echinoderms, which means spiny skin, have a calcarious exoskeleton with a water vascular system.

    • A water vascular system is a network of water-filled canals that are used in locomotion and food- gathering.

    • They have penta-radial symmetry. They move by their tube feet. They have capabilities of regeneration.

    • Examples?

  • ECHINODERMATA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: sea urchins, brittle stars, sea stars sand dollars, sea cucumbers

  • CHORDATA– INVERTEBRATE

    • Their characteristics are a notochord, hollow dorsal nerve chord, pharayngeal gill slits.

    • Vertebrate chordates have a backbone.

    • There are some chordates that do not have a backbone such as a tunicate.

    • Examples?

  • CHORDATA– INVERTEBRATE Ex: fish, shark, sea gull, turtle, walrus, dolphin, whale

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