GROUP MEMBERS COURSE CODE: AE 301 COURSE NAME: C0MMUNICATIVE ENGLISH 2 TOPIC OF PRESENTATION : PROCESS AND PROCEDURES LECTURERS NAME : MADAM TING LEE FAH PR0GRAMME : DKM3 S4 COMPANY NAME : COPOT H0LDINGS GROUP MEMBERS : 1. MUHAMMAD KHAFIZ B. RAHIM AZHAR 06DKM12F1130 2. SUHAIMI B. ISMAIL 06DKM12F1158 3. MUHAMMAD NAFI B. J0HARI 06DKM12F1160 4. M0HAMAD HENDRI B. HARIS 06DKM12F1164
OBJECTIVEProvide the students with the skill to transfer information from linear to non linear form.Exposed to the grammatical structures used in describing proceses and procedures for produce product that related with mechanical engineering manufacturing and to present the description in oral.
INTRODUCTION ABOUT CLAW HAMMERIs atoolused for poundingnailsinto, or extracting nails from, some other object. Generally, claw hammer associated withwoodworkingbut not limited to use with wood products. Not suitable for heavy hammering on metal surfaces (such as in machining work), as the steel of its head brittle, ball-peen hammermore suitable for metalwork.Hammer heads are made of high carbon, heat-treated steel for strength and durability. The heat treatment helps prevent chipping or cracking caused by repeated blows against other metal objects.The handles may be made from wood, steel, or a composite material. Wood handles are usually made of straight-grained ash or hickory.The manufacturing process varies from one company to another depending on the company's production capacity and proprietary methods.
16th century claw hammer (1514)Standard claw hammerhttp://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Hammer.html#b#ixzz2eMG8j1Rq
1.HOT FORGINGThe head is made by a process called hot forging. The steel bar is heated to about 2,200 -2,350 F (1,200-1,300 C). Done with electrical induction coil constant heating.
2. BLANKSThe hot bar may then be cut into shorter lengths, called blanks, or it may be fed continuously into a hot forge. The bar or blanks are positioned between two formed cavities, called dies, within the forge. One die is held in a fixed position, and the other is attached to a movable ram. The ram forces the two dies together under great pressure, squeezing the hot steel into the shape of the two cavities. This process is repeated several times using different shaped dies to gradually form the hammer head. The forging process aligns the internal grain structure of the steel and provides much stronger and more durable piece.
3. FORM FLASHDuring this process, some of the hot steel squeezes out around the edges of the die cavities to form flash, which must be removed. As a final step the head is placed between two trimming dies, which are forced together to cut off any protruding flash. The head is then cooled, and any rough spots are ground smooth.Example figure, not actual design
4. HEAT TREATEMENTIn order to prevent chipping and cracking of the hammer head in service, the face and claws are heat treated to harden them. This is done by heating those areas, either with a flame or an induction coil, and then quickly cooling them. This causes the steel near the surface to form a different grain structure that is much harder than the rest of the head.
5. SHOT BLASTINGThe heads are cleaned with a stream of air containing small steel particles and called shot blasting. The pieces are fed by a metallic belt conveyor. These machines can treat very fragile pieces because during the shotblasting process, the parts being shot blasted do not touch one another.The body may then be painted.
Belt conveyerBody painted
6. POLISHINGThe face, poll, claws, and cheeks are polished smooth. This removes the paint in those areas. As part of this operation, the v-shaped slot in the claws is smoothed using an abrasive disc.facepollcheekclawabbrasive disc
7. FORMINGA piece of wood is cut to the desired length and secured at each end in the lathe. As the wood spins around the long axis of the handle, a cutting tool moves in and out rapidly to cut the handle profile. The position of the cutting tool is driven by a cam (turning process by tracer) that has the same shape as the finished handle. As the cutting tool moves down the length of the handle, it follows the shape of the cam and cuts the handle to match it. The finished handle is clamped in a holding device and a slot is cut diagonally across the top of the handle. The handle is then sanded to give it a smooth surface.
8. ASSEMBLING The wood wedge is tapped down into the diagonal slot on the top of the handle to force the two halves outward to press against the head. This provides sufficient friction to hold the head on the handle. The wood wedge is secured in place with two smaller steel wedges driven through it crossways. The handle may then be stenciled with ink or labeled with an adhesive sticker to show the manufacturer, brand name, or other information.
9. QUALITY CONTROLThe normal visual inspections and dimensional measurements, various steps in the manufacturing process are monitored. The most important step is the heat treatment used to harden portions of the head. The temperatures and rate of heating and cooling are critical in forming the proper hardness, and the entire operation is closely controlled.
SUMMARIZEThe hammer will disappeared from civilization's toolbox anytime soonThe most formidable competitor is the gas-driven nail gun. This device used a compressed gas, usually air, to drive a nail into wood with a single shot.Although nail guns are heavier and more expensive than hammers, they are also significantly faster. This is especially true in repetitive nailing operations such as installing floor or roof sheathing for new home construction. Nail guns are also favored in areas where noise is a concern. Because a nail gun can drive a nail in a single shot, it produces much less over-all noise than the five or six hammer blows it takes to drive a nail.
ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGESLOW COSTS PRODUCTIONPRODUCING TIME TOO LONGEASY TO BRING AND USINGINSTALLING JOB SLOWER THAN GAS DRIVEN NAIL GUN
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