Home > Documents > CO 2 Sequestration

CO 2 Sequestration

Date post: 25-Jan-2016
Author: satya
View: 28 times
Download: 5 times
Share this document with a friend
CO 2 Sequestration. Dave Hill. Overview. Class I wells - Hazardous wastes and non-hazardous industrial or municipal wastes are injected beneath the lowermost underground source of drinking water (USDW). Class II wells (second half of this talk) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Embed Size (px)
Popular Tags:
of 37 /37

PowerPoint Presentation

CO2 Sequestration Dave Hill1RAILROAD COMMISSION OF TEXASOverview2Class I wells - Hazardous wastes and non-hazardous industrial or municipal wastes are injected beneath the lowermost underground source of drinking water (USDW).

Class II wells (second half of this talk)- Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) injection and disposal of oil and gas wastes.

Class III wells - Associated with solution mining.

Federal Overview3Class IV wells - Shallow injection of treated hazardous wastes and are banned except when used as part of authorized groundwater remediation projects. Class V wells - Shallow injection of non-hazardous fluids not covered by Class I wells, and experimental wells.

Class VI wells - Recently created by EPA, are associated with CO2 capture and storage (CCS) activities.

The Various Means of CCS


Senate Bill 1387 (SB 1387), 2009SB1387: In 2009, the Texas Legislature passed, and the governor signed a bill, relating to the capture, injection, sequestration, or geologic storage of carbon dioxide. -Response to draft of federal Class VI rules -Underground Injection Control (UIC) part of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). 5

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide6SB 1387 in large measure deals with anthropogenic CO2 which is carbon dioxide that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere. - Includes CO2 from gas processing plant or an industrial emissions source. - Excludes naturally occurring CO2 recaptured, recycled, or reinjected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations.

16 TAC Chapter 5: RRC CO2 CCS REGS Site characterization AOR and corrective action Well construction/Plugging Mechanical integrity/Monitoring Emergency response Financial Security Post-injection facility care 7

Plans Required 5.203 (f): Logging and Sampling Before Injection 5.203 (h) Mechanical Integrity Testing 5.203 (i) Facility operating plan. 5.203 (j) Monitoring after Initiating Operations 5.203 (k) P & A of Injection & Monitoring Wells. 5.203 (l) Emergency and Remedial response. 5.203 (m) Post Injection Care and Closure


Notice and Hearing95.204 includes notice and hearing requirements. - Notice by local publication - Local and public placement of a copy of the application- Criteria for persons to be notified- Requirements for a hearing.

Fees, Financial Responsibility, and Financial Assurance105.205 includes description of Fees, Financial Responsibility, and Financial Assurance requirements. - Fees to be paid for applications- Financial responsibility verification- Financial assurance criteria regarding operations and phases of the facility.

Permit Standards115.206 states RRC may issue a permit if:No endangerment/injury to oil, gas, other minerals,Water protected from CO2 migration or displaced fluids,No endangerment/injury to human health/safety,Reservoir suitable for preventing CO2 escape/migration,Applicant meets statutory and regulatory requirements.

Permit Standards125.206 also includes

Implementation of plans (previously listed)

Requirement of a Letter from RRC Groundwater Advisory Unit stating that the facility will not injure USDWs.

Reporting and Record Keeping135.207 includes reporting and record keeping requirements. - Test records - Operating reports - Reporting frequency depends on the type of information reported. This ranges from 24 hours to annual reporting

Chapter 5: NEWEST REGULATIONSAssociated with EOR/EGR 14PURPOSE: Provide for certification of CCS of CO2 incidental to enhanced recovery operations for which: there is a reasonable expectation of more than insignificant future production volumes or rates as a result of the injection of anthropogenic CO2 ; and operating pressures no higher than reasonably necessary for enhanced recovery

Chapter 5: NEWEST REGULATIONSAssociated with EOR/EGR Registration for Certification Requires registration of enhanced recovery facility for which the operator proposes to document CCS of anthropogenic CO2 incidental to enhanced recovery


Chapter 5: NEWEST REGULATIONSAssociated with EOR/EGR 16Monitoring, Sampling and Testing Plan:

This is required for determination of the quantities of anthropogenic CO2 permanently stored within the enhanced recovery reservoir. For this, there are two options.

5.305 (2) is one of them. This includes mass balancing or actual system modeling

Chapter 5: NEWEST REGULATIONSAssociated with EOR/EGR 17Monitoring, Sampling and Testing Plan:

5.305 (3) is the other option. The owner / operator may submit to RRC, a copy of the same information submitted to EPA under Subparts RR or UU of 40 CFR Part 98, Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide.

Overview (Revisited)18Class I wells - Hazardous wastes and non-hazardous industrial or municipal wastes are injected beneath the lowermost underground source of drinking water (USDW).

Class II wells - Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) injection and disposal of oil and gas wastes.

Class III wells - Associated with solution mining.

Sources of CO2 and Users 19

CO2 EOR Sources20

SACROC Eastern Edge of Permian Basin21

Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) unitized oil field Ongoing CO2 injection since 1972 Combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) with CO2 sequestration Depth to Pennsylvanian- Permian reservoir ~6,500 ft Approximately 3900 miles of CO2 pipelines (Dooley et al)

SACROC Well Map22

SACROC Previous CO2 Injection23

KM currently operates SACROC and is providing much assistance with the project 3 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) or 150 million metric tons (MMt) CO2 injected for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) since 1972 by multiple field operators (BEG, 1984; KM, 2008) 1.5 TCF (75 MMt) CO2 recovered as of October 1, 2008 (KM, 2008) Southwest Partnership (SWP) researchers are among first to test if this CO2 is trapped in reservoir zones or if it has leaked into overlying strata

BEG and TWDB Water Well Data at SACROC24

Surface geology from BEG Big Spring and Lubbock GAT sheetsGeologic unitsQ Quaternary undifferentiated

P-Eog Paleocene-Eocene Ogallala

TrD Triassic Dockum

P Permian undifferentiated

Cross Section 25

(modified from Duffin and Benyon, 1992)

Rebecca C. Smyth, Bureau of Economic Geology, Gulf Coast Carbon Center, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austinand Brian McPherson, New Mexico Tech and University of Utah

26Temporal Trends of all TWDB & BEG Data

27Temporal Trends of all TWDB & BEG Data

SACROC AREA WATER QUALITY 2836 of 60 wells completed in both Ogallala and Dockum Santa Rosa water- bearing units; 17 wells inside and 19 wells outside SACROC; highest data

Historic CO2 Sales29

Current Situation CO2 EOR Projects30

Current Situation CO2 EOR Production31

32Injection/Disposal Well Permit Testing and Monitoring Seminar Manual http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/forms/publications/HTML/pmt-outl.php#techrev

- I. Administrative Review Check non-technical filing requirements- II. Attachments for new wells - III. Transfer and Amendments - IV. Technical Review Compliance with well construction, operation, and injected fluid confinement requirements - V. Permit Processing Stages of review- VI. Protested Applications Stages for protested applications- VII. Post Permitting Report requirements after the injection permit is issued.

33Administrative Review Basic Filing requirements 1. Application Forms. * Forms H-1 , and H-1A. (Injection into a Reservoir Productive of Oil or Gas, Rule 46).

- A productive reservoir is one with past or current production within a 2-mile radius of the proposed injection well.

* Form W-14 , (Injection Non-productive reservoir, Rule 9).

2. Fees. These fees are non-refundable. a. $100 disposal permit application (Rule 9) filing fee (per wellbore). b. $500 injection permit application (Rule 46) filing fee (per wellbore). c. $375 (additional) for each exception request.

34Post PermittingAnnual Monitoring Report (Form H-10): - Report Injection pressure and volumes unless the well is actively producing and they file an annual production status report (Form W-10 or G-10) instead. Mechanical integrity test (MIT) (Form H-5): - Verify that the well wont leak before injection. MITs must be performed periodically for the life of the permit. Completion report (Form W-2 or G-1): - Within 30 days of conversion, document the actual completion details of the well. Staff will review form against the approved permit.

Facilities and Water WellsYearDrilling PermitsActive WellsInjection WellsWater Well Complaints*200416,912242,00030,90044200519,548246,00031,30038200622,328249,00030,60061200723,916250,00030,60042200828,786263,00030,60048200915,917274,00030,80047201022,535281,00031,40043201128,300281,00031,50083201227,359284,00033,00017201326,129288,00033,5003835* The majority of these complaints are drought related. Many others involve one time sampling events for oil and gas constituents, where lab data show no impact. About two wells per year are confirmed to be attributable to Oil & Gas activities.

The End 36

Contact Info37http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/

[email protected] 512 463 3011


Permian BasinRockiesMS/Gulf CoastDakota GasificationOtherYearCO2 Sales (MMcfpd)Average Daily CO2 Sales - North America

Table 1TABLE 1-NATURAL SOURCES OF CO2 IN THE UNITED STATESFormation NameStateDiscover YearDepth of Producing Zone, ftCO2 Purity vol %Other SpeciesOperatorOriginal CO2 in Place, TcfCum. CO2 Prodn Thru 2010, TcfCurrent CO2 Reserve, TcfProduction Rate, MMscf/DMetric Ton Basis200020102015Current CO2 Reserves (Mt)Production Rate, Mt/a in 2015In ProductionMcElmo DomeCO19448,00098%N2Kinder Morgan, ExxonMobil307.2108401,1501,23053024Jackson DomeMS~196016,00070-99%H2SDenbury1.811559301,30059425Bravo DomeNM19162,30099%N2KM, Occidental, Amerada H.302.983502902604245.0Sheep MountainCO19713,500-6,00097%N2, CH4Occidental151.3Nearly depleted70503000.6Doe Canyon DeepCO9,000Kinder Morgan1.50.090.75110170403.3Under DevelopmentSt. John'sNM19941,60095%He 0.75%Kinder Morgan168.2435Kevin DomeMO~19604,00093%N2, CH4, HeVecta Oil & Gas60.737Escalante AnticlineUT196093-99%1.053Gordon CreekUT194711,000-13,00099% +N2, CH4Thunderbird Energy1.41.580Totals13411,3152,5302,9902,19258

Table 2TABLE 2-NATURAL-GAS-PROCESSING FACILITIES WITH CO2 CAPTUREFacility Name (Owner)OwnerCapture LocationYear OnlineCO2 Conc. In Source GasStandard Cubic Feet BasisMetric Ton BasisCO2 Reserve Estimate, TcfProduction Rate (MMscf/D)CO2 Reserve Estimate, Mt CO2Production Rate in 2015, Mt CO2/a200020102015LaBargeExxon MobilWY196365%100233300*3605,3007.0Century PlantOxy/ SandridgePecos County, TX201165%3.5004501868.7Terrell, Grey Ranch, Mitchell, and PuckettSandridge Energy Inc.Terrell and Pecos Counties, TX19987575751.5Lost CabinConoco PhillipsFremont County, Wy199520%0501.0Riley RidgeDenburyWY201265%2.400130**1302.5Turtle LakeDTE EnergyOstego, MI11110.2Total105.93083861,0765,61320.8* Expansion implemented during 2010, full capture capacity not realized** Full project plans for the Riley Ridge facility are for 580-630 MMscf/D of CO2 production, not predicted to be completed by 2015

Table 3TABLE 3-HYDROCARBON-CONVERSION FACILITIES WITH CO2 CAPTUREFacility CharacteristicsCO2 Capture RatesPrimary ProductOwnerCapture LocationStatusYear OnlineStandard ft3 (MMscf/D)Metric Tons (Mt CO2/a)2000201020152015FertilizerAgrium, Inc.Borger, TXOperation19802626260.5FertilizerKoch NitrogenEnid, OklahomaOperation20033535350.68EthanolConestogaLiberal, KSOperation20104150.29EthanolBonanza EnergyGarden City, KSOperation201180.15FertilizerCVR EnergyCoffeyville, KSConstruction2013400.8HydrogenAir Products*Port Arthur, TXConstruction2013521PowerMississippi Power*Kemper County, MSPlanning20141412.7Power/UreaSummit Texas Clean Energy*Ector County, TXConstruction20141172.3*MethanolLeucadia Energy*Lake Charles, LAPlanning20142084PowerNRG*Thompson, TXPlanning2015721.4Total616571413.8*Some portion of the captured CO2 is utilized to manufacture urea. Shown is the amount supplied to EOR.

CO2 New SupplyCO2 Source ProspectsDOE RoleSink LocationProjectStatusOnline dateIncremental CO2Rate (MMcfpd)Total% inc.NRockiesLost Cabin and GreenCore Pipeline (WY/MT)Capture and PL under Construction201350395-975120% - 280%Loan GuaranteeDKRW Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal to Liquids (WY)In Financing2016100 initially (Phase II conditional but would add 100)NLinc Energy UCG (WY)Planning?115NCarbon Energy (WY)Planning??NRiley Ridge (WY)Plant w/o CO2 Capture Currently Under Construction2016130 initially, phasing up to 600NPermian BasinCentury Plant (Ph 1&2) (TX)Ph 1 Complete, 2 under Construction2012/13100107560%Funding AwardTexas Clean Energy Project (TX)Air Permit Approved, Near Closing.2016125NTenaska Trailblazer Project (TX)Air Permit Approved, In Adv. Development?300NSt. Johns Dome (NM)Under Study?350NMcElmo Dome (CO)Upgrade AFE'd2014?100NDoe Canyon (CO)Upgrade AFE'd2014?100NGulf CoastFaustina Petroleum Coke Gasification Project (LA)Under Study100-225>1600-1855160% - 185%Funding AwardAir Products Port Arthur Hydrogen Generation Plant (TX)Nearing Completion201350Funding AwardNRG WA Parish Plant (Richmond, TX)Post Combustion Capture (status uncertain)201575Funding AwardSouthern Company's Kemper County Capture Project (MS)Under Construction2014115NIndiana Gasification, LLC (IA)Permitting?240NRentech Fertilizer (Natchez, MS)Planning?350-400NCash Creek IGCC (KY)Planning, Permitted?190-210NPower Holdings of Illinois (IL)Planning?250-300Funding AwardLeucadia Pet. Coke to Methanol Plant (LA)Permitted2014240Funding AwardMidContinentCVR Coffeyville Gasification Project (KS)Capture Under Construction20135050100%Funding AwardCaliforniaHydrogen Energy California (CA)Permitting2015-2018100100NACanadaAlberta CO2 Trunkline Project -ACTL (AB, Ca)Capture facility under construction201390 initially (ultimate capacity ~750)200NASaskPower Boundary Dam Post-comb. Project (SK,Ca)Under construction2014-201550NAShell Quest Project (AB, Ca.)Construction underway201560 (currently for storage , but potential for EOR)Total Incremental CO2=3420-4255DOE Supported

Total SupplySupply TypeOperator/OwnerProject NameLocationProduct20002004200620102012201320142015201620172018201920202021RegionYearCO2 for EORRockiesPermian BasinMS/Gulf CoastOtherNatural Sources (>90% CO2)Kinder Morgan, ExxonMobilMcElmo DomeCOCO28408408401,1501,1501,1501,1501,2501,2501,2501,2501,2501,2501,250Permian1980DenburyJackson DomeMSCO25555559309309309301,3001,3001,3001,3001,3001,3001,300MS/GC1981KM, Occidental, Amerada H.Bravo DomeNMCO2350350350290290290290260260260260260260260Permian1982OccidentalSheep MountainCOCO27070705050505030303030303030Permian1983Kinder MorganDoe Canyon DeepCOCO2110110110110210210210210210210210Permian1984Kinder MorganSt. John'sNMCO2350?350?350?350?Permian1985Vecta Oil & GasKevin DomeMOCO21986Escalante AnticlineUTCO21987Thunderbird EnergyGordon CreekUTCO21988Natural Gas Processing SourcesExxon MobilLaBargeWYNG240240240240340340340340340340340340340340Rockies1989Oxy/ SandridgeCentury PlantPecos County, TXNG0000000450450450450450450450Permian1990Sandridge Energy Inc.Terrell, Grey Ranch, Mitchell, and PuckettTerrell and Pecos Counties, TXNG7575757575757575757575757575Permian1991Conoco PhillipsLost CabinFremont County, WyNG00505050505050505050Rockies1992DenburyRiley RidgeWYNG00000000130224318412506600Rockies1993DTE EnergyTurtle LakeOstego, MING1111111111111111111111Other1994Hydrocarbon ConversionAgrium, Inc.Borger, TXFertilizer2626262626262626262626262626OtherPanhandle19801995Koch NitrogenEnid, OklahomaFertilizer35353535353535353535353535Other20031996ConestogaLiberal, KSEthanol4415151515151515151515Other20101997Bonanza EnergyGarden City, KSEthanol8888888888Other20111998CVR EnergyCoffeyville, KSFertilizer505050505050505050Other20131999CO2 for EORRockiesPermian BasinMS/Gulf CoastOtherTotal testtAir Products*Port Arthur, TXHydrogen100100100100100100100100100MS/GC201320001,8062401260552511806Mississippi Power*Kemper County, MSPower141141141141141141141141MS/GC201420011,8062401,260552511806Summit Texas Clean Energy*Ector County, TXPower/Urea125125125125125125125125Permian201420021,8062401,260552511806Leucadia Energy*Lake Charles, LAMethanol100100100100100100100100MS/GC201420031,8062401,260552511806NRG*Thompson, TXPower50505050505050201520041,8402401260552861841DKRWMedicine Bow Fuel & Power (Phase I)Hannah, WYCTL0100100100100100100Rockies20051,8402401,260552861841Linc EnergyPRB, WYUCG115115115115115115Rockies20062,1602401260553001855Carbon EnergyGRB, WYUCG505050505050Rockies20072,1602401,260553001855TenaskaTrailblazerPermian Basin, TX??250Permian20082,1602401,260553001855FaustinaPetroleum Coke GasificationGulf Coast??MS/GC20092,1602401,26055300185520103,0812401600930311308120113,0812401,6001,0093113160Hydrogen Energy CaliforniaHydrogen Energy CaliforniaCA100100100100100Other20123,20034016001,0093303279Dakota Gasification CompanyNorth Dakota GasificationND150150160160160160160160160160160160160160Other20133,40039016001,0094803479SARGAS??20143,76639016001,0096053604Indiana GasificationIndiana GasificationIA275275275275275Other20154,7863901750154111054786Total1,8061,8402,1603,0813,2003,4003,7664,7865,4315,6505,7445,8385,9326,02620165,4317851750154111055181Rockies24024024024034039039039078587997310671161125520175,6508791750154114805650Permian Nasin1260126012601600160016001600175017501750175017501750175020185,7449731750154114805744MS/Gulf Coast5555559309309301171154115411541154115411541154120195,83810671750154114805838Other251286300311330480605110511051480148014801480148020205,93211611750154114805932TEST1806184118553081320034003766478651815650574458385932602620216,02612551750154114806026

Total Supply

Permian BasinRockiesMS/Gulf CoastOtherYearCO2 Supply for EOR (MMcfpd)Nth American CO2 supply for EOR

SalesYearRockiesPermian BasinMS/Gulf CoastDakota GasificationOtherTotalAccording to Melzer et alDakota GasificationAgriumKochConestogaTurtle LakeTerrell, Grey Ranch, Mitchell, and PuckettWTI Price (2011$)198301000261262619840300026326261985090002692626198601210302612662631.01036489881987151122040261436.54862191782638.3452890111988118124050261434.329808219214002630.73519601161989186120075261486.740876712314502636.00858755761990216120090261531.948958904115002642.55886011231991192124090261547.911945205514252635.80080402911992134120050261409.670082191813502633.21774685971993115120050261390.595342465812752628.9623108173199479130050261455.492876712312002626.2704652846199560124550261381.233413698612502627.4185632763199654125550261385.42389041113002631.957631558199777129050261442.565035616413502629.06155324141998100131050261486.202545205514002620.055136422199963126050261398.7379260274140026117526.1511104077200090126555150261585.8788465753140015026117539.90175719632001651270100150611645.731706849313751502635117533.18025966312002651200104150611579.622282191813501502635117532.85323268952003841210170150611674.603306849314251502635117538.294485507920041631300218150611892.466657534215001502635117549.716562956120051981375242150612026.085841095918501502635117565.572831745820061391350342150612042.092852054822001502635117574.163055714620071981350493150612251.627712328824501502635117579.078537781920082071400637150612454.6622821918270015026351175104.567317715920092181700683150612811.708046575330001502635117564.964503795520102281720852150653015.064882191815026354117582.3199692724201123219001009150653355.673364383615026354117595.6823711916


Permian BasinRockiesMS/Gulf CoastDakota GasificationOtherYearCO2 Sales (MMcfpd)Average Daily CO2 Sales - Nth America

Permian BasinRockiesMS/Gulf CoastDakota GasificationOtherWTI Price (2011$)YearCO2 Sales (MMcfpd)Oil price 2011$)Average Daily CO2 Sales - Nth America