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Comp685B Computer Music

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Comp685B Computer Music. Recommended Books:. Computer Music by Charles Dodge & T. Jerse, Schirmer Books, 2nd Edition, 1997. The Computer Music Tutorial by Curtis Roads - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Page 1: Comp685B Computer Music

Comp685BComp685BComputer MusicComputer Music

Page 2: Comp685B Computer Music

Recommended Books:Recommended Books:Recommended Books:Recommended Books:• Computer MusicComputer Music by Charles Dodge & T. Jerse, by Charles Dodge & T. Jerse,

Schirmer Books, 2nd Edition, 1997. Schirmer Books, 2nd Edition, 1997.

• The Computer Music TutorialThe Computer Music Tutorial by Curtis Roads by Curtis Roads• Cooking with Cooking with Csound Part 1: Woodwind and Brass Csound Part 1: Woodwind and Brass

RecipesRecipes by Andrew Horner and Lydia Ayers, A-R by Andrew Horner and Lydia Ayers, A-R Editions, 2002Editions, 2002

Page 3: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer MusicComputer Music

An interdisciplinary field includingAn interdisciplinary field including– Music Music – Computer ScienceComputer Science– Electrical Engineering (signal processing)Electrical Engineering (signal processing)– Physics (musical acoustics)Physics (musical acoustics)– Psychology (psychoacoustics, music Psychology (psychoacoustics, music

perception)perception)

Page 4: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music AreasComputer Music Areas(possible Projects & Presentations)(possible Projects & Presentations)

Signal ProcessingSignal Processing– Sound Analysis and ResynthesisSound Analysis and Resynthesis– Physical Modeling of Musical InstrumentsPhysical Modeling of Musical Instruments– Musical EffectsMusical Effects– 3D Spatialization3D Spatialization– Audio Coding and CompressionAudio Coding and Compression– Audio Signal SeparationAudio Signal Separation– Music Signal Pitch DetectionMusic Signal Pitch Detection

AIAI– Machine Recognition of Audio and MusicMachine Recognition of Audio and Music– Musical Instrument RecognitionMusical Instrument Recognition– Music Perception and CognitionMusic Perception and Cognition– PsychoacousticsPsychoacoustics– AI and MusicAI and Music

Page 5: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music Areas Computer Music Areas (possible Projects & Presentations)(possible Projects & Presentations)

SoftwareSoftware– Music VisualizationMusic Visualization– Music Composition Systems and ToolsMusic Composition Systems and Tools– Music Programming LanguagesMusic Programming Languages– Algorithmic CompositionAlgorithmic Composition– Music Notation and PrintingMusic Notation and Printing– Music on the InternetMusic on the Internet– Music in Computer GamesMusic in Computer Games– Sound Effects in Computer GamesSound Effects in Computer Games– Computer Music and Digital ArtComputer Music and Digital Art

DatabaseDatabase– Music Information RetrievalMusic Information Retrieval– Musical InformaticsMusical Informatics– Music DatabasesMusic Databases

Page 6: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music Areas Computer Music Areas (possible Projects & Presentations)(possible Projects & Presentations)

Computer EngineeringComputer Engineering– Audio HardwareAudio Hardware– Music Performance Interfaces (new musical Music Performance Interfaces (new musical

instruments)instruments)– Interactive Performance SystemsInteractive Performance Systems– Real Time Performance SystemsReal Time Performance Systems– Music WorkstationsMusic Workstations– SoundcardsSoundcards– Music SynthesizersMusic Synthesizers– Music and Audio on Mobile PhonesMusic and Audio on Mobile Phones– Wireless Audio SystemsWireless Audio Systems– Music NetworksMusic Networks– MIDIMIDI

Page 7: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music Areas Computer Music Areas (possible Projects & Presentations)(possible Projects & Presentations)

Theory/ScienceTheory/Science– Music Data Structures and RepresentationMusic Data Structures and Representation– Musical Tuning and IntonationMusical Tuning and Intonation– Music GrammarsMusic Grammars– Musical AcousticsMusical Acoustics– Acoustics of Musical Instruments and the Acoustics of Musical Instruments and the

VoiceVoice

You are welcome to propose your own You are welcome to propose your own topic that includes music and technologytopic that includes music and technology

Page 8: Comp685B Computer Music

Who Makes Computer Music?Who Makes Computer Music?The 4-person model for computer music:The 4-person model for computer music:

1.RESEARCHER/PROGRAMMER

COMPUTER

2.COMPOSER

4.LISTENER

SCORE

MUSIC3.PERFORMER

Page 9: Comp685B Computer Music

Brief Overview of Computer Brief Overview of Computer Music HistoryMusic History

Page 10: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

Pre-historyPre-history– Harmonium (1900)Harmonium (1900)– Electric organElectric organ– Musak (background music in shops)Musak (background music in shops)

1930’s1930’s– Ondes MartenotOndes Martenot– ThereminTheremin

Page 11: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

Ondes MartenotOndes Martenot– An early electroacoustic instrument An early electroacoustic instrument

developed by Maurice Martenot developed by Maurice Martenot – Includes:Includes:

2 oscillators2 oscillators

3 loudspeakers3 loudspeakers

An oscillating Chinese gongAn oscillating Chinese gong

A spring reverb unit and sympathetic strings)A spring reverb unit and sympathetic strings)

A small keyboard which provides vibrato and a A small keyboard which provides vibrato and a wide range of sliding tones.wide range of sliding tones.

– [6][6] Example: Olivier Messaien, Example: Olivier Messaien, OraisonOraison (1937)(1937)

Page 12: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

<C:2><C:2> ThereminTheremin

• Real-time instrumentReal-time instrument

• Radio antennas used to control pitch Radio antennas used to control pitch and amplitude and amplitude

• Difficult to control, but sounded voice-Difficult to control, but sounded voice-like in the hands of an expertlike in the hands of an expert

Page 13: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

1940’s WWII 1940’s WWII – Tape recorderTape recorder– ComputersComputers– RadioRadio

1950’s 1950’s – RCA SynthesizerRCA Synthesizer– Speech processingSpeech processing

Bell Labs Bell Labs LPCLPC

Page 14: Comp685B Computer Music

<C:1><C:1> Soundtrack to Soundtrack to Forbidden PlanetForbidden Planetby Louis and Bebe Barronby Louis and Bebe Barron

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music HistoryComputer Music HistoryComputer Music History

Page 15: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

1960’s Analog Synthesizers1960’s Analog Synthesizers– Arp 2500 & 2600Arp 2500 & 2600– Famous pop musicians started using synthesizersFamous pop musicians started using synthesizers

WhoWhoEmerson, Lake, Power - ELPEmerson, Lake, Power - ELP

– MonophonicMonophonic

1970’s Fancier Analog Synthesizers1970’s Fancier Analog Synthesizers– Moog, Buchla, KorgMoog, Buchla, Korg– Polyphonic [2-3 voices]Polyphonic [2-3 voices]– Wendy Carlos - Wendy Carlos - Switched On BachSwitched On Bach– Software synthesisSoftware synthesis

VAX780 ComputerVAX780 ComputerMIT MIT StanfordStanford

Page 16: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music Computer Music HistoryHistory

Buchla synthesizer Buchla synthesizer – Manipulate sounds by turning knobs Manipulate sounds by turning knobs – Synthesizer didn't have memory, so everything Synthesizer didn't have memory, so everything

had to be recorded on analog tape had to be recorded on analog tape – It took a long time to set up the patch chords It took a long time to set up the patch chords

before hearing any soundbefore hearing any sound

Page 17: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music HistoryComputer Music History

1980’s Digital Synthesizer1980’s Digital Synthesizer– Yamaha DX – 7Yamaha DX – 7– FM synthesisFM synthesis– MIDI – communication protocol for synthesizersMIDI – communication protocol for synthesizers– Polyphonic [8-16 voices]Polyphonic [8-16 voices]– Software synthesisSoftware synthesis– Computers: Macs & PC with soundcardsComputers: Macs & PC with soundcards

1990’s Soundcards1990’s Soundcards– Sampling synthesisSampling synthesis– Polyphonic [32-64 voices]Polyphonic [32-64 voices]

Page 18: Comp685B Computer Music

Computer Music NowComputer Music NowSoftware synthesis on computersSoftware synthesis on computersHardwareHardware– SynthesizersSynthesizers– SoundcardsSoundcards– Portable devicesPortable devices

CDs, DAT tapes, and minidisks for storing CDs, DAT tapes, and minidisks for storing soundfilessoundfiles<C:3><C:3> Interactive body synthesizersInteractive body synthesizers

Page 19: Comp685B Computer Music

What Can a Computer Do?What Can a Computer Do?Synthesize sounds Synthesize sounds – [7][7] Synthesized soundsSynthesized sounds can resemble can resemble

familiar sounds or they can sound familiar sounds or they can sound artificialartificial

• Transform one sound into Transform one sound into another, such as another, such as [8][8] a horn into an a horn into an oboeoboe

Page 20: Comp685B Computer Music

What Can a Computer Do?What Can a Computer Do?

Create the space where sounds Create the space where sounds move around more easily than move around more easily than human performershuman performers– [9][9] SpatializationSpatialization of opening of opening

bassoon solo in Stravinsky's bassoon solo in Stravinsky's The The Rite of SpringRite of Spring

Page 21: Comp685B Computer Music

What Can a Computer Do?What Can a Computer Do?[10][10] SampleSample sounds sounds

pasted on a surfacepasted on a surface

• Process sampled sounds using Process sampled sounds using effectseffects• [11][11] TranspositionTransposition • [12][12] Time stretchingTime stretching • [13][13] EchoEcho • [14][14] Ring modulationRing modulation

in a musical in a musical [15][15] collagecollage• A picture made with materials and objects ...A picture made with materials and objects ...

Page 22: Comp685B Computer Music

Synthesizing SoundsSynthesizing SoundsCsound Csound – A computer music languageA computer music language

Makes a soundfile by compiling a score and Makes a soundfile by compiling a score and orchestra file orchestra file

The result is large binary file which the The result is large binary file which the computer plays as a "soundfile"computer plays as a "soundfile"

– similar to playing a CDsimilar to playing a CD– .wav file.wav file

Page 23: Comp685B Computer Music

Making a SoundfileMaking a Soundfilefrom Csoundfrom Csound

Page 24: Comp685B Computer Music

A Simple Csound OrchestraA Simple Csound Orchestra;simple.orc;simple.orc ; name of orchestra; name of orchestra

;CODE on left;CODE on left ; COMMENTS on right; COMMENTS on right

sr=22050sr=22050 ; sampling rate; sampling ratekr=2205kr=2205 ; control rate; control rateksmps=10ksmps=10 ; samples/control ; samples/control

per.per.nchnls=1nchnls=1 ; 1 channel playback; 1 channel playback

instr 1instr 1 ; beginning of instr.; beginning of instr.iampiamp == p4p4 ; maximum amplitude; maximum amplitude ifreqifreq == p5p5 ; frequency in Hertz; frequency in Hertziwaveiwave == 11 ; use wavetable 1; use wavetable 1asigasig oscilioscili iamp, ifreq, iwave iamp, ifreq, iwave ; generate signal; generate signal

outout asigasig ; output signal; output signalendinendin ; end of instrument; end of instrument

Page 25: Comp685B Computer Music

[16][16] A Simple Csound ScoreA Simple Csound Score

;simple.sco;simple.sco - use with simple.orc- use with simple.orc ; name of score; name of score

;function table for waveform for sinewave oscillator;function table for waveform for sinewave oscillatorf1 0 4096 10 1f1 0 4096 10 1

;p1;p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5;; startstart durdur ampamp HertzHertzi1i1 11 22 40004000 440440 ; note statement; note statement

ee ; end of score; end of score

Page 26: Comp685B Computer Music

Many Ways to Process SoundsMany Ways to Process Sounds

Time stretchingTime stretching– Stretch and compress soundsStretch and compress sounds

Make them longer or shorter than their original Make them longer or shorter than their original durationsdurations

– Requires running a sound analysis program on Requires running a sound analysis program on the sample which may leave the file full of pops the sample which may leave the file full of pops and clicksand clicks

Some files require considerable "clean-up" workSome files require considerable "clean-up" work

Too much fixing may change the sound dramatically, Too much fixing may change the sound dramatically, resulting in either a nice feature or a disasterresulting in either a nice feature or a disaster

Page 27: Comp685B Computer Music

Many Ways to Process SoundsMany Ways to Process Sounds

Controlling timbre (quality of Controlling timbre (quality of sound) sound) – [19][19] Leaving the pops and Leaving the pops and

crackling in the stretched crackling in the stretched sound made a professional sound made a professional singer sound like a witchsinger sound like a witch

– [20][20] Transposing the pitch of Transposing the pitch of a witcha witch up and down up and down produces glottal clicks and produces glottal clicks and chattering sounds chattering sounds

Page 28: Comp685B Computer Music

Examples of Instrument Modeling Examples of Instrument Modeling ProjectsProjects

[25][25] voices — composition program by Chui Lok voices — composition program by Chui Lok Sum Rod, Chan Ka Lok Carl and Leung Kin Lung Sum Rod, Chan Ka Lok Carl and Leung Kin Lung Lone (0:50)Lone (0:50)[26][26] voices — Bach, voices — Bach, Jesus Bleibet Meine FreudeJesus Bleibet Meine Freude — class project by Chan Yu Hong, Yeung Kwun — class project by Chan Yu Hong, Yeung Kwun and Chow Tsz Ho (2:20)and Chow Tsz Ho (2:20)[27][27] voices — Vivaldi, voices — Vivaldi, Laudamus teLaudamus te — class — class project by Lo Hoi Yee, Janice and Chan Wai Yi project by Lo Hoi Yee, Janice and Chan Wai Yi (1:30) (1:30) [28][28] voices — Palestrina, voices — Palestrina, SanctusSanctus — class — class project by Leung Chun Fai, Kevin and Wong project by Leung Chun Fai, Kevin and Wong Chung Ling, Iris (2:03)Chung Ling, Iris (2:03)

Page 29: Comp685B Computer Music

Examples of Instrument Examples of Instrument Modeling ProjectsModeling Projects

[29][29] French horn — French horn — Richard Strauss, Richard Strauss, Til Til Eulenspiegel's Merry Eulenspiegel's Merry PranksPranks (:09) (:09)[2][2] French horn — French horn — Richard Strauss, Richard Strauss, Ein Ein HeldenlebenHeldenleben (:29) (:29)[5][5] Chinese Dizi — Chinese Dizi — LiubanLiuban (:32) (:32)

Andrew HornerAndrew Horner


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