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Comparative linguistics English- Italian

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Italian language- English language comparative linguistics İtalyanca İngilizce dilbilimi le lingue
  • 1. ITALIAN

2. ITALIAN A. General information Italian is a Romance language spoken by 62 million people in Italy andSwitzerland and by 126 million people as a second language in the world. It derives from Latin and it is the closest national language to Latin. Itretains its origins with both Latin and Greek. 3. ITALIANA.II. History- ETRUSCAN CIVILIZATION Etruscan civilizaton was developed in Italy after about 800 BC. Later, it gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbours in Magna Graecia (Great Greece), the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. After 500 BC the political destiny of Italy passed out of Etruscan hands. 4. ITALIAN A.II. HistoryBetween 17th and 11th Between 8th and 7thAncient Rome was atcentury BC , Greeks century BC, Greekfirst an agriculturalestablished contacts with colonies werecommunity founded atItaly.established8th BC.Senatus Populusque Romanus 5. ITALIANB. History After 6th century, Italian was ItalianRepublic of Italy: divided into Unification1946 oligarchic city- (1861- 1922) states. 6. ITALIANA.III. Dante AlighieriIVRA MONARCHIE SVPEROS PHLAEGETONTALACVSQVE LUSTRANDO CECINI FATA VOLVERVNTQVOVSQVE SED QVIA PARS CESSIT MELIORIBVSHOSPITA CASTRIS ACTOREMQVE SVVM PETIITFELICIOR ASTRIS HIC CLAVDOR DANTES PATRISEXTORRIS ABORIS QVIA GENVIT PARVI FLORENTIAMATRIS AMORIS.DANTEItalian language was first vulgar Latin.The father of Italian language is DANTE. He is still credited withstandardizing the Italian language and the dialect of Florencebecame the basis for what would become the official langauge ofItaly. 7. ITALIANB. Phonetics- The sounds of Languages21 lettere (letters)- 5 vocali (vowels) and 15 consonanti (consonants)lettersound Phonetic exampletranscriptiona open/a/carae open//snzaclosed/e/cassttai closed/i/micioo open// striaclosed amreu closed/u/uva 8. ITALIANB. Phonetics- The sounds of Languages21 lettere (letters)- 5 vocali (vowels) and 15 consonanti (consonants)a f m rb g n sc h p td l q v- zJ- (english words): jeans (gins) jet (get)K- (cappa) km, kg, poker, koalaW- (doppia vu) wrstel, whiskyX- (ics) taxi, xenofobia, xerodermaY- (ipsilon),style/stail, yogurt/iogurt, boy/boi 9. ITALIANB. Phonetics- Suprasegmentals- Stress As you know, in any utterance some vovels areperceived as more prominent than others and they beprominent with respect to the parameters of pitch-loudness and length which constitute a cover term,stress. In italian, the use of stress is common and onsome of the vowels it is obligatory such as : caff orperch. There are two types of accents in Italian. Oneof them is an acute accent () and the other one is agrave accent (`) are used. 10. ITALIANB. Phonetics- Suprasegmentals- Obligatory Stress at the end of polysyllabic words: onest, perch etc. with monosylabic words containing diphtongs: pi, pu etc. with monosyllabic words which can be confused with the words written the same. Ch (perch) Che - pronoun D (dare-verb) Da- preposition d (giorno)Di- prepositionPg. 11 11. ITALIANC. Phonology- The function and patterning of soundsConsanantal ClustersGl + i Egli, Figli, degli,Gl + Vowels except i Gleba, Gloria, GlucoseGn + VowelsVergogna, Bologna, Cologna, OgnunoGh + e- iGhette, Laghi,-Gi + a o- uGiacca, GiudiceCh+ e - iOche, Chimica, ChiloCi + a - u - o Camicia, CiuffoGli + Vowels Figlia, Moglie, ConiglioSci + Vowels Sciarpa, Sciocco, Sciupare 12. ITALIAND. MorphologyLE RAGAZZ-EIL RAGAZZ-OLA RAGAZZ-A I RAGAZZ-I 13. ITALIAND. Derivational Morphology - AFFIXESItalian is morphologically rich and uniform language. LIBR- O radice-stem desinenza-ending Libr-iccin-oA small book Libr-ett-oA small and pretty book Libr-on-e A big and heavy book Libr-acci-o A bad and immoral bookBrutto: in-brutt-ment-o: imbruttimento 14. ITALIAND. Inflectional Morphology In Italian, there are both suffixes and prefixes but more significantly, desinenza (ending) may refer to number, gender in nouns, adjectives or even pronouns and also mood, tense, person/gender and number aspects of the verbs. Number (nouns and adjectives) Il ragazzo -> i ragazzi La casa bianca-> le case bianche Il libro pesante-> i libri pesanti Verb (person and number agreement) parl-o -> I- present tense first singular parl-iamo parl-iparl-ate parl-aparl-ano 15. ITALIANE. SYNTAX pro-drop head- initial SVOPens-are Scriv-ere Sent-ireIo pens-o. Io scriv-o. Io sent-o.Tu pens-i. Tu scriv-i. Tu sent-i.Egli/ Lui pens-a. (esso) Egli/ Lui scriv-e. (esso) Egli/ Lui sent-e. (esso)Ella/ Lei pensa. (essa)Ella/ Lei scrive. (essa)Ella/ Lei sente. (essa)Noi pens-iamo. Noi scriv-iamo. Noi sent-iamo.Voi pens-ate.Voi scriv-iate. Voi sent-ite.Loro pens-ano. Loro scriv-onoLoro sent-ono. 16. ITALIANE. SYNTAX Ieri Paolo and Laura hanno fatto un escursione in montagna. Il tempo stato bello per tutta la giornata. I due ragazzi sono tornata a casastanchi ma contenti. Marco era in casa e stava studiando Latino, quando ha udito unrumore soffocato provenire dalla stanza di sua sorella. Sapeva che incasa non cera nessuno perch tutti quella sera erano usciti. Senzaspaventarsi, ha messo da parte i libri e lentamente si avvicinato allaporta della stanza, trattenendo il respiro per non insospettire chi si eraprobabilmemnte intrufolato nella casa. Luomo si alz, prese il microfono, espose le ragioni . 17. ITALIANE. SYNTAX- INVERSION YES/NO and WH QsQs Yes/No-Dove vivi? Sai che oggi era lultima giornata miaVivo a Roma. al lavoro? Ehh ssiiiii.Che hai fatto di bello oggi? Non sapevi che era qua?Niente.Noo, ma come posso sapere?Chi chiede il mio nome?Sei un turco?Signorina Rossi. Si, sono un turco. 18. ITALIAND. SEMANTICS-NOUNSItalians use a number of metonoyms, metaphors and antonomesiain their daily speech and they love using them as conversationalstrategies. Per ubriacarmi mi basta un bicchiere. Antonia non ha orecchio. Sei un casanova ( implied by the great actor GiacomoCasanova) Questa stanza una Sibiria. 19. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVESIn Italian, adjectives may be before or after the noun.Il nostro vicino un uomo povero. ORIl nostro vicino un povero uomo. 20. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVESRoberto pi/meno alto di Giovanna Comparative Roberto alto come Roberto Giovanna. alto. SuperlativeRoberto altissimo. Pg.165 21. ITALIAND. ADJECTIVES 22. ITALIANE. ADVERBSADJECTIVE + mente :Camminiamo lentamente.Adesso non posso uscire: ci vedremo domani.Noi viviamo laggi.Qui piove.Questa pianta cresce ovunque/ dappertutto.Luca studia molto.Forse ha ragione Laura.MICA: Non sono mica stato io. Mica brutto questa film. 23. ITALIANF. Prepositions 24. ITALIANF. Prepositions 25. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo IndicativoPassato prossimo & Trapassato prossimoTrapassato remoto & Futuro anteriore 26. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo Condizionale 27. ITALIANE. VERBS- Modo Congiuntivo 28. ITALIANE. VERBS- Attiva & Passiva & RiflessivaGender isimportant!Il medico visit il malato.Il malato visitato dal madico. 29. ITALIANE. VERBS- Riflessivaio mi lavo=I wash myselftu ti lavi=you wash yourselflui/lei si lava=he/she washes him/herselfnoi ci laviamo=we wash ourselvesvoi vi lavate=you wash yourselfloro si lavano=they wash themselves 30. ITALIANBASIC VOCABULARY 31. Know him? Enrico Fermi? The founder of atomic bomb 32. ITALIANF. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREBorn in Cuba in 1923, Calvino was raised in Italy,where he lived most of his life.He died in Siena at the age of sixty-one in 1985.My favorite writer:ITALO CALVINOMr. Palomar is standing in line in a cheese shop, in Paris. This is a shop whose range seemsmeant to exemplify every conceivable form of dairy product; the very sign, "Spe-cialitesfroumageres," with that rare archaic or vernacular adjective, advises that here is guarded thelegacy of a knowledge accumulated by a civilization through all its history and geography.This shop is a dictionary; the language is the system of cheeses as a whole: a language whosemorphology records declensions and conjugations in countless variants, and whose lexiconpresents an inexhaustible richness of synonyms, idiomatic usages, connotations, andnuances of meaning, as in all languages nourished by the contribution of a hundred dialects.It is a language made up of things; its nomenclature is only an external aspect, instrumental;but for Mr. Palomar, learning a bit of nomenclature still remains the first measure to betaken if he wants to stop for a moment the things that are flowing before his eyes.http://des.emory.edu/mfp/calvino/ 33. ITALIAN F. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREAn Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher, literary critic, andnovelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nomedella rosa, 1980), an intellectual mystery combining semiotics infiction, biblical analysis, medieval studies and literary theory.UMBERTO ECOhttp://www.umbertoeco.com/en/ 34. ITALIANF. ITALIAN MODERN LITERATUREAn Italian poet, novelist. (1908- 1950)CESARE PAVESEWe do not remember days, we remembermoments. The richness of life lies in memorieswe have forgotten. Hard Labor &No woman marries for money; they are all clever enough, Your Villages & beforeAugust Holiday &marrying a millionaire, to fall in love with him first. Death will come etc.Give me the ready hand rather than the ready tongue.Lessons are not given, they are taken. 35. Verr la morte e avr i tuoi occhiDeath will come and will have yourquesta morte che ci accompagnaeyes dal mattino alla sera, insonne, the death that is with ussorda, come un vecchio rimorsofrom morning to evening, sleepless,o un vizio assurdo. I tuoi occhideaf, like an old regretsaranno mortevana parola,Verr la una e avr i tuoi occhior an absurd vice. Your eyesun grido taciuto, un silenzio.will be a futile word,(Death will stare at me out of your eyes)Cos li vedi ogni mattina a cry kept silent, a silence.quando su te sola ti pieghi Thus you see them every morningnello specchio. O cara speranza,when alone

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