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  • Seediscussions,stats,andauthorprofilesforthispublicationat:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275183566

    ComparisonbetweenEurocodesandNorthAmericanandMainInternationalCodesforDesignofBolted...

    ArticleinJournalofBridgeEngineeringDecember2013

    DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000512

    CITATION

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    Someoftheauthorsofthispublicationarealsoworkingontheserelatedprojects:

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    EmanueleMaiorana

    OMBAImpianti&EngineeringSpA

    18PUBLICATIONS173CITATIONS

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    CarloPellegrino

    UniversityofPadova

    162PUBLICATIONS1,620CITATIONS

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    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275183566_Comparison_between_Eurocodes_and_North_American_and_Main_International_Codes_for_Design_of_Bolted_Connections_in_Steel_Bridges?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_2&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/project/Bond-behavior-of-FRCM-composites-applied-to-masonry-and-concrete-substrates?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_9&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/project/Seismic-vulnerability-of-networks-and-lifelines?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_9&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_1&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emanuele_Maiorana3?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_4&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emanuele_Maiorana3?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_5&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emanuele_Maiorana3?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_7&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carlo_Pellegrino?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_4&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carlo_Pellegrino?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_5&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/institution/University_of_Padova?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_6&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carlo_Pellegrino?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_7&_esc=publicationCoverPdfhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carlo_Pellegrino?enrichId=rgreq-ca859753abde250933233a471b9ac307-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzI3NTE4MzU2NjtBUzoyMzM3NDQxMjg4MDI4MjdAMTQzMjc0MDM1MTY2MQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_10&_esc=publicationCoverPdf
  • Comparison between Eurocodes and North Americanand Main International Codes for Design of Bolted

    Connections in Steel BridgesEmanuele Maiorana1 and Carlo Pellegrino2

    Abstract: Bolted joints are broadly used for the connections of structural elements in steel bridges. Rules for design of bolted connections arecurrently under discussion in Europe for improving Part 1-8 of Eurocode 3, which deals with the sizing and structural design of joints. In thiswork, awide comparison ismade between the Eurocode and the codes of Italy, theUnited States, Canada, Australia, and Japan. General descrip-tions of the design criteria for typical connections in bridges related to materials, geometrical limitations, slip, shear, and bearing resistance arepresented. An illustrative example to compare the various code provisions is given to quantitatively show their performance for a practical case.DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000512. 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

    CE Database subject headings: Standards and codes; Bolted connections; Steel bridges; Comparative studies; Europe; North America.

    Author keywords: Code; Design; Steel; Bolt; Connection; Bridge.

    Introduction

    This paper focuses on design rules for bolted joints in metal bridgesconsidering European [European Committee for Standardization(CEN 2005a, b, c, 2006, 2008)], American [(AASHTO 2002; AISC2000) and Research Council for Structural Connections (RCSC2009)], Canadian [the Canadian Standards Association (CSA 2010)],Australian [Standards Australia (AS 2012)], and Japanese [JapanSociety ofCivilEngineers (JSCE2007)] practices for evaluating somesimilarities and differences among them. General descriptions of thedesign criteria for typical connections in bridges related to materials,geometrical limitations, slip, shear, and bearing resistance will bepresented. The work to aims to compare design procedures in codesdeveloped in various countries for bolted connections.

    Other authors have recently compared building codes for theUnited States and Europe (Topkaya and Sahin 2011), focusing theirattention on strength limit states related to basic materials only,without considering steel connections. In Xiao and Ishikawa (2005),McCarthy et al. (2005), and Cruz et al. (2012), experimental andfinite-element analyses have been developed to improve contem-porary practice pertaining to bolted joints used with high-strengthsteel or weathering steel plates. Cruz et al. (2012) obtained slip factorsequal to 0.50 for blasted surfaces without any additional surfacetreatment whereas they obtained a characteristic value of 0.40 forblasted surfaces with a painted coating of zinc-ethyl-silicate. Slipfactors equal to or smaller than 0.30were obtained for blasted surfaces

    with a painted coating of zinc-epoxy. Concerning the specimensmadewith S355 weathering steel, the value of the slip factor increased withthe duration of environmental exposure, from 0.502 to 0.560. Inspecimensmadewith S275 steel and S690 high-strength steel, similarvalues of the slip factor were obtained with equivalent surfacetreatment. Cruz et al. (2012) concluded that the slip factor is stronglyinfluenced by the surface treatment and onlyweakly influenced by thesteel grade. Therefore, it seems that the classification system of theEuropean standard (EN) 1090-2 (CEN 2008) remains valid for slip-resistant joints with high-strength steel.

    European Code for Design of Bolted Connections inSteel Bridges

    Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-8 (CEN 2005b) integrates the general part1-1 (CEN 2005a) dealing with verification procedures and require-ments for bolted and welded connections. The different classes ofbolts, with diameters measured in 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, and30 mm, are known as Classes 4.6, 5.6, 6.8, 8.8, and 10.9, re-spectively. For each class, the yield stress fyb and the ultimate stressfub are given. In construction of bridges, the last two classes (Classes8.8 and 10.9) are typically used. Only bolt assemblies of Classes 8.8and 10.9 may be used as preloaded bolts with controlled tightening.The reference standard for the bolts in Europe is EN 14399-1 (CEN2005c).

    Bolts with controlled tightening are very sensitive to differencesin manufacturing and lubrication. European regulations on boltswith controlled tightening have the aim to ensure that, with a giventorque, the required preload is obtained with a good reliability andsufficient safety margins to avoid excessive tightening of the screwand consequent plastic deformation. For this reason, a test method toverify the suitability of the components in controlled tightening isincluded in the Eurocode.

    Design Procedure

    The design procedures proposed in the Eurocode are consistent withthe Limit State Method (CEN 2005a, b, c, 2006, 2008).

    1Ph.D. Research Assistant, Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Archi-tectural Engineering, Univ. of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy.

    2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil, Environmental and ArchitecturalEngineering, Univ. of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy (corresponding author).E-mail: carlo.pellegrino@unipd.it

    Note. This manuscript was submitted on August 29, 2012; approvedon May 20, 2013; published online on May 22, 2013. Discussion periodopen until May 1, 2014; separate discussions must be submitted forindividual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Bridge Engineer-ing, Vol. 18, No. 12, December 1, 2013. ASCE, ISSN 1084-0702/2013/12-12981308/$25.00.

    1298 / JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING ASCE / DECEMBER 2013

    J. Bridge Eng. 2013.18:1298-1308.

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