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Complete Formulary

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    P AR T II I.

    WOR KING F ORMULA.

    In the formulae which follow we have endeavored to include allpreparations generally used or called for that can readily be preparedby druggists. We have made no distinction between officinal andunofficinal formulae, except to note the former when the original text isfollowed.

    For more convenient reference and comparison we have attempted toclassify the preparations as nearly as possible under appropriate

    headings. We have endeavored to make the formulae as plain, explicitand comprehensive as possible, and have avoided as much as possibleth e use of technical ter ms a nd t edious pr ocesses. The form ul ar e ma defrom actual work in the shop or laboratory, and are thereforeWORKING FORMULA, which can not fail t o give good r esu lts, pr ovidedth ey ar e car efully followed and good ma ter ial is used. In su bmitt ingth em to our friends, it is with th e earn est hope that th ey may cont ributesomet hing to th at store of kn owledge which r aises t he ph ar ma cist a bovethe mere tradesman, and that their use may put many a dollar in thepocket of the druggist, which otherwise would be paid as profit to

    manufacturers.

    ABSTRACTAABSTRACTS.

    These preparations are properly extracts of vegetable drugs so dilutedwith Sugar of Milk that they represent the soluble medicinal value oftwo parts of the drug in one part of the abstract. They were introducedin the 6th Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, to supply a populardemand for "Powdered Extracts"; but as they are only double thestrength of the drug their value for such a purpose is questionable.They have not as yet become popular, and it is doubtful if they areret ained in a subsequen t r evision of th e Pha rm acopoeia.

    The U. S. Ph ar ma copoeia process for abst ra cts is in su bsta nce as follows:

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    Exhaust 200 parts of the drug, by percolating with sufficientmenstruum, reserving the first 170 parts that pass; evaporate theremaining percolate to 30 parts, adding it to the portion reserved; thenadd 50 parts Sugar of Milk; allow to evaporate slowly to dryness;powder, and a dd enough Sugar of Milk t o ma ke 100 part s.

    The qu an tit ive form ula e for t he officina l abst ra cts ar e as follows:

    1. Ab s t r a c t u m Ac o n it i .Abstract of Aconit e.

    Aconite (root ), 200 par ts.Tar tar ic Acid, 2 par t s.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    2. Ab s t r a c t u m Be lla d on n a e .Abstract of Belladonna .

    Belladonna (root ), 200 par ts.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    3. Ab s t r a c t u m Con i i .Abstract of Conium .

    Conium (fru it ), 200 par ts.

    Diluted Hydrochlor ic Acid, 6 par t s.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    4. Ab s t r a c t u m D ig i t a lis .Abstract of Digi talis.

    Digitalis (leaves), 200 par ts.Alcohol,Sugar of Milk, each sufficient to make 100 par ts.

    5. Ab s t r a c t u m H y o sc y a m i .Abstract of Hyoscyam us.

    Hyoscyamus (leaves), 200 par ts.Alcohol,Sugar of Milk, each sufficient to make 100 par ts.

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    6. Ab s t r a c t u m I gn a t ia e .Abstract of Ign atia.

    Igna t ia (seed or bean), 200 par ts.

    Alcohol 8, to Wat er 1 par t,Sugar of Milk, each sufficient to make 100 par ts.

    7. Ab s t r a c t u m J a la p a e .Abstract of J alap.

    J a lap (root or tuber), 200 par ts.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    8. Ab s t r a c t u m N u c is Vo m ic a e .

    Abstract of N ux Vom ica.

    Nux Vomica (seed), 200 par ts.Alcohol 8, to Wat er 1 par t,Sugar of Milk, each sufficient to make 100 par ts.

    9. Ab s t r a c t u m P od op h y lli .Abs tract of Podophyllum .

    Podophyllum (root ), 200 par ts.

    Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    10. Ab s t r a c t u m Se n e ga e .Abstract of S enega.

    Senega (root ), 200 par ts.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

    11. Ab s t r a c t u m Va le r ia n a e .Abstract of Valeria n .

    Valer ian (root ), 200 par ts.Alcoh ol, Su ga r of Milk, ea ch su fficien t to m ake 100 pa rt s.

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    12. Ab s t r a c t s , b y Wa t e r -Ba t h P e r c o la t i o n .

    It is obvious that drugs from which abstracts are to be made may bemuch more readily and economically exhausted by water-bathpercolation than by the cold processmuch less menstruum being

    required to exhaust the drug, and the result much more perfectlyrepr esent ing th e a ctive medicinal a gents. Th e following sam ple form ula,which corresponds with the official strength, but differs in manner ofmaking, will serve as a general formula for making abstracts by water-bat h percolat ion.

    Abstra cts of oth er dru gs may be made in th e sam e genera l man ner, byusing the m enstr uu m which is best suited to obtain t he m edicinal valueof the drug without obtaining an unnecessary quantity of worthlessextractive matter. The menstruum which is employed for making the

    Fluid E xtra ct of th e dru g (see Fluid Extra cts) will genera lly be proper t ouse for ma king the abst ra ct.

    13. Ab s t r a c t of Acon it e .

    Aconite (root ), No. 60 powder , 16 ounces.Tar tar ic Acid, 75 gra ins.Alcohol, Sugar of Milk, in fine powder,

    each sufficient to make, 8 ounces.

    Moisten the drug with 6 ounces of Alcohol, and pack very firmly in thewater-bath percolator. Pour upon it 10 ounces of Alcohol and set in awar m place for th ree da ys; th en h eat moderat ely [to about 60 C. (140F.)], and after one hour begin to percolate, adding Alcohol to the drug,and continuing the heat until 12 ounces have passed, which reserve.Continue the percolation until the drug is exhausted (or until about 12oun ces more ha ve pas sed). Evapora te th is last percolate by distillat ionto about 3 ounces, and add to the portion previously reserved. Dissolvethe acid in the liquid, add 4 ounces of powdered Sugar of Milk, and setaside in a moderately warm place [not over 50 C. (122 F.)], in an

    evaporating dish covered with gauze. Let remain until evaporated todryness, then powder, weigh, and add enough powdered Sugar of Milkto make 8 oun ces.

    The Alcohol remaining in the drug after percolation may be recoveredby distillation.

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    ACETAACETATESVINEGARS.

    A c e t a t e s .Aceta tes ar e chemical or ph ar ma ceut ical pr oducts in whichacetic acid is used as a combining factor, or a solvent for medicinal

    pr inciples. The Aceta tes may be convenien tly classed a s follows:

    Chemicals, in which Acetic Acid unites with Alkalies, Alkaloids, ormet allic bases to form chem ical sa lts ; as Acetat e of Pota ssium, Aceta te ofMorphine, Aceta te of Lead, etc.

    Solutions, in which Acetic Acid is combined with some base but notsufficiently concentrated to crystallize, as solution or liquor Acetate ofAmm oniu m, solut ion Aceta te of Iron; or simple solut ions of Acetic sa ltsin wa ter or oth er liquid, as solut ion Aceta te of Morphine, etc.

    Tinctures , in wh ich an Acetic solut ion is dilut ed with an alcoholic liquid,as t inctur e Aceta te of Iron.

    Vinegars , in wh ich t he m edicina l va lue of th e dru g is obta ined by Aceticor diluted Acetic Acid as a menstruum. In this class is included theAcetic fluid extra cts, a nd th e proper a ceta or vinegar s wh ich ha ve longbeen known as pharma-copoeial preparations, and which will now beconsidered.

    The Vinegars which were once quite popular galenicals are now butlitt le used ; th ey still hold th eir place, however, in th e ph ar ma copoeias.In the formulae for Vinegars which follow we have found itimpracticable to exactly follow the pharmacopoeias, because of thedifference in name and acid strength of Dilute Acetic Acid directed bydifferent authorities, and some other peculiarities. We have thereforeadopted a general 10 per cent. Standard of the active ingredient, andgenerally the Diluted Acetic Acid of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia whichcont a ins 6 per cent . of rea l Acetic Acid. We ha ve also added a sm allpercentage of Alcohol in most of them, as is customary in Continental

    Europe, because we are satisfied that it is an advantage to thepreparations. If fluid extracts are used instead of crude drugs thisaddition will be unnecessar y.

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    14. Ac e t u m Vin e g a r .

    Vinegar was formerly officinal in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, but is nowdeleted. It is still retained in the British, German and many otherPharmacopoeias.

    It should contain from 51/2 to 6 per cent. of absolute Acetic Acid. When

    directed to be used, t he ordina ry comm ercial Vinegar ma y generally beemployed or Diluted Acetic Acid of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, whichcont ains about th e sa me per cent age of Acid, may be used instea d of it.

    Acet i f i ca t ion .Acetification is the process by which Saccharine orhydro-alcoholic liquids are converted into vinegar. It consists in thepartial dehydration and subsequent oxidation of the liquids by contactwith the atmosphere. Domestic vinegar-making is carried on in nearlyevery household by exposing cider, saccharine or vinous liquids to heatan d air. In a large way vinegar is ma nu factured by run ning the liquidsmany times through generators filled with beech-shavings or corn-cobs,and perforated with numerous holes to admit free circulation of air bywhich th e oxidat ion is r ap idly accomplished.

    15. Ac e t u m Ar o m a t ic u m .Arom atic Vin egar.

    (Adapt ed from th e Germ an an d Fr ench Pha rm acopoeias.)

    Oil of Lavender , 1 par t or 5 minims.Oil of Peppermint , 1 par t or 5 minims.Oil of Rosemary, 1 par t or 5 minims.Oil of J uniper , 1 par t or 5 minims.Oil of Cinnamon, 1 par t or 5 minims.Oil of Lemon, 2 par ts or 10 minims.Oil of Cloves, 2 par t s or 10 minims.

    Alcohol, 300 pa r ts or 31/2 fl. ounces.

    Diluted Acet ic Acid, 450 pa r ts or 5 fl.ounces.

    Water , 1,200 par ts or 131/2

    fl.ounces.

    Dissolve the oils in the Alcohol, add the Acid and Water, and, aftersta nding a few days, with frequent agitation filter th rough paper.

    This is used a s an Aromat ic toilet prepar at ion a nd sometimes inter na lly

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    as a mild Aroma tic Acid.

    Severa l proprietar y ar ticles similiar to th is, as Bu lly's Aroma tic Vinegar,etc., etc., ha ve a popular sale a s t oilet r equisites.

    16. Ac e t u m Ca n t h a r id is .Vin egar of Cant ha rides.

    (ADAPTE D F ROM THE BRITISH PH ARMACOPOEI A, 1885.) .

    Canthar ides, bru ised, 1 pa r t or 455 gra ins.Glacia l Acet ic Acid, 1 fl. par t or 1 fl.ounce.Acet ic Acid, su fficient to make, 10 fl. pa r ts or 10 fl.ounces.

    Mix 61/2 fl.ounces of the Acet ic Acid with the Glacial Acet ic Acid, and t he

    Can th ar ides in a str ong well-stopped qua rt bott le. Digest t he mixtu re in

    a water-bath by boiling gently for two hours, then transfer to a glasspercolator and percolate, adding enough Acetic Acid through the drugin the percolator to make 10 fl.ounces. It will be observed that this ismade with strong Acetic Acid instead of dilute as is usual with theVinegars. This is a str ong vesican t used for blister ing. It ma y be appliedwith a cam el-ha ir pencil.

    17. Ace t u m Colch ic i .Vin egar of Colchicum S eed or Tu ber (Root).

    Colchicum Seed or Tuber in coar se powder , 729 gra ins.Alcohol, 11/2 fl.ounces.

    Diluted Acet ic Acid, sufficient to make 16 fl.ounces.

    Mix the alcohol with three ounces of the Diluted Acetic Acid, andmacerate the powder in the mixture for 24 hours; then transfer to aglass percolator, an d percolate, addin g, when th e liquid ha s disappea redfrom t he t op, dilut ed Acetic Acid, and cont inu ing th e percolat ion un til 16fl.oun ces a re obta ined.

    This pr epar at ion is officinal in severa l of the E ur opean Ph ar ma copoeias.It is preferably made from the tuber (root), and is a very goodpreparation of Colchicum, but is not much used in this country. It isgiven for rh eum at ism a nd gout , the d ose being from 5 t o 30 minims.

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    Vin egar of Digitalis.

    Digita lis Leaves, in coarse powder , 729 gra ins.Alcohol, 2 fl.ounces.Dilu ted Acet ic Acid , sufficien t to make 16 fl.ounces .

    Make in the same manner as Acetum Colchici. A heart stimulant,

    diuret ic an d n ervine. Dose 1/2 to 1 fl.dra chm , not exceeding 3 fl.drachm s

    per day. This corresponds very nearly to the formula of the GermanPharmacopoeia.

    19. Ac e t u m Lob e lia e .Vin egar of Lobelia.

    Lobelia Herb in coarse powder , 729 gra ins.Alcohol, 2 fl.ounces.Dilu t ed Acet ic Acid su fficien t t o m a ke 2 fl.ou n ces .

    Make in the same manner as Acetum Colchici. An emetic, expectorant,antispasmodic, etc. Dose 5 to 30 minims. This corresponds with theUnited States Pharmacopoeia, 1880 formula, except in the addition ofth e a lcohol.

    20. Ace t u m Op ii , U. S ., 1880.Vinegar of Opium .

    Opium in powder , 729 gra ins.Nutmeg in powder , 218 gra ins.Su ga r , 1458 gra ins.Dilu ted Acet ic Acid , sufficien t to make 16 fl.ounces .

    Mix the Opium and Nutmeg and macerate them with 12 fl.ounces ofDilut ed Acetic Acid for 24 h our s, th en dr a in off th e liquid, put th e dru gsin a percolator and percolate with the liquid; dissolve the sugar in thepercolate by agitat ion, a nd add enough Dilut ed Acetic Acid th rough t he

    percolat or to ma ke 16 fl.oun ces of th e mixtu re.

    The addition of 11/2 fl.ounces of Alcohol would, in our opinion, be an

    advantage in this preparation. Used for the same purposes as otherprepa ra tions of Opium. Dose 5 to 15 minims.

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    The U . S., 1870, Vinegar of Opium cont ain ed 1200 gra ins of Opium in apint, and care must be used in dispensing not to mistake one for theother.

    The following form ula , which is s imilar to severa l which a re officina l inEu rope, is pr efera ble to our own :

    21. Ac e t u m O p i i C o m p o s i t u m .Arom atic V inegar of Opium . British Black Drop.

    Opium in powder , 729 gra ins.Nutmeg in powder , 218 gra ins.Saffron in powder , 73 gra ins.Sugar in powder , 1458 fl.ounces.

    Alcohol, 2 fl.ounces.Dilu ted Acet ic Acid , sufficien t to make 16 fl.ounces .

    Make in t he sa me m an ner as Acetum Opii. Dose 5 to 15 minims.

    22. Ac e t u m Sa n g u in a r ia e .Vin egar of Blood R oot.

    Sangu inar ia in powder , 729 gra ins.

    Alcohol, 11/2 fl.ounces.

    Dilu ted Acet ic Acid sufficien t to make 16 fl.ounces .

    Make in the same manner as Acetum Colchici. A stimulant to themucous membrane. Used mainly as an expectorant. Dose 10 to 30minims.

    This corr esponds with th e 1880 Un ited Sta tes P ha rm acopoeia, except inth e addition of th e a lcohol. It is officina l only in t he U nit ed St at es.

    23. Ac e t u m Sc i lla e .

    Vinegar of S quill.

    Squill, in coarse powder , 729 gra ins.

    Alcohol, 11/2 fl.ounces.

    Dilu ted Acet ic Acid sufficien t to make 16 fl.ounces .

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    Make in t he sa me m an ner as Acetum Colchici.

    Expectora nt an d Diuret ic. Dose 10 to 60 minims.

    This corr esponds with th e 1880 Un ited Sta tes P ha rm acopoeia, except in

    the addition of Alcohol.

    The British Pharmacopoeia, 1885, formula nearly corresponds with theU. S. 1870directing I par t of squ ill in 8, inst ead of 1 in 10 a s a bove.

    ACIDAACIDS.

    A great variety of widely different chemical substances are classed andincluded under th e genera l na me Acid s .

    In a popular sense acids are substa nces ha ving a sour t ast e an d capa bleof turning vegetable blues red; but in chemistry, acids are compoundsubstances having one common and essential property, viz., that ofcombining with metallic bases, alkalies or alkaloids to form newcompoun ds which a re called salts. As H ydrogen is a const an t elemen t inall acids it is called the Acid form er, and an acid must be considered asalt wh ose meta l is hydrogen , which is displaced in part or wholly whensalts a re form ed with oth er bases.

    24. Ac id u m Ac e t ic u m .Acetic Acid .

    The U. S. officinal Acetic Acid contains 36 per cent. of real Acetic Acid.The n ew Br. Ph . (1885) directs a n a cid cont ain ing 33 per cent ., while th eGerman Standard directs only 30 per cent. for a correspondingpreparation.

    Glacial Acetic Acid is practically a pure or 100 per cent. acid, thereforeth e U. S. officina l Acid ma y be prepa red from it , if desired, by t ak ing

    Glacia l Acet ic Acid, 36 pa r ts, or 41/2 ounces av.

    Dist illed Water , 64 pa r ts, or 8 ounces av.

    The official Acetic Acids of other pharmacopoeias may be made in thesam e man ner relat ively.

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    25. Ac id u m Ac e t ic u m D i lu t u m .Dilu ted Acet ic A cid .

    Acet ic Acid (36 per cent .), 1250 gra ins or 21/2 fl.ounces.

    Distilled wat er su fficient t o ma ke a pint .Mix.

    This is the base of the U. S. official Aceta, and is about the same acidstr ength as good vinegar .

    27. Ac id u m Ac e t i c u m Ar o m a t ic u m .Arom atic Acetic Acid .

    Oil of Cloves, 3 fl.drachms.Oil of Lavender , 2 fl.drachms.Oil of Lemon, 2 fl.drachms.Oil of Bergamot , 1 fl.drachm.Oil of Thyme, 1 fl.drachm.Oil of Cassia , 20 minims.Glacia l Acet ic Acid, 1 fl.ounce.

    Mix, an d sh ak e frequen tly un til dissolved.

    This is used as an odorateur for smelling bottles or vinegarettes, and a

    refreshing scent for th e sick r oom.

    ADEPSLARD.

    The name lard is applied commercially to the rendered fat of the hog,Sus scrofa . In pharmacy the term is intended to apply only to lard

    pu rified by wash ing with wat er, melting an d str ainin g. The U. S.Pharmacopoeia designates this simply by the name adeps, or lard, butth e Br. Ph. more properly terms it adeps praeparatus, or pr epared lar d.

    Since the introduction of Petrolatum and Lanolin the use of lard as anointment base has very much decreased, and much controversy hasarisen as to which is the most valuable for this purpose. It has beenshown that, although petrolatum ointments do not become rancid, theyare not so readily absorbed as those made with lard, and that the

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    reactions which are desired in some of them do not take place whenpetrolatum is substituted for lar d. Lar d is still retained a s th e ointment -base of th e ph ar ma copoeias, but will no doubt be gradu ally replaced bysome more su ita ble vehicle.

    The medicinal preparations in which lard is used will be found underth e headings Cerat a, Unguenta , etc.

    49. Ad e p s P r a e p a r a t u s .Prepared L ard W ashed Lard.

    The usual method of washing lard is to spread it on a stone orear th enwar e slab, an d allow a sm all str eam of wat er t o tr ickle over it, atth e sam e time work ing it well with a spa tu la or other convenient mixer.After a th orough washing in th is way it is melted an d str ained.

    We suggest the following method, which will be found more convenientan d will secur e better r esults:

    Melt t he lar d an d pour it into any convenient bottle th at will hold thr eetimes t he qu an tity desired t o be wash ed. Fill th e bott le near ly full of hotwater, and while the mixture is cooling agitate it frequently; by thismea ns t he lar d is gra nu lated or reduced to sma ll fra gment s. When cool,pour off the water and add fresh cold water to the granulated lard;agita te, pour off th e wat er, add fresh cold water again , and so cont inue

    until the lard is thoroughly washed, when it may be melted by water-bath and strained into earthen pots. By adding a fl.drachm of Tinctureof Benzoin t o each pound of the lar d when melted pr evious to str ainingit will keep un cha nged.

    Pr epar ed lard is u sed for m ak ing benzoinat ed lard, simple cera te, simpleointm ent a nd some oth er cera tes a nd oint ment s, therefore it ma y be saidto be th e base of th e officinal oint men ts an d cera tes. It is to be regrett ed,however, that it is so seldom used when directed, the majority ofdruggists, either through ignorance or neglect, using unwashed lard

    instea d an d th en wonder ing why their oint men ts so soon become r an cid.Besides its use in medicinal preparations, washed lard is extensivelyemployed in Continental Europe, for absorbing the odors of flowers.Flower "pomades" are made by spreading layers of flowers on a thinstratum of washed lard, and renewing them as often as the odor of theflowers is well absorbed. From 24 to 30 layers of flowers are thus used

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    before th e washed lar d is th oroughly sat ura ted with th e perfume. Theprocess is called enfleurage, and the pomades made by the process areknown as No. 24 or No. 30 pomadesthe numbers indicating thenu mber of times fresh flowers h ave been su pplied to the lar d dur ing theprocess.

    50. Ad e p s Be n zo in a t u s .Benzoinated Lard Benzoinated Ointm ent.

    Benzoin , in coarse powder , 2 par t s or 140 gra ins.Prepared Lard, 100 par ts or 1 pound.

    Melt the lard by heat not exceeding 140 F., add the benzoin andma cerat e with frequent stirring for t wo hour s, then str ain t o remove th eparticles of benzoin. This will keep unchanged for any length of time,

    and is therefore mainly used as an ointment base, and for generalpha rm aceutical purposes when lard is desired. The odorous balsam ofth e benzoin is dissolved by the lar d, and acts a s a preservat ive.

    The 1870 U. S. P. directed tincture of benzoin to be used instead of thepowder, but it has been found objectionable because of the irritationwhich is produced when th e lar d th us pr epar ed is applied.

    ALBUMEN.

    The most common and familiar form of Albumen is the white of egg(Albu m en Ov i), which is freshly obtained from hen's eggs, or may behad in the market dried in scales or granulated. Another variety isobtained from blood and other animal fluids, and still another is foundin th e juices an d seeds of plan ts .

    White of Egg is th e only form of Album en u sed in ph ar ma cy. It is alsoconsiderably used in the arts for various purposes, as calico printing,making photographic paper, etc. In pharmaceutical preparations the

    natural white of egg, which contains about 121

    /2 per cent. of Albumen,is gener ally used, but dried-egg albumen is somet imes employed.

    The chemical composition of Albumen has not yet been definitelyascertained. It is the Sphynx of the chemist, and its formula is stillwritten with an interrogation point (?). It has been found, however, to

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    contain Sodium, Sulphur, Nitrogen, Hydrogen and (white of egg) about85 per cent . of wat er. Gerh ar dt h as given its a pproximat e form ula a s

    HNaC72H 110N18SO22,H 2O.

    Albumen is but litt le used in m edicinal prepa ra tions, but m ight be morefrequen tly employed with adva nt age. It form s in soluble compounds withsalt s of mer cur y, lead a nd copper, a nd some oth er poisonous su bsta nces,and is therefore given in large doses in cases of poisoning by thesesubstances. It forms insoluble compounds with tannin and othervegetable astringents, and may be employed with advantage todetannate preparations which it is desirable to combine with iron, etc.,as Elixir of Calisaya, etc. It is a valuable nutritive, and is givencombined with iron, soda and glycerin in the form of a syrup. (SeeSyrup Albumina te of Iron.) Its property of coagula ting by hea t ma kes it

    useful for clarifying liquids, syrups, etc. It is used externally in sometoilet preparations and liniments, and in many forms combined withwines, etc., as a nu tr itive drink for inva lids.

    The combinations of Albumen with medicines are frequently callednitrogenizedmedicines or protein compounds.

    A l b u m e n o i d s are substances resembling Albumen in their generalcharacter and composition. Fibrin is the chief constituent of musculartissue and is found in solution in the blood. Casein is a constituent of

    milk, and Legu m in (called vegetable Casein) of leguminous seeds,bean s,peas, almonds, etc.

    A l b u m i n a t e s are chemical compounds, either soluble or insoluble, ofAlbumen with oth er subst an ces. The compounds a nd m ixtu res genera llyused will be foun d u nder th e h eadings Glycerites, Syru ps, Solutions, et c.

    ALCOHOLESALCOHOLS.

    64. Alc o h o l.

    E thyl Alcoh olEthyl Hydrate

    C2H 5HO.

    The present U. S. P. describes Alcohol as "a liquid composed of 91 percent. by weight (94 per cent. by volume) of Ethyl Alcohol, and 9 per

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    cent . by weight (6 per cent . by volum e) of water , sp. gr. 0.820 a t 15.6 C.(60 F1.)" It boils at 78 C. (172.4 F.).

    The commercial Alcohol (188 proof), which is furnished by the distillersin t his coun tr y, corr esponds very closely with th is description.

    The U. S. P. designat es it simply by th e na me "ALCOHOL," while the Br.P. ter ms it ALCOHOL ETH YLICUME thylic Alcoh ol, which seems th emore proper name, as it distinguishes it from other Alcohols. Alcohol ischem ica lly Hydr at e of E th yl.

    It is composed of

    Carbon, 52.67 par ts, by weight .Hydrogen , 12.90 par ts, by weight .

    Oxygen , 34.43 pa r t s, by weight .100.

    It is obtained by distillation from fermented grain, fruit or othersubstances composed largely of starch or sugar. In this country Alcoholis principally made from common whisky, by redistillation. When grainis used for making Alcohol or spirits a portion of it is malted for thepurpose of developing t he diastase. The coar sely-groun d u nm alted grainis then scalded to soften the starchy matter, the malt is added, whichconverts t he st ar ch, first, into dextrin, and th en int o saccha rine ma tt er.

    It is then cooled, yeast is added, and the vinous fermentation begins,converting the saccharine matter into Alcohol and liberating carbonicacid gas. When fermentation has proceeded long enough the mash ispu t in to stills, and t he Alcohol in a weak form (whisky) is obta ined. It isth en r edist illed to obta in t he Alcohol of comm erce.

    When Alcohol is ma de from fru it or saccha rine ma tt er t he pr ocess beginswith the vinous fermentation. Alcohol is the spirit or "spirits" present inwines, beer, cider and all still malt and distilled liquors; its varyingproport ion determ ines th e str ength of the liquors.

    Absolute Alcohol is Alcohol containing not more than one or two percent. of water. It is made from ordinary Alcohol by agitating withcarbonate of potassium and fused chloride of calcium, or with slackedlime (which a bsorbs t he wat er) an d redistilling. Its sp. gr. is 0.794 to0.800. It is somet imes called Att wood's Pa ten t Alcohol.

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    S t r o n g e r A l c o h o l.This was directed in the U. S., 1870,Ph ar ma copoeia, but wa s not reta ined in t he lat er revision. Its sp. gr. was0.817, and it was stronger than the commercial Alcohol, so it was veryproperly deleted.

    Rect i fi ed Sp i r i tSpiritus RectificatusBr. P.Alcohol, with sixteenper cent. of water, obtained by the distillation of fermented saccharinefluids."

    This is the Alcohol chiefly directed to be used in the preparations of theBr. P . It corr esponds very n ear ly with th e 1870 U. S. official Alcohol its sp. gr. is 0.838, while th e sp. gr . of the 1870 U. S. Alcohol was 0.835an d cont ained 15 per cent . of wat er.

    To convert the U. S. 1880 or commercial Alcohol into rectified spirit ofth e Brit ish st an da rd, a dd I fluidoun ce of wat er to 16 fl.oun ces of Alcohol.This sh ould be observed when workin g form ula e of th e Br. P.

    The abbreviation S. V. R., Spiritus Vini Rectificatus, so frequently metwith in English formulas, refers to rectified spirit, which was formerlycalled Rectified Spirit of Wine.

    S p i r i t u s Weingist, P. G.The Alcohol of the Germ an Ph ar ma copoeiacontains 85.6 to 87.2 per cent. of absolute Alcohol and has sp. gr. 0.830

    to 0.834. It is, ther efore, a tr ifle stronger th an rectified spirit.

    Cologne Sp i r i t .In this country this is deodorized Alcohol, of thesame proof as official Alcohol. In France, Cologne spirit is distilled fromgra pes, an d is of abou t t he s am e proof as Alcohol. When th is is desired itis usu ally called Fren ch Cologne spirit. The high du ty pr event s its u se toan y extent in th is coun tr y.

    P u r e S p ir i t is a commercial name for deodorized spirit of about 100proof, which corr esponds very nea rly with diluted Alcohol. It is similar to

    but only about half the alcoholic strength of Cologne spirit, and islargely used by rectifiers of liquors and manufacturers of wines formixing. It is a lso called neutral spirit.

    Spi r i t o f Wine is a commercial name for Alcohol, although it properlyapplies to the French Cologne spirit. It is frequently called for in old

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    recipes, an d Alcohol should be dispen sed.

    High Wine is a name used by distillers for low-proof Alcohol. Whencalled for, ordinary Alcohol may be used.

    Proof of Alcohol .In this country liquors which contain one half, or50 per cent ., by mea su re of absolut e Alcohol ar e called PROOF, or 100.If th ey cont ain more th an th at th ey are called above or over pr oof, an d,if less, below proof, the proof being shown by adding to or subtractingfrom 100; thus, whisky, gin, rum and brandy are generally proof, or100. If five over proof, they would be called five above or over proof, or105, and, if ten less than proof, ten below proof, or 90. CommercialAlcohol is 188, or 88 over proof, or 94 per cent. (the percentage ofAlcohol by mea su re a lways being one ha lf th e proof degrees).

    65. Al c o h o l D i l u t u m .Dilu ted Alcoh ol, U. S ., S pir itus T enuior or Proof S pir it Br. S pir it usDilu tus, P. G.

    The present U. S. P. directs diluted Alcohol to be made by mixing equalweight of official Alcohol and wa ter . It is described a s "a liquid composedof 45.5 per cent. by weight (53 per cent. by volume) of Ethyl Alcohol,and 54.5 per cent. by weight (47 per cent. by volume) of water. Sp. gr.0.928, at 15.6 C. (60 F.)." It is made as follows:

    DILUTE D ALCOHOL , U. S. 1880.

    BY WEIGHT. BY ME ASURE .Alcohol, sp. gr. .820, 50 pa r ts or 16 ozs. av., 17 fl.ozs.Distilled Wat er, 50 pa r ts or 16 ozs. av., 14 fl.ozs.

    Mix. Sp. gr. 0.928, percentage of Ethyl Alcohol, by weight 45.5, byvolum e 53.

    The 1870 U. S. dilut ed Alcohol was made a s follows:

    DILUTE D ALCOHO L, U. S. 1870.

    Alcohol, sp. gr . 0.835, (equal pa r t s) a pin t .Dist illed Water , (by measure) a pint .

    Mix. Sp. gr. 0.941, percentage of Ethyl Alcohol, by weight 39.3, byFen ner s Complete Formu lary - Par t IIIA - WORKING FORMULA - Page 17

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    volume 46.6.

    It will be observed th a t t he pr esen t U . S. diluted Alcohol is cons idera blystronger than the 1870. While it is desirable to have a preparation ofsufficient alcoholic strength for the purpose, yet the 1880 diluted

    Alcohol seems u nn ecessar ily str ong for ma king m ost of the prepa ra tionsin which it is employed, in fact, a m uch weaker men str uu m could be aswell used in most of them. Druggists, by the usage of a century, havema de dilut ed Alcohol, by mixing equa l measur es of comm ercial Alcoholan d wat er. While th is ma y not be str ictly scientific, it is t he cust om th athas prevailed, and we find now, in spite of the directions of the 1880Ph ar ma copoeia, th at th e practice is still cont inued, and t ha t n inety-nineout of one hundred druggists now mix equal volumes of commercialAlcohol and water to make diluted Alcohol. This seems strong enoughfor all purposes for which diluted Alcohol is used, and we advise its

    adoption in all the formulas in this work in which diluted Alcohol isdirected , except wh en specially ma rked U. S. 1880, or U . S. 1870, etc.

    DILUTED ALCOHOL, TO BE USED IN TH ESE FOR MULAS.

    Commercial Alcohol, (equa l par t s ) a pin t .Water , (by measure) a pin t ,

    Mix. It cont a ins a bout 43 per cent . by weight , or 50 per cent . by volum e,of commercia l Et hyl Alcohol. Sp. gr . at 72 F., 0.933.

    When alcohol and water are mixed, a slight contraction of volumeoccur s with a rise in tem pera tu re. The great est cont ra ction occur s when52.6 volumes of alcohol are mixed with 47.4 volumes of water, it being3.4 per cent. This should be taken into account when making specifiedquantities of diluted alcohol.

    A l c o h o l i n P h a r m a c y .Alcohol is used in pharmacy to extract ordissolve th e pr opert ies of drugs a nd to preser ve th eir solut ion. N o oth ersolvent of medicinal su bsta nces ha s been foun d of such u niversal valueand application. A large-share of the liquid preparations that are usedin pharmacy contain Alcohol and depend upon its solvent power andpreservative virtue for their value. Besides this, it is used in makingmost of th e solid extra cts, a bstr acts, alka loids, resinoids, an d m an y oth ersolid pr epar at ions.

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    The liquid preparations in which Alcohol is used as the solvent ofmedicinal principles, or for their preservation, may be classified asfollows:

    Cordials and Elixirs, which contain aromatic substances, and mild

    medicines , sweeten ed a nd combin ed with su fficient Alcohol to keep th eman d hold th eir properties in solut ion.

    Essences and Flavoring Ext racts, which a re m ostly ma de from essent ialoils, or ar oma tic subs ta nces dissolved in Alcohol.

    Fluid and Liquid Extracts, which cont ain a large qua nt ity of medicinalvalu e h eld in solut ion by Alcohol or dilut ed Alcohol.

    L iquors of all kinds, which a re m ain ly Alcohol in some form , dilut ed and

    flavored with th e subst an ces peculiar t o th e kind.

    Spirits, which a re solut ions of essen tia l oils, ar oma tic subst an ces, etc., inAlcohol, an d among which may be included per fum es.

    Solutions, which contain Alcohol, either as a solvent or preservative, assolu tions of gum s, resin s, acids, alka loids, etc.

    Tinctures , which are mainly solutions of the medicinal principles ofdrugs in Alcohol or diluted Alcohol.

    To these may be added the abstracts, solid extracts, alkaloids, andmedicina l principles of drugs gener ally, which ar e obta ined by th e aid ofAlcohol, and it will be seen th at in pha rm acy it is th e most import an t ofan y substan ce, in fact, ent irely indispensable in its pra ctice.

    In French pharmacy Alcohol is called Alcool , and alcoholic preparationsare classified according to the manner of preparing them and thesubstances used in t hem.

    Alcoola ts or Alcohola tes are medicated distilled spirits, made bymacerating aromatic and other substances with Alcohol, and distilling.We have no official preparations that correspond with them. They willbe noticed under the headings DISTILLATES, ESSENCES, SPIRITS,TINCTURES, ETC.

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    A l c o o l a t e u r e s.These are tinctures prepared by macerating freshplants (roots, barks, seeds, leaves, flowers, etc.) in Alcohol. Theycorrespond very nearly to what are known in this country as greenplant fluid extracts. They are made by macerating equal parts byweight of the fresh subst an ce, properly cut , bruised or divided, in ninet y

    per cent. Alcohol, for ten days, then pouring off the liquid, pressing thedrugs, and filtering the extract thus obtained. As our green plant fluidextr acts a re so similar, th ese prepar at ions will not be fur th er n oticed.

    Alcools .These are simple solutions of medicinal substances inAlcohol. Among them are the mixtures of acids, ammonia, etc., withAlcohol and the solutions of alkaloids and their salts, phosphorus,carbonate of potassium, soap, etc., which are not properly classifiedunder the head of "Tinctures Alcoholiques." We have included theseunder the general heading "Tinctures." Besides the above-mentioned

    prepa ra tions cont ainin g Alcohol, ar e th ose which ar e classified th e sa meas in our own work s, which will be noticed un der t heir pr oper h eadings,as Elixirs, Essen ces, Extra cts, Spirits, Tinctu res, etc.

    ALKALOIDE S ALKALOI DS.

    The name Alkaloids is given to a class of organic bases which (likealka lies) combine with acids t o form salt s. The Alka loids an d t heir salt srepresent the active medicinal properties of most vegetable drugs and

    form a very important class of chemicals. The manufacture of Alkaloidsand their salts is chiefly carried on by manufacturing chemists, and alarge amoun t of cap ita l is th us em ployed.

    Alkaloids ma y be classed a s na tu ra l and ar tificial. The na tu ra l Alkaloidsare obtained from organic substances (animal or vegetable) in whichthey exist combined with other substances, and the artificial areproduced by the skill of the chemist. The natural Alkaloids all containnitrogen, with hydrogen as a base, and are probably derivatives of theammonia type (NH3). Carbon is present in all, and oxygen in most of

    them. Alkaloids which contain the four elements C, H, N, O, are calledAMIDES. They are generally non-volatile crystallizable solids,representing the active principles of vegetable and animal substancesfrom which they are obtained. Alkaloids which contain only the threeelements C, H, N, are called AMINES. They are generally volatileliquids, artificially made by substituting hydrocarbon radicals wholly or

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    par tly for t he h ydrogen of th e typical a mm onia base.

    Considerable confusion formerly existed because of the lack ofuniformity of the termination of the names of Alkaloids some endingwith ia and some with in e, as morphia, quinine, etc., but in the late

    revisions of the American and British Pharmacopoeias the terminalletters of the names of the Alkaloids are uniformly ine. It should,th erefore, be remembered t ha t in older work s of pha rm acy th e na mes ofAlkaloids tha t t ermina ted in ia would n ow be writt en in e.

    As Alkaloids are, so to speak, the concentrated principles of thesubstances from which they are derived they are very powerful,compared with the crude substances, the dose of many of them beingvery minute. Their salts, being more soluble, are mainly used inmedicine. Severa l Alka loids var ying in composition and cha ra cter istics

    are sometimes obtained from one plant, but in the main they are truerepresent at ives of th e dru g in pr operties an d actions.

    Alkaloids a re genera lly insoluble or but spar ingly soluble in wat er, butare readily dissolved in alcohol, chloroform, and the liquidhydrocarbons. They form salts with acids, generally soluble in water.From aqueous solutions of these salts the Alkaloids are precipitated byalkalies, because of the stronger attraction of their acids for the alkalitha n th e alkaloidal base.

    The Alkaloids ar e ma inly used in ph ar ma cy as bases for pr epar ing theirsalts, and are but little employed in medicine, their soluble salts beingused instead. It is therefore unnecessary to give explicit formulae for allof them, but only such as are more frequently employed and generalprocesses which ma y apply to the r emainder .

    The following general directions for preparing Alkaloids from crudedrugs are therefore given, but it may be stated that they can only beconsidered general directions, and that some special treatment,requiring experience and chemical knowledge is necessary to

    successfully obta in a nd separ at e th e Alkaloids of most su bsta nces. Theyare, therefore, generally supplied by competent manufacturingchemists.

    70. Ge n er a l Dir ec t ion s fo r P r ep ar in g Alk a lo id s.

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    I . FOR ALKALOIDS SL IGH TLY SOLUBLE IN WATER , OR WHICH EXIST INTHE PLANTS, ETC., IN THE FORM OF ACIDS, OR SOLUBLE SALTS OFALKALOIDS.

    Macerate the drug, in coarse powder, twenty-four hours, in watersufficient to cover it, then pack it moderately in the water-bathpercolator, adding water freely, and heat to boiling; then begin topercolate, adding water th rough th e percolator, and cont inuing th e heatand percolation until the drug is exhausted; strain the percolate whilehot and slowly add to the liquid water of ammonia or liquor of potassaas long as it continues to precipitate, allow to settle, pour off the liquid,pour the precipitate upon a filter, wash with a little water, press,dissolve in very dilut e acetic or hydr ochloric acid, precipita te aga in withammonia or potassa, pour off, drain, and repeat the operation as many

    times as may be necessary to purify the Alkaloids. The product is theAlkaloids of the drug, which are partially soluble in water. If necessary,they must be separated by various means, recrystallized and dried. Theliquors wh ich a re pour ed off cont a in a sm all percent age of the Alkaloids,which may be recovered by evaporating them and treating in the samema nn er as directed.

    II . FOR ALKALOIDS INSOLUB LE IN WATER .

    Macerate the drug, in moderately fine powder, for twenty-four hours,with sufficient alcohol to cover it, pack firmly in the water-bath

    percolator, pour alcohol upon it, heat moderately for an hour and beginto percolate, adding alcohol to the drug and continuing the heat andpercolation until its strength is exhausted; distil off most of the alcoholand to the residue add sufficient very dilute acetic or muriatic acid todissolve the Alkaloids that are in the soft extract; this is bestaccomplished by wash ing it with severa l port ions of th e dilute a cid; filterthe acid solution and add to it sufficient water of ammonia or liquorpota ssa to precipita te t he Alka loids, wash th e precipitat e on a filter withwater, and redissolve and reprecipitate if necessary. The product is theAlkaloids soluble in alcohol that were contained in the drug, and they

    mu st be separa ted if necessary.

    Many other processes are employed for obtaining Alkaloids, as boilingthe drug with dilute acid, precipitating with an alkali, etc., but theforegoing are sufficient to show the general methods. It may beexplained in regard to the foregoing processes that the heat employed

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    serves to dissolve th e alka loids, the sa me a s t he a cids which a re u sed inother processes, and the subsequent treatment is less troublesome; forexample: Strychnine dissolves in 12 parts of boiling or no parts of coldalcohol; quinine in 2 parts boiling or 6 parts of cold alcohol; caffeine in10 parts of boiling or 75 parts of cold water; therefore, when drugs are

    percolated with a boiling or heated menstruum, their alkaloids are asreadily dissolved as when acids are used, and their subsequentsepar at ion is much more simple.

    The following are the more important Alkaloids which have beensufficiently investigated to receive reliable recognition and formulas.Man y oth ers, of cour se, exist, for it m ay be a ssu med t ha t every genu s ofplants has its characteristic basic principle or principles which may beisolated, but only the more important ones have thus far receivedattention.

    I m p o r t a n t Alk a l o id s a n d t h e i r S a lt s .

    Of the Alkaloids known and named by chemists, but few are used inmedicine, and most of them are unimportant except as chemicalproducts and curiosities. Of the small number which are used inmedicine but few ar e employed as Alka loids, but ma inly as sa lts form edby the un ion of these organic bases with acids.

    The Alkaloids are generally used for making the oleates, because they

    will combine with oleic acid, while their sa lts will not. Some of th em a realso employed in delicat e prepa ra tions, wher e th e acids with which t heyar e combined a s sa lts would be ina dmissible.

    The following important Alkaloids and their salts are those which arefrequen tly used in m edicine:

    76. Be b e r in a .

    Beberine (BeberiaBibiria.) C36H 42N2O6

    This Alkaloid is obtained from nectandra or bebeeru bark, in which itexists combined with nectan drine (C40H 46N2O8) and other Alkaloids. It

    is identical with buxine, from box, and pelosine or cissampeline, frompareira.

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    The Alka loid is not u sed in med icine but its su lpha te is official in th e Br.P., and the Alkaloid may be prepared from it if desired by decomposingits solution in hot water with water of ammonia, and washing anddrying the precipita te. From th e similarit y of na mes car e must be takennot to dispense b e b e r i n e or its salts when b e r b e r i n e is ordered, and

    vice versa .

    77. Be b e r in a e Su lp h a s , Br .

    Sulphate of Beberine(Sulphate of Beberia.)

    The following is the formu la official in t he Br . P.:

    Bebeeru Bark, in coarse powder , 1 pound av.

    Su lphu ric Acid, 1/2 fl.ounce.

    Slacked Lime, q. s., or 3/4 oun ce av.

    Solut ion of Ammonia, a su fficiency.Rect ified Spir it , 16 fl.ounces.Dilut ed Su lphuric Acid, a su fficiency.Water , 154 fl.ounces.Distilled Wat er, a su fficiency.

    Add the sulphuric acid to the water, pour upon the bebeeru barkenough of the mixture to moisten it thoroughly; let it macerate for

    twenty-four hours, place it in a percolator and pass through it theremainder of the acidulated water; concentrate the acid percolate to 20fl.ounces, cool and add gradually the lime in the form of milk of lime,agitating well, and taking care that the fluid still retains a distinct acidreaction; let it rest for two hours, filter through calico, wash theprecipitate with a little cold distilled water, and to the filtrate addsolution of ammonia until the fluid has a faint ammoniacal odor; collectthe precipitate on a cloth, wash it twice with 10 ounces of cold water,squeeze it gently with t he ha nd a nd dr y it by th e heat of a wa ter-bat h;pulverize the precipitate and wash with separate portions of the spirit,mix the wa shings, add 4 oun ces of distilled wat er a nd dist il th e great erpar t of th e spirit; to the r esidue add with agitat ion diluted su lphur ic acidun til th e fluid ha s a slight acid r eaction; evaporat e to dryness, dissolvein distilled water, filter, evaporate to a syrupy consistence, spread onglass plates, a nd dry by a tem pera tu re n ot exceeding 140 F. (60 C.).

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    This is used as a su bstitu te for quin ine, or, ra th er, its a ction is similar toit, but it cann ot be cons idered its equ al. The dose is from 1 t o 10 grain s.

    78. Be r b e r in a .

    Berberine (Berberia .) C20H 17NO4.

    The Alka loid Berberine is foun d in a large n um ber of plant s, but is mostabundant in hydrastis, columbo, gold-thread and several species ofbarberry. It may be obtained by several methods; but, perhaps, thesimplest a nd th e best is by boiling th e coar sely-powdered ba rk s or r oots,or, preferably, percolating them in the water-bath percolator withboiling water until they are exhausted. The decoction is then to beevaporated to a soft extract and washed with successive portions ofalcohol to dissolve out the Berberine; to the alcoholic washings, mixed

    and filtered, a little water is then to be added and the alcohol distilledoff by means of a water-bath; the remaining liquid is then condensed,allowed to cool, and crystals of Berberine will form; these may bepurified by dissolving in hot wa ter an d recrysta llizing.

    Uses .The Alkaloid is but little used, but its salts are extensivelyemployed in medicine. It is a tonic to the mucous membrane, a bitterstomachic and general alterative, and has properties similar to quinine.The dose is from 1 t o 8 gra ins.

    79. Be r b e r in a e H yd r och lor a s .

    Hydroch lorate of Berberine.

    This salt, which was formerly known as hydrastin , is generallyprepared from golden seal. A decoction may be made, evaporated andtreated with alcohol in the same manner as is directed for makingBerber ine. A little wat er, acidulat ed with h ydroch loric acid, is th en t o beadded to the alcoholic solution, the alcohol distilled, and the remainingliquid set aside, in which crystals of Hydrochlorate of Berberine will

    form ; these are to be drained from the mother liquor, dissolved in hotwat er an d pu rified by r ecrysta llizat ion.

    It can also be prepared from the Alkaloid berberine by dissolving it inhot wa ter , acidu lat ed with h ydrochloric acid, a llowing to cryst a llize, an dpurifying by recryst a llizing from hot wa ter .

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    This sa lt gained considera ble notoriety as an eclectic rem edy under th ena me of hydrast in, and was a fterwar ds known a s mu riate of hydrast in;but this salt, which is of a bright yellow color, has been shown to be theHydrochlora te of Berberine, th e sa lts of hydra stine being white inst ead.

    Uses .Its uses are similar to the Alkaloida tonic to the mucoussurfaces, etc. It is much used in atonic dyspepsia and weakness of thedigestive tr act. Dose, 1 to 4 grains .

    80. Be r b e r in a e Su lp h a s .

    Sulphate of Berberine.

    This is prepared by dissolving Berberine in hot water, acidulated with

    sulphuric acid, crystallizing, redissolving the crystals in hot water andrecrystallizing; or may be made directly from the barks or rootscontaining Berberine in the same manner as is directed for makingBerberine, except that water, acidulated with sulphuric acid, instead ofwat er, mus t be added t o the alcoholic solut ion before distillat ion.

    Uses .The u ses of th is salt ar e similar to th e Alkaloid. It is also used inma king elixirs, etc. The dose is from 1 to 4 gra ins.

    81. Ca ffe in a .

    Caffeine T heine Gu aranin e. C8H 16O2,H 2O.

    Coffee, tea, some other plants, and guarana contain an identical

    Alka loid ca lled Caffeine. Coffee contains about 1 per cent., tea 11/2 to 4

    per cent., and guarana 4 to 5 per cent. of this Alkaloid. It is preparedfrom these substances by boiling them in water to make a strongdecoction, precipitating the decoction with acetate of lead to removeastringent and other matter, filtering, passing sulphuretted hydrogengas t hr ough th e filtr at e t o remove excess of lead, filter ing aga in, adding

    water of ammonia, evaporating and recrystallizing. It is seldom madeexcept by man ufactu ring chem ists.

    Uses .Caffeine is used as a nerve stimulant in sick and nervousheadache and periodic nervous derangements. The dose is from 1 to 5grains.

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    82. Ca ffe in a e Cit r a s , Br .

    Citrate of Caffeine. C8H 10N4O2,H 3C6H 5O7.

    Caffeine, 1 ounce.Citric Acid, 1 ounce.Dist illed Water , 2 ounces.

    Dissolve th e citric acid in t he wa ter an d st ir th e Caffeine into the h eat edsolution; evaporate to dryness on a water-bath, constantly stirringtowards t he end of th e opera tion.

    The properties and uses of this preparation are the same as Caffeine.The dose is from 2 to 10 grains. It may be conveniently given in the

    form of an elixir .

    96. H yd r a st in a .

    Hydrastine(Hydrastia.) C22H 23NO6

    The white Alkaloid Hydra st in e is recovered from the mother liquor leftafter the crystallization of salts of berberine, when prepared fromhydrastis.

    It is obtained by diluting the mother liquor with water, evaporating thealcohol, filter ing to rem ove resinous m at ter , etc., adding a mm onia to th efiltra t e, which precipit at es th e Alka loid; dissolving the pr ecipita te in h otalcohol; filtering again through animal charcoal to render colorless;evaporat ing th e a lcoholic solut ion an d crysta llizing.

    Uses .Hydra stine wa s form erly a wast e product of th e ma nu factur e ofberberine and its salts (hydrastin), but by the advertising ofmanufacturers, and being colorless, has come to be used in solution for

    injections, washes, etc. It is also given internally in doses of 1/16 to 1

    grain as a t onic an d altera tive.

    122. S a n g u in a r in a .

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    Sanguinarine. C19H 17NO4.

    This Alkaloid ma y be made by exhau sting Sa nguina ria with a lcohol, bymeans of the water-bath percolator, distilling off most of the alcohol,adding wat er a nd solution of soda to precipita te, wash ing th e precipitat ewith hot alcohol, filtering through animal charcoal, concentrating andcryst allizing. It is white, but yields very bright r ed salt s with a cids.

    N it ra te of S angu inarin e and Sulphate of Sanguinarine have beenintr oduced by ma nu factu ring chemists, an d ar e quite favora bly receivedby practitioner s.

    Uses .Sanguinarine and its salts are used in bronchitis, pneumonia

    an d lar yngitis in d oses of1/20 to 1/10 grain.

    ALOEALOES.

    As found in the market Aloes consists of the inspissated juice of theleaves of severa l var ieties ofAloe found in Afr ica .

    The U. S. P. recognizes only the variety produced from Aloe S ocotrin a;the Br. P. directs both Barbadoes and Socotrine Aloes, while the G. P.na mes Cape Aloes, which in cludes a var iety of differen t species na tive ofthe Cape of Good Hope. The various species are all more or less used inpharmacy, the Barbadoes and Socotrine being chiefly employed for manan d t he Ca pe Aloes for horses an d cat tle.

    The fleshy leaves of the Aloe are cut off near their base and their juiceallowed to drain into troughs or vessels. The collected juice is thenevaporated to the consistence of an extract and run into boxes, kegs orgour ds, in which sh ape it is brought to the ma rket .

    Aloes is a well-known and much-used purgative, being familiarlyknown to the household as "Picra." It is the active ingredient in most

    patent and cathartic pills. In small doses, 1 to 2 grains, it is a tonic,stomachic, and is the chief ingredient of several "bitters" which havebeen exten sively sold. The laxa tive dose is 2 to 3 grain s, an d th e dose asan active pur gative is 10 to 13 grains.

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    hea dings, as extr acts, pills, powders, tin ctu res, wines, etc.

    131. Aloe P u r ifica t a , U. S .

    Purified Aloes.

    Aloes, 100 par ts or 10 ounces av.Alcohol, 15 par ts or 2 fl.ounces.

    Hea t t he Aloes by wat er-bat h u nt il it is completely melted, then add t healcohol and having stirred the mixture thoroughly strain it through afine sieve which h as just been dipped int o boiling water . Evaporat e th estrained mixture by means of a water-bath, constantly stirring until ath rea d of th e ma ss becomes britt le on cooling.

    The object of purifying the Aloes is to remove foreign substances, suchas sticks, stones, dirt , and oth er impu rities which, by the carelessness inmak ing it, ha ve been introduced. Its pr operties a nd uses ar e th e sam e asAloes. It is only official in the U. S.

    132. Alo in , Br .

    C16H 18O7

    "A crystalline substance extracted from Aloes by solvents and purified

    by recrysta llization. As obta ined from t he differen t var ieties of Aloes, th eproducts differ s lightly, but th eir medicinal pr opert ies ar e similar." Br.

    Aloin appears to be the active or cathartic principle of Aloes. It isobtained by treating Aloes with acidulated boiling water, whichdissolves the Aloin and resinous matter. After standing for some hoursto cool the liquid is poured off from the resin and evaporated to theconsistence of syrup. When cool, crystals of Aloin form, which may bepur ified by repea ted recrysta llizat ion from h ot alcohol.

    The laxative dose is from 1/20 t o 1/4 grain; the cathartic dose 1/2 to 2grains. It is considerably used, in combination with other medicines, in"litt le liver pills."

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    As applied to pharmacy in this country and Great Britain the termAquae or Waters includes only aqueous solutions of aromatic or volatilesubst an ces, eith er with or with out th e aid of some insoluble medium bywhich t heir solution ma y be facilita ted.

    These waters are more commonly called "medicated waters," but withone or two exceptions th ey are h ar dly ent itled to th at appellation. Theyare used in pharmacy for making a few medicinal preparations, and inmedicine a re pr escribed as vehicles or a roma tic dilut e'nt s for more a ctiveremedies.

    The United States Pharmacopoeia includes in the waters, aquaammoniae and aqua chlori, which are solutions of gas in water; theBritish P ha rm acopoeia includes t hese a mong th e solutions, which is, no

    doubt, the more proper classification. In German pharmacy severalpreparations are classed among the waters that more properly belongwith the solutions; and in French Pharmacy, a large number ofpreparations are included in the "Eaux" which should be in entirelydifferent departments. Under this heading, therefore, only thosesolutions of volatile substances which are naturally classed with thewaters as understood in this country and Great Britain will bementioned.

    The pr ocesses by which th ey ar e ma de ar e a s follows :

    208. By So lu t ion .

    a. Of th ose ma de with cold water , the solutions of gaseous am monia a ndchlorine; of chloroform, carbolic acid and creasote; of bitter almond oil,an d t ar ma y be ment ioned. With th e exception of th e gaseous solutions,which require special appara tu s, the r emaining waters a re m ade simplyby agitating the substances occasionally for several days with coldwater.

    b. Hot wa ter dissolves t he volatile oils m uch m ore rea dily th an cold, andvery good waters may be made by thoroughly agitating the volatile oildirected in hot wat er, allowing to stan d for severa l hours, a nd filter ing.Near ly all th e wat ers in which volatile oils a re u sed can be sat isfactorilymade in t his manner.

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    209. By Dis t i l la t ion .

    a. From fresh or dried aromatic fruit, flowers, leaves, bark, or otherparts of plants. The substance is introduced with water into a still, andone half or less of the water (which is charged with the volatile

    constituents of the substances) is distilled over. Or steam is passedthrough the substances contained in a still, the vapor condensed, andthe liquid separated from oily particles byfilteration. Most of the watersof th e British P ha rma copoeia are made in this m ann er.

    b. From essent ial oils of plant s, by mixing t hem with a qua nt ity of sa ndor some oth er su bsta nce to separa te t he oily part icles, th en a dding wat erand distilling over about half the quantity used. The proportion isgenera lly one fl.drachm of essen t ial oil, 4 oun ces of sa nd , an d one gallonof water. Distill 4 to 6 pints. This isa very good way to make Distilled

    Waters. They generally keep better than when made from the fruit,flowers, leaves, etc.

    Distillation, whenever it is admissible, is to be recommended above allother processes for the preparation of Waters. The process andapparatus are further described on page 26. When made by distillation,the distilled waters while still warm should be put in small bottles,sea led, an d pu t in a cool place. They will th en keep for yea rs .

    210. By F i lt r a t ion or P er co la t ion .

    a. The process formerly official for making most of the Waters of theUn ited Sta tes P ha rm acopoeia, was t o ru b 30 minims of th e essentia l oilwith 60 grains of carbonate of magnesium, then with 2 pints of water,and filter. This was generally a very satisfactory process, but it wasthought desirable to change the process in the 1880 revision bysubst itut ing cott on as a mea ns of mecha nically dividing th e oil to aid inits solution. The former process is, however, very generally used inpreference to the latter. Other substances besides carbonate ofmagnesium, as phosphate of calcium, powdered pumice-stone, kaolin,

    precipitated chalk, etc., are sometimes used, but they have noadvan ta ges over it.

    b. The 1880 Un ited Sta tes P ha rm acopoeia directs ma ny of th e Wat ers t obe made by adding the essential oil gradually to cotton, picking itth oroughly to pieces to distr ibut e th e oil evenly, th en pa cking t he cot ton

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    in a conical funnel, and percolating with water until the desiredqua nt ity is obta ined. The cott on (which is pr efera bly absorben t cott on) isbest impregnated with the essential oil by the use of cards such as areemployed for carding wool. Thirty minims of the oil with 60 grains ofcott on is t he pr oper qua nt ity to make t wo pints of water .

    The following are the Waters generally used and prescribed in thiscountry.

    211. Aq u a Am y g d a la e Am a r a e .

    B it ter Alm ond Water.

    Oil of Bit ter Almonds, 15 minims.Dist illed Water , 2 pints.

    Dissolve the oil in the water by agitation (208 a), and filter through awell-wett ed filter.

    This is a n a greea bly flavored veh icle.

    The Germa n P ha rm acopoeia directs t his wat er t o be ma de from Bitter Almonds 12parts by first bruising and pressing out as much as possible of the fixed oil, thenpowdering and mixing with 80 parts of water, and 1 part of alcohol, and allowing tostand 12 hours. Eleven parts are then to be carefully distilled off into a well cooledreceiver, containing one part of alcohol. This is then to be assayed to determine the

    amount of hydrocyanic acid, and the distillate so diluted with a mixture of 1 part ofalcohol mixed with 5 par ts of wat er, th at 1 par t of hydr ocyan ic acid will be cont ain edin 1,000 parts of the finished liquid.

    212. Aq u a An e t h i , B r .

    Dill Water.

    Dill Fruit , bruised, 1 pound av.Water , 20 pounds av.

    Distill 10 poun ds, (209 a.)

    This very much resembles Anise Water. It is seldom used in thiscoun tr y, but is much pr escribed in Gr eat Britain.

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    213. Aq u a An is i , U. S .

    Anise Water.

    Oil of Anise, 30 minims.

    Carbonate of Magnesium or Cot ton , 60 gra ins .Dist illed Water , 2 pints.

    Make by ru bbing t he oil with th e ma gnesium or picking with t he cott on,adding t he wa ter an d filter ing or percolating a s directed (210 a or b.) Itmay also be made by mixing 1 fl.drachm of oil with 4 ounces of sandan d 8 pint s of wat er, an d distilling 4 pints (209 b.)

    The British P ha rm acopoeia directs :

    Anise Fruit , bru ised, 1 pound av.Water , 20 pounds av.

    Distill 10 poun ds, a s dir ected (209 a.)

    Anise Water is u sed a s a veh icle for m edicines , especially for children .

    214. Aq u a Au r a n t i i F lo r u m .

    Oran ge Flower Water.

    The United States Pharmacopoeia directs 40 parts of recent OrangeFlowers and 200 parts of water to be mixed, and 100 parts to bedistilled.

    Orange Flower Water is seldom, if ever, made in this country. Asimport ed, it is known a s Triple Oran ge Flower Wat er. By diluting withtwo part s of distilled wat er, ordina ry Ora nge Flower Wat er is m ade.

    An inferior Orange Flower Water may be made by rubbing 20 minims

    of Oil of Orange Flowers (Oil of Neroli) with 60 grains carbonate ofma gnesium, addin g 2 pint s of wat er, an d filter ing.

    A better preparation may be made by mixing 30 minims of Oil ofOra nge Flowers (Neroli) with 4 oun ces of sa nd an d 6 pint s of wat er, an ddistilling 3 pint s.

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    Neither of these, however, represent the true flavor of the waterdistilled from th e flowers.

    Orange Flower Water is used in a few medicinal preparations and

    elixirs, bu t chiefly in toilet pr epar at ions, et c.

    215. Aq u a Ca m p h o r a e .

    Cam phor Water (U. S ., 1880).

    Camphor , 120 gra ins.

    Alcohol, 1/2 fl.ounce.

    Cotton, 1/2 ounce.

    Dist illed Water , 2 pin ts.

    Dissolve the Camphor in the alcohol; moisten the cotton with thesolution; allow the alcohol to evaporate; pack in a percolator, and addwater u nt il 2 pints ha ve passed.

    The 1870 United Sta tes P ha rm acopoeia directed 120 grains of Cam phorto be rubbed with 40 minims of alcohol, then with 240 grains ofcarbonate of magnesium, and then percolated with water until 2 pintswere obta ined.

    The British Pharmacopoeia directs 1/2 ounce av. of Camphor to be

    cru shed a nd en closed in a m uslin bag an d kept a t t he bott om of a bottlecontaining 10 pounds of distilled water (by means of a glass rod) for atleast two days before using, and then pour off the solution as requiredfor use.

    Camphor Water is used as a mild antispasmodic, in doses of 1/2 to 1

    fl.oun ce, an d a s a n addition to ma ny m edicines.

    217 . Aqu a Ca r v i , Br .

    Caraway Water.

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    Caraway Fruit , bru ised, 1 pound av.Water , 20 pounds av.

    Distill 10 poun ds a s dir ected, (209 a.)

    It may also be made by mixing 1 fl.drachm of Oil of Caraway Seed with4 oun ces of san d a nd 8 pints of wat er, an d distilling 4 pints.

    This is official only in the British Pharmacopoeia. It is a pleasantlyflavored wa ter like Anise or Dill.

    219. Aq u a C in n a m o m i .

    Cinn am on Water (U. S ., 1880).

    Oil of Cinnamon, 30 minims.Cot ton , 60 gra ins.Dist illed Water , 2 pints.

    Add the oil to the cotton; pick, pack, and percolate with the water, (210b.)

    The 1870 United States Pharmacopoeia directed 30 minims ofCinnamon Oil to be rubbed with 60 grains carbonate of magnesium,and then with 2 pints of distilled water, and filtered. The 1880

    prepar at ion is to be preferred.

    The British Pharmacopoeia directs 20 ounces av. of Cinnamon Bark,bruised, to be mixed with 20 pounds of water, and 1 gallon to bedistilled, (209 a.) It may also be made by mixing 1 fl.drachm ofCinna mon Oil with 4 oun ces of san d a nd 8 pints of wat er, an d distilling4 pint s. This ma kes a su perior Cinna mon Water.

    Cinnamon Water is used in making several preparations and is muchprescribed as an adjuvant or dilutent for other medicines. It may be

    given a s a mild st imulan t in doses of 1 fl.oun ce.

    222. Aq u a F oe n icu li .

    Fenn el Water.

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    Oil of Fennel, 15 minims.Carbonate of Magnesium or Cot ton , 60 gra ins .Dist illed Water , 2 pin ts.

    Rub th e oil with t he m agnesium , or pick with t he cott on; add wat er, an d

    filter or per cola te a s directed, (210 a or b.)

    The British and German Pharmacopoeias direct this to be made bydistillation, as follows:

    Fennel Fruit , bru ised, 1 pound av.Water , 20 pounds av.

    Distill 10 poun ds.

    It may also be made by mixing 1 fl.drachm of Oil of Fennel with 4oun ces of san d a nd 8 pints of wat er, an d distilling 4 pints.

    Fennel Water is used as a pleasant vehicle and dilutent, the same asAnise.

    223. Aq u a Ga u lt h e r ia e .

    Wintergreen Water.

    Although this water is not known to be official in any Pharmacopoeia,yet it is used and prescribed by physicians quite generally. It may bema de a s follows:

    Oil of Wintergreen , 30 minims.P hosph at e of Lim e, pr ecipit at ed, 120 gr ain s.Dist illed Water , 2 pin ts.

    Rub th e oil with th e phosphat e of lime, add t he wat er a nd filter.

    It ma y be ma de by distillat ion as follows :

    Win tergreen , fresh herb, 20 ounces av.Water , 2 ga llons.

    Distill 8 pints .

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    Or by mixing 1 fl.drachm Oil of Wintergreen with 4 ounces of sand and1 gallon of wat er, and distilling 4 pint s.

    224. Aq u a La u r o Ce r a s i, Br .

    Cherry Lau rel Water.

    Fresh Leaves of Cher ry Laurel, 1 pound av.

    Water , 31/2 pints.

    Crush the leaves and macerate with water in a warm place for 24hour s, then distill 20 oun ces.

    The Cherry Laurel is seldom found in this country, and it has beendemonstrated, by the late Prof. Proctor, that the leaves of our ordinarywild cherry treated in the same way will produce an identicalpreparation. It is, therefore, advised to use them in making "CherryLau rel Wat er" in th is coun tr y.

    Cherry Laurel Water may also be made by adding 15 drops Oil ofCher ry Lau rel to 2 pint s of distilled wat er, an d agita tin g un til dissolved.

    It is very similar to bitt er a lmond water , which ma y be used for it.

    225. Aq u a Me n t h a e P ip e r i t a e .

    Peppermint Water.

    Oil of Peppermint , 30 minims.Carbonate of Magnesium or Cot ton , 60 gra ins .Dist illed Water , 2 pints.

    Rub th e oil with t he m agnesium or pick with t he cott on; add wat er, an dfilter or per cola te a s directed, (210 a or b.)

    The British Pharmacopoeia directs this to be made by mixing 1 1/2

    fl.drachms of Oil of Peppermint with 15 pounds of water, and distilling10 pounds. The oil should be mixed with 4 ounces of sand as directed,(209 b.)

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    The German Pharmacopoeia directs it to be made by mixing 1 part ofcut Pepperm int (herb) with water , and distilling 10 part s.

    Peppermint Water is very much used and prescribed in medicine as a

    vehicle for other medicines, especially in flatulence and other dyspeptictroubles.

    226. Aq u a Me n t h a Vir id is .

    S pearm int W ater.

    Oil of Spearmint , 30 minims.Carbonate of Magnesium or Cot ton , 60 gra ins .Dist illed Water , 2 pints.

    Make in t he sa me ma nn er a s is directed for pepperm int wa ter , (225.) Itsuses ar e similar.

    228. Aq u a P im e n t a s , Br .

    Pim ento Water.

    Pimento, bru ised, 14 ounces av.Water , 20 pounds av.

    Distill 10 poun ds.

    This may also be prepared by adding 30 minims Oil of Pimento to 60grains of cotton; picking, packing and percolating with 2 pints ofdistilled water .

    It is not as good prepa red with Ca rb. Magnesium, as t he oil has a n a cidreaction.

    229. Aq u a R osa e .

    R ose Water.

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    Recent Pale Rose (peta ls), 2 par ts.Water , 10 par ts.Dist ill by means of steam, 5 par ts.

    The same proportions may be used, and the distillation performed by

    th e ordina ry still.

    The British Pharmacopoeia directs 10 pounds of fresh hundred-leavedrose peta ls to be mixed with 50 pounds of wat er, an d 10 poun ds distilled.

    The German Pharmacopoeia directs 4 drops of Oil of Rose to be shakenwith 1,000 grammes (about 2 pints) of tepid water for some time, andthen filtered.

    Rose Water, to be fine, should be redistilled. It cannot be profitably

    distilled in t his coun tr y, as our roses lack t he fragra nce of th e Eu ropeanvarieties.

    Triple Rose Water may be bought of the importing druggists, andreduced with one or two parts of distilled water. It is then much betteran d chea per t ha n a ny of domest ic production.

    A fair quality of Rose Water may be made by adding 10 drops of Otto(Oil) of Rose to 30 grains of cotton, picking, packing and percolatingwith 2 pint s of hot distilled wat er.

    It ma y also be made by mixing 20 minims of Ott o of Rose with 4 oun cesof sand an d one gallon of wat er, an d distilling 4 pint s.

    The import ed Rose Wat er is, however, superior to any home production.

    Rose Water is used in several official preparations, and is muchprescribed as a solvent for various substances used as lotions, etc.; it isalso a favorite article for the toilet, either alone or mixed with othersubstances.

    230. Aq u a Sa m b u c i , Br .

    E ld er Flower Water.

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    Fresh Elder Flowers, 10 pounds av.Water , 50 pounds.Distill 10 poun ds.

    This is used as a p leasa nt flavored wa ter for m edicina l lotions , etc.

    O t h e r M e d i ci n a l Wa t e r s .

    Besides the foregoing waters, which are mostly official in either theUnited States, British, or German Pharmacopoeias, others arefrequently required, but th ey are all made in th e same general ma nn eras those herein given. Of those made from fruit or seeds, angelica,coriander, juniper, parsley, etc., may be made in the same manner asdill or fennel water; of those made from flowers or herbs, balm, borage,chamomile, hyssop, lavender, lettuce, lily, melilot, myrtle, origanum,

    peach, pennyroyal, rosemary, sage, thyme, violet, wormwood, etc., maybe made in the same manner as cherry laurel or elder flower water; ofthose made from barks, and other substances, lemon, orange, lime,sassafras, valerian, vanilla, and others, may be made by distillation inth e same ma nn er as is directed for m aking cinna mon water.

    BALS AMA BALS AMS.

    Balsams or Balms (Fr. Baumes), as they are known in pharmacy,

    embrace a variety of natural and prepared substances supposed topossess healing or soothing virtues. As popularly known, they includenot only the n at ur al Balsams obtained from balsam-bearing tr ees, but avariety of preparations ranging in consistence from tinctures toointments, which have derived the name of "Balsam" from propertiesclaimed for them by their originators. In this article we shall includeonly th e Balsam s proper, and t hose prepar ed, which h ave by long usa gebecome most familiar as "Balsams," in a pharmaceutical sense. OtherBalsam s will be foun d un der other hea dings, where t hey more properlybelong, as Friars Balsam (see Compound Tincture of Benzoin),

    Turlingtons Balsam (see Proprietary Medicines), Cough Balsam (seeStandard Remedies), etc.

    In French Pharmacy a great number of preparations are classed withBalsa ms wh ich pr operly belong elsewhere.

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    T r u e N a t u r a l B a ls a m s .

    The True Natural Balsams may be defined as oleo-resinous substances,either semi-liquid, or semi-solid, or solid, obtained from plants, andcont a ining ben zoic, cinn am ic, or some a na l-agous a cids.

    Only seven substances are thus classed, and some of these are notkn own comm ercially as Balsams . They ar e as follows:

    259. Balsam of Calaba Tacamahaca.This is obtained from thetrunk, branches and leaves of Calophyllum Calaba, or Santa Mariatree. It is a liquid, at first white, but soon becomes olive-green, and issometimes called Green Balsam. A similar Balsam is obtained fromchloroxylon verticillatum of Peru, which is popularly called Green

    Balsam (of Peru). They conta in ben zoic acid.

    260 . Ba l sam of Peru .A liquid balsam, obtained from MyroxylonPereirae, containing cinnamic and benzoic acids, and some other alliedcompoun ds. A solid or sem i-solid va riet y is also import ed, but notfrequen tly kept by dru ggists.

    Uses . Balsam of Peru is used as a stimulant to the mucousmem bra ne, an d in st imulat ing ointm ent s, etc. Also as a pr eservat ive forfats.

    As found in the market, it is frequently adulterated with or entirelyfabricated from other substances.

    261. Balsam of Tolu . A Ba lsam obta ined from Myroxylon T olu ifera,containing cinnamic and benzoic acids, volatile oils, called benzylbenzoate, C7H 5(C7H 7)O2, and benzyl cinnamate, C9H 7(C7H 7)O2, a

    terpene named Tolene, C10H 16, and resins. It is a semi-liquid, as first

    obtained from the trees, but concretes into a solid resinous mass bystanding.

    Uses .It is much used in cough remedies as an agreeable aromatic,an d in th e form of tinctu re a nd syru p is frequen tly prescribed.

    262. Benzoin , or Benjam in .A solid Balsamic resin, obtained fromStyrax Benzoin , containing benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, a fragrantvolat ile oil and r esins . Vanillin is also foun d in some var ieties.

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    Uses . In ph ar ma cy it is used as a preser vative for fats a nd in ma kingseveral preparations, and in medicine as an aromatic stimulant andexpectora nt . The dose is 10 to 15 gra ins.

    263 . Ch ina Varn i sh Ba l sam .An aromatic, varnish-like exudation,obta ined from Augia S inensis, cont a ining benzoic acid an d oth er sim ilarcompounds. It is used by the Chinese for preparing the varnish orlacquer so celebrat ed in th at coun tr y.

    264 . S ty rax o r S to rax .A Balsam prepared from the inner bark ofLiquidambar Orientalis, containing cinnamic and benzoic acids,Styracin, Storecin, Ethyl Cinnamate, Phenyl-propyl Cinnamate, Styrol,resins, etc.

    It is a semi-liquid grayish-green Balsam, used in pharmacy in makingcompound tincture of benzoin, and as a preservative for fats, etc. Alsoused in perfum ery.

    265 . L iqu idambar , or Sweet Gum .A balsamic exudation fromL iquidam bar S tyracif lua. The constituents and properties of thisBalsam seem t o be ident ical with Storax, but it differs from it in being,as foun d in th e mar ket, a r esinous gum instea d of a liquid.

    O t h e r N a t u r a l "B a l s a m s ."

    The following natural exudates are commercially known as Balsams,but pharmaceutically are classed with oleo-resins, turpentines, resins,etc., un der which hea dings t hey will be more fully noticed.

    Balsa m Copa iba, Copa iba Balsam or Copa iba.Balsam of Fir, Can ada Balsam or Can ada Turpent ine.Gur jun Balsa m, or Wood Oil.Hun garian Balsam.J apan Varn ish Balsam or J apan Lacquer,

    Balsam of Mecca or Balm of Gilead.Balsam Rackasira.Balsam of Riga or Car pat hina Balsam .Turpentine Balsam, Turpentine Gum, or Gum Thus.

    F a c t i t io u s B a l s a m s .

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    It is cust oma ry with dealers, for some pu rposes, to supply imita tions ofseveral of the more expensive Balsams. The practice is not to becommended, but the formulae for these fabrications may be interestingto our readers.

    266. F a c t i t io u s Ca n a d a Ba ls a m .

    White Resin , 4 pounds av.Oil of Turpent ine, 1 ga llon .Linseed Oil, 8 fl.ounces.Oil of Lemon, 30 minins.Oil of Rosemary, 20 minims.

    Dissolve th e resin in th e oil of tu rpent ine an d a dd t he other oils.

    267. F a c t i t iou s Ba lsa m Cop a ib a .

    Benzoin , powdered, 4 ounces av.White Resin , 3 pounds av.Canada Balsam, 2 pounds av.Castor Oil, 1 ga llon .Oil of J uniper , 2 fl.ounces.Oil of Savin , 1 fl.ounce.Oil of Orange, 30 minims.

    Oil of Lemon, 30 minims.

    Melt t he r esin, add th e benzoin an d par t of th e Cast or Oil, an d mix welltogether; then add the remainder of the Castor Oil and the CanadaBalsam, a nd wh en n early cool the r emaining oils. Let set tle an d str ain.

    D i l u t e d o r R e d u c e d B a l s a m C o p a i b a .Balsam Copaiba is oftensold diluted with Castor Oil or Canada Balsam, or other similarsubstances. Such practice should be discountenanced, but the dilutedar ticle is, perhaps, better th an th e factitious.

    268. F a c t i t i o u s Ba l sa m o f Me c c a o r Ba l m o f G i le a d .

    The t ru e Mecca Balsa m or Ba lm of Gilead is an oleo-resin , obta ined fromthe Balm-of-Gilead tree of the East, but the factitious Balsam is much

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    more frequen tly sold an d u sed. It m ay be m ade as follows :

    Benzoin , coarsely powdered, 4 ounces.Li


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