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CONCEPT NOTE

ProjectTitle: CapacityDevelopmentforAdaptationtoClimateChange&GHG MitigationinNonAnnexICountries Acronym: Locations: C3D+ Africa,Asia,Pacific,andCaribbeanSIDS.

ContactPerson:MamadouDIAKHITE,Manager,UNITARClimatChangeProgramme

Thisprojectiscurrentlyfinancedby:

PROJECTOVERVIEWHYPOTHESISIt is now well documented that the GHG emissions of developing countries, in particular CO2 emissions, will grow considerably (even if they remain extremely low on a per capita basis). Although their energy intensity may continue to grow, developing countries have considerable opportunitiestoreducetheirGHGemissionsbymakingsustainabledecisionsconsistentwiththeir development path goals. In this context, meeting the challenges of climate change can only be successfully addressed through an effective multilateral negotiation process, one in which all members of the international community actively participate with solid local training and information. Improve the ability of developing countries to address the impacts of climate change through adaptationmeasuresandplanningmitigationstrategies.

PROJECT GOAL

OBJECTIVE

Enhancethecapacityofregionalcentersofexcellencelocatedin developingcountriestoassisttheir stakeholdersaddressclimatechangebyincreasingrelevanthumanandinstitutionalcapacitiesthat; Place developing countries in a better position to effectively engage in the UNFCCC process in support of the development and implementation of a global and comprehensive post2012

climatechangeagreement ; Generate knowledge and enhance skills to understand climate science thereby supporting and enablingthedecisionmakingandplanningprocess; Promote dialogue that leads to mainstreaming climate change issues into national sustainable developmentstrategiesandcountrydevelopmentprogramming.

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ACTIVITY SUMMARY

The centres of excellence will engage in two main activities that contribute to building human and institutionalcapacityandwillinclude; Develop in an interactive manner a set of training modules and tools, including surveys , case studies,traineroftrainerscourses,validationworkshopse.t.cinadaptationtoclimatechange, GHGmitigationandpovertyeradication/sustainabledevelopmentbylocalandregionalcentres Designandimplementatlocal,nationalandregionallevel; Internaltrainingcapacityforsixregionalcentresandinstitutionalprojectpartners; Facetofacetrainingworkshops,includingcoursestaughtateducationaluniversitiesand centres(fellowships,climatesciencesummercourses) o Opensource,onlinetrainingcurriculum; o Outreachandnetworking Increasedcapacityandabilityoftheregionalcenterstodelivertraining,includingequippinga20 seatcomputerlaboratoryforuseintraininginCapeTown; Increasedinvolvementoftheregionalcentersininternationaltrainingactivities; Contributetothedevelopmentandtestingof climateriskscreeningtoolsfordifferentlevelsof decisionmaking; Train2000/3000personsfromdevelopingcountries;and Holdatleast12training/nationaland/orthematicworkshops. o o Angola, Burkina Faso, Benin, Cameroon, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, UgandaandZambia. CambodiaIndia,LaosPDR,China,Indonesia,Nepal,SriLanka,Mongolia,ThePhilippines,Thailand andVietnam. Belize, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Niue, Nauru, Palau,PapuaNewGuinea,Samoa,SolomonIslands,Tonga,TuvaluandVanuatu.

EXPECTED RESULTS

TARGETD COUNTRIES

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ThisprojectwillalsocontributetotheGlobalClimateChangeAllianceGCCAinitiativeandtheCARIFORUMagreements.2

PROJECT DURATION BUDGET SUMMARY

StartDate2009Enddate2011

BUGDETSUMMARY Toolsandmethodsdevelopmentand testing Institutionandcapacitybuilding Coordination&management TOTALdirectcosts [email protected]% TOTALEUR

TOTALCOSTS

2.235.000 4.809.000 815.000 7.859.000 550.130

8.409.130

FUNDRAISING SUMMARY

DONOR

ECAIDCO AustrianDevelopmentAgency SwissFederalOfficeforthe Environment(FOEN) TotalGrantContribution TotalProjectcost FUNDRAISINGTOTALEUR

GRANTCONTRIBUTION 2,500,000 300,000 62,613 2,862,613 8.409.130 5,546,517

CONTACT

MamadouMoussaDIAKHITE Manager,UNITARClimateChangeProgramme PalaisdesNations,CH1211Geneva10,Switzerland T.+412278582F.+41229178047 [email protected] http://www.c3dunitar.org/

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1.RATIONALEThisprojectCapacityDevelopmentforAdaptationtoClimatechange&GHGMitigationinnon AnnexeIcountries(C3D+)aimstosupportenhancingthecapacitiesofdevelopingcountriestonot onlybetterintegrateintotheinternationalprocess,includingtheupcomingnegotiations,buttoalso improvenegotiatingpositionsthroughtraining. TherationalefordevelopingscreeningoptionsandtoolsforclimatechangeadaptationandGHG mitigationisthatitassistsandenablesuserstoassessandevaluatethevalueofinformation especiallywhenchoosingamongdifferentoptions.Thisisthebestcourseofactiontoguidethe decisionmakingprocessesandreducestheuncertaintyindecisionmakingandensuresconfidencein planned,successfulresponsesbyNonAnnexIcountriesinthecontextofglobalandcomprehensive post2012climatechangeagreement. C3D+isthecontinuationofapreviousClimate ChangeCapacityDevelopmentC3Dprojectthat broughttogetherthreecentresofexcellenceto formanetworkthatsuccessfullydeveloped trainingmodulesonadaptationandvulnerability, sustainabledevelopment,riskcommunication andclimatechangetoolswhilstdeliveringtraining inAfricaandAsia. Buildingonthisexperience,theC3D+projects hasbeenexpandedtoincludeothercentresof excellenceandnowincludescentresfromAfrica, Asia,thePacific,andtheCaribbeansupportedby otherpartnersfromEuropeandNorthAmerica,henceenhancingthenetworksabilitytodeliver targetedtrainingandcapacitydevelopmentprojectsatnationalandregionallevel. The main assumptions for the success of this project is that the project partners, and mostly the centresmaintaintheirinterestinclimatechangerelatedissues,retaintheirstaff,remaincommitted to the project and motivated to assume ownership. Other direct project stakeholders mustremain actively engaged in the training strategy which is one of the key risks, since it involves close coordination and smooth cooperation between several institutions and individuals based in very differentlocations. UNITARs Climate Change Programme plays a key role in ensuring that both coordination and cooperationdoesnotbreak.Asetofprogresstargetsforthemonitoringofthisprojectwillbejointly formulated with project partners with the view to responding to multidonor requirements as UNITAR has developed for the ACCCA project currently funded by 4 different donors. A monthly reporting journal will be posted on the project platform and will allow online monitoring to all platformusers.

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2.PROPOSEDACTIVITIES 2.1Twomainactivitieswillbecarriedout:1. DevelopmentandtestingofClimatechangetoolsandmethodsandinstitution;and 2. Institutionandindividualcapacitybuildingforclimatechangedecisionmaking.

2.2Developmentandtestingofclimatechangetoolsandmethods:Partnerswilldevelopinaninteractivemannerasetoftrainingmodulesandtools,includingsurveys, casestudies,trainingoftrainerscourses,validationworkshops,etc.onadaptationtoclimatechange, GHGmitigationandpovertyeradication/sustainabledevelopment.(seethetablebelowandpage19 thedetailedtechnicalexplanationannexe) Climate Change Context Framing UsingCRisTALintheContextFramingforAdaptationDecisionMakinginPacificIslandStateswith SPREP,IISDandSEI. UsingCRiSTALForestswithCIFORandIISD. UsingCRisTALforCommunitybasedAdaptationinNiger,Zambia,SenegalandGambiawithENDA andIISD. ActionImpactMatrixDevelopment(macroanalysisofclimatechangeissues)byMIND. Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement Tool ActionImpactMatrixDevelopment(Stakeholderanalysis)byMINDandSEI. ClimatechangemainstreaminginthePacificIslandCountriesbyMINDwithSPREP. Climate Change Envelopes ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerToolbySEIwithCSAG. ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerTool,bySPREPwithSEIandCSAG. ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerTool,byENDAwithSEI. Climate Change Decision Tool ContributiontoaDecisionToolbySEI Climate Change Risk Communication ContributiontotheClimateChangeRiskCommunicationModule(SEIandCSAG) Understanding User Needs: Targeting the Delivery and Communication of Climate Information (CSAGandSEI) Contributiontotheclimateriskcommunicationmodule(ENDAandSEI) Energy - Poverty and Climate Change Mitigation Integratingenergyandclimatechangepoliciesintopovertyalleviationstrategy DevelopmentofamitigationAnalysisTooltosupportNationalCommunications(ERC) DevelopmentofamitigationAnalysisTooltosupportNationalCommunications(ERC) IndicatorstoassessClimateChangeImpactatEnergyServicesProjectLevel(ENDA) CitiesandClimateChangeAnalysis 5

2.3Institutionandindividualcapacitybuilding: Partners will design and implement; (a) internal training capacity for six regional centres and institutionalprojectpartnersusingoutputsdevelopedunder3.1;(b)deliverfacetofacetraining workshopsincludingcoursestaught ateducationaluniversitiesandcentres(fellowships,summer courses) as well as (c) establish open source, online training curriculum and (d) engage in outreach/networking. The full document is available at UNITAR climate change programme with detailedactivities,outputsandexpectedresults.Theboxesbelowofferasummaryofkeyactivities foreachprojectpartner.

2.4TheRegionalCentresofexcellenceandplannedactivities CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY CLIMATE CHANGE CENTRE (CCCCC): SHORT DESCRIPTION: was established by the CARICOM heads of government and is the officialrepositoryandclearinghouseforregionalclimatechangedata,providingclimatechange related policy advice and guidelines to the Caribbean Community Member States through the CARICOMSecretariat. PLANNED ACTIVITIES: Training,Institutionalcapacitybuildingandpilotprojectsintheagriculturesector-

Provide information on climate change to the farming community, CARDI professionals agriculturalprofessionalsandresearchers; - Providetraininginresearchmethodologyrelatedtotheassessmentclimatechangeimpacton agriculture; - Trainpolicymakersaboutagriculturalpracticesinagricultureadaptationtoclimatechange; - RefurbishtheMeteorologicalstationsonallCARDIfieldstationsandselectednationalsystems; - AutomaticRecordingstations;andprovisionofrequisitesoftwareandhardwareformodelling capabilitiesatselectedCARDIunitsandnationalagriculturalministries. InstitutionalcapacitybuildingfortheCaribbeanInstituteofMeteorologyandHydrology(CIMH) - Developandimplementaframeworkfortheapplicationofweather,climateandclimatechange informationintheCaribbeanStates - Carry out pilot projects carried in four Caribbean territories on the effects of climate change, includingextremeeventsontheproductionofimportanteconomiccommoditiesinthefuture - InvestigatetheoccurrenceofsevereWeatherintheEasternCaribbean - SpecialcapacitybuildingactivitiesICTforAdaptationtoClimateChangeandClimateVariability; - Establish support structures within existing mechanisms Contract institutions (including the UniversityWestIndiesandCIMH)forprovisionofsupport/monitoringservices; - HostamultisectoralhandsontrainingWorkshoponVulnerabilityandAdaptationAssessments fortheCaribbeanRegiontoimprovetheregionalknowledgebaseforregionaldecisionmaking forclimatechangeadaptation;withthepreparationandpublicationandoftrainingmaterials;3 regionalworkshops(10workingdays)forregionalplannersindecisionmaking. 6

CLIMATE SYSTEM ANALYSIS GROUP (CSAG), UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN : SHORT DESCRIPTION; is the climatology research group hosted in the Environmental and GeographicalSciences(ENGEO)departmentoftheUniversityofCapeTown.CSAGisadynamic group of multidisciplinary scientists with research projects linked to all aspects of the climate system that fall into three primary areas; Global Climate Model applications, Global Climate Change,andSouthAfricanclimateprocesses. PLANNED ACTIVITIES: CSAGwillbuildonitsresourcesandexperiencesinclimatechangetrainingtoenhanceitscapacity tohostregularworkshopsandshortcourseactivitiesonusingregionalclimatechangeinformation. Underpinningthisfocusedactivityisthedevelopmentofancillarymaterial,dataandotherrelevant regional change information, and followup procedures for consolidation of knowledge, learning andapplication.Theworkshopsformthecoreandwillruninasummerschoolformat,whereby participants will spend focused time on modules spanning the core topics around the use and applicationofregionalclimatechangeinformationtosupportthesummerschoolCSAGwill: - Establisha20seatcomputerlabforuseintraining:Existingcomputerlabfacilitieswithinthe university are already largely committed for core university activities. This proposal will enhance the computer lab facilities of the Environmental and Geographical Science (EGS2) departmentatUCTforclimatechangetrainingactivitiesheldatUCT. - Developcoursestructureandtrainingmaterial:Whilemuchofthetrainingmaterialonarange of topics has been developed in recent years through onceoff training events, this material needstobestructuredintocohesiveandcomplementarymodulestoaddressthecorethemes.

ENDA-TM, SENEGAL; SHORT DESCRIPTION: An international organisation based in Dakar, Senegal the primary objectiveisthealleviationofpovertyintheThirdWorldbyanalyzingtherelationshipsbetween energy,theenvironmentanddevelopmentinthelightofmultilateralenvironmentalagreements inparticulartheclimatechangeandthedesertificationconventions. PLANNED ACTIVITIES: FellowshipsonVulnerability&Adaptation: - Two weeks ofintensivetargetedcapacitydevelopmentin Dakar for 10 Fellows,ENDAshead offices,intheformofteachingseminars,practicalfieldvisits,discussionforums,skillsinputand aworkshopsession; - Develop individual projects over a 6 months period in relation to the central theme of the fellowshipconductedatthefellowshomeinstitutionandcompleteandevaluatetheseprojects andreportingduringafinaltwoweeksessionatENDAinDakar. - Summer course on the science of climate change (6 fellowships) on Vulnerability & AdaptationTrainingofTrainersplus TrainingworkshopinDakar(20participants2

EGSisthehostdepartmentofCSAGattheUniversityofCapeTown

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ENDA TM PLANNED ACTIVITIES: ENDA-TM, SENEGAL TrainingWorkshopon"Energyservices,MDGsandClimateChangein2009/2010 - Workshop (40 participants) to promote the development and the use of a DEA tool to evaluatemethodsusingconcretecaseseffectivelyrespondingtorealneeds,iewhatarethe effectsandtheimpactsofpolicies,projectsandmeasuresonpovertywhentheyarerelated toenergyandotherclimatechangeconstraints. TrainingWorkshopon"CitiesandClimateChange ENDAwasrecentlyinvolvedinthefollowinginitiativesregardingtherelationofclimatechange issuestodecisionmakingatthelocallevelandwill; - reviewconcreteexamples,anddefineanevaluationmethodofthevulnerabilityatlocallevel takingintoaccountthevariouslevelsofuncertainty; - Testthemethodin2secondarycitiesinclosecooperationwithlocaldecisionmakers;and - Validatethemethodwithapanelofexperts,localdecisionmakersandstakeholdersduringa workshopin2010. MainstreamingClimateChangeintoENDAsofficesandInternalENDAstafftraining. - Conductinhousetraininginseminarsessions,workshopsandfieldworkbycollaboratingwith other ENDA entities, using developing existing tools, include training on crosscutting themes such as gender, ethics, monitoring and evaluation; production of pedagogic tools to support workshop activities both for workshops themselves and for reference afterwards, particularly CD/DVDs,relevantwebplatforms/pages,manuals; - Carry out evaluation exercise on workshops to ascertain if objectives have been met and analysingmeansofimprovementsforfutureexercises,ConductingtraininginICTs,particularly in relation to building of web platforms and databases, using HTML, XML and Java to create intranet (ENDA inhouse network) and maintaining a public web presence across the various climate adaptation works; and conducting inhouse workshop for 35 ENDA personnel with experttraininginFrenchprovided CreateanIndigenousKnowledgeBank;thedatabasewillvalidateandvalorisethevastreservoir of indigenous knowledge and coping strategies that have helped Africa to engage with climate changeovertimeandspace. Vulnerability&AdaptationCommunitybasedGlobalNetwork(withCIFOR) - Develop a communications network as a nodal point of a Network on Vulnerability and Adaptation in close collaboration with other initiatives such as the African network. It will enable community scale interest groups to share local wisdom and experiential evidence on climatelivesandlivelihoodsgainedatthelocallevelwhilstlinkingtootherknowledgesharing platforms. CoreInstitutionaldevelopmentreviewandupdateofENDAC3Dpedagogictools: - Revise and enhance existing Vulnerability and Adaptation tools (manuals, CDs); develop new trainingtools. - Systematicupdateofeverytrainingtoolinthefieldofclimatechange - Outreachpublications/translation

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SOUTH PACIFIC REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (SPREP) SHORT DESCRIPTION; is a regional organisation established by the governments and administrations of the Pacific region to look after its environment. SPREP has 26 members includingall22Pacificislandcountriesandterritories. PLANNED ACTIVITIES: - Incorporate climate change information into the national curricula for formal primary and secondaryeducationandtertiaryleveleducation. - Improve capacity of Meteorological Services to provide appropriate and timely weather informationandprovideearlywarnings. - DevelopthehumancapacitywithinSPREP Mainstreamingclimatechangeintokeydevelopmentsectors-

Develop or customize a mainstreaming methodology that takes into consideration climate changetechnicalandpolicyframeworksandissues; Formamainstreamingteamtoworkwithkeygovernmentsectorstointergrateclimatechange issuesintokeysectoralplansandpolicies; SupportcountriestoformV&Ateamscomprisingofpeopleinvariousagenciesandinstitutions, whocancollaborate,integratetheirworkandbethemaincontactpointsinthevariousagencies to champion adaptation approaches and initiatives. Once the teams are formed a range of capacitybuildinginitiativestobedevelopedinthenextcomponentcanbeimplemented.

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Mainstream climate change risk considerations into planning procedures, especially for major infrastructure projects, including the criteria for design, approval and implementation of such projectsandconsiderations Vulnerability and adaptation technical and policy capacity development Using Interregional Cooperation Develop and operationalize a collaborative platform to connect with other partners e.g. C3D partners.Thepartnerswilldelivertailoredtrainingcoursesbasedonenhancedtrainingmaterials, tobroaderRegionalaudienceson; - ClimateChange, - SustainableDevelopmentStrategyandPovertyReduction; - VulnerabilityandAdaptation;andMitigation,aswellasotherpracticalsegmentssuchas - Agriculture, - RuralDevelopmentandClimateChange, - CoastalZoneManagementandClimateChange, - WaterandClimateChange, - HumanHealthandClimateChangeetc. Active participation in upcoming UNFCCC events and provide regular outreach on recent and upcoming project activities. Outreach materials will be developed for each of these events to reflectthestatusoftheprogramme.Contributionstootherrelevant(e.g.UNFCCCSec.,CGE,NCSP, NCAP,etc.)traininginitiativeswillalsobeentertainedwhentheneedarises.

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MUNASINGHE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT (MIND) SHORT DESCRIPTION; is a private nonprofit, multidisciplinary organisation, addressing sustainabledevelopmentissuesworldwide.Itseekstomakedevelopmentmoresustainableby better integration and balanced consideration of the Sustainable Development Triangle based onthesocial,economic,andenvironmentaldimensions. PLANNED ACTIVITIES: Trainingonclimatechangeandsustainabledevelopment - Expandandrefinetheexistingdatabaseandtrainingmaterials,includingwebbasedresource, MIND staff and consultants will review the latest information on CCSD and upgrade the trainingresources.Specialattentionwillbepaidtowebbasedinformationandtools; - Upgradeandimprovetheanalyticaltools(includingacquisitionoftoolsfromotherpartners): ExistingMINDmodels,includingsectoralandmacromodelsandtheActionImpactMatrix(AIM) methodology will be reviewed and improved. Special attention will be paid to acquiring and adapting tools and teaching materials available from other partners through collaborative work; - Upgrade staff knowledge and training skills; staff will undergo both internal and external trainingtobothbroadenanddeepensubstantiveknowledgeofthesubjectmaterialaswellas teachingskills. - Eightworkshopsareplannedundertheextendedtrainingprogrammeduring20092011;3in China,1inIndiaand2inSriLanka. SummerschoolonClimateChangeandSustainabledevelopmentCCSD - To target developing country decisionmakers, policy analysts, researchers, business and civil society leaders and theconcerned public (especially from Asia), on key aspects of the CCSD. Specialemphasiswillbeplacedonthecountryvulnerabilities,adaptationandknowledgegaps, to develop and build capacity in the developing countries to test and validate the training methodsandmaterials. - ITfacilitieswillbestrengthenedasakeyelementofthesummerschool,includingacomputer labandvideoconferencefacilities;summertrainingworkshopsforselecteddevelopingcountry participantswillbeorganizedandconductedinColombo,starting2010.2multicountries(for smallercountries)aspartofthesummerschool. - Trainingmoduleswillbepackagedaccordingtotheirtargetaudience(e.g.decisionmakersor researchers). MIND training material on CCSD will be upgraded and adapted, including documentsanalyticaltoolsandwebbasedresources.Existingmaterialwillformthecoreofthe initial training workshops, while new training material will be developed and added during 20092011.

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3.OTHERPROJECTPARTNERSFour other project partners are closely involved with the tool development and testing methods (furtherdescribedinthetechnicalAnnex(seepage16)aswellasthemonitoringandevaluationof theprojectbyUNITAR.

CIFOR/TroFCCAisafouryearseffortoftheCentreforInternationalForestryResearch(CIFOR)and the Tropical Agriculture Centre for Research and Higher Education (CATIE) to contribute to the limitedunderstandingofadaptationandtropicalforestecosystems. THESTOCKHOLMENVIRONMENTINSTITUTE(SEI)ledbytheSEIOxfordandCapeTownOffices, will contribute to the management and implementation of the action as full member of the SteeringCommittee,toprovidetechnicalassistanceandtrainingthroughtheimplementationand extension of its platform on climate adaptation. SEI has extensive experience developing and applying methods and protocols for participatory assessment of global change vulnerability and adaptation, including linkages to development policy, and evaluating and promoting response measures. THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (IISD) is a nonprofit, non governmentalresearchinstitutedemonstratinghowhumaningenuitycansustainablyimprovethe developmentofourglobalenvironment,economyandsociety.Theirresearch,expertanalysisand policy recommendations provide the knowledge needed by all citizens of the world working towardssustainabledevelopment. UNITAR CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME is currently and has previously managed projects relatedtomitigation,theCDM,vulnerabilityandadaptation,sustainabledevelopmentandclimate changeinterlinkages,theNAPAprocess,capacitybuildingofSouthernnegotiationsintheUNFCCC process and capacity building of Southern research institutions for adaptation research. Since 2001, the UNITAR Climate Change Programme has taken a countrydriven approach in the developmentofitsprojects.

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CONTACTDETAILS UnitedNationsInstituteforTrainingandResearch (UNITAR) MamadouMoussaDiakhit Manager,UNITARClimateChangeProgramme PalaisdesNations,CH1211Geneva10 Switzerland Tel+41229178582 Mobile:+41798142939 Fax+41229178047 Website:http://www.unitar.org/ccp EnvironnementetDveloppement duTiersMonde(ENDATM) Dr.JeanPhilippeThomas Dr.LawrenceFlint 54.RueCarnot,B.P.3370 Dakar,Sngal Tel:+2218225983 Email:[email protected] Website:http://energie.enda.sn EnergyResearchCentre(ERCUCT) Dr.AndrewMarquard MaxEdkins Tel+27216502100 Tel:+27216502521 UniversityofCapeTown PrivateBagRondebosch7700SouthAfrica Email:[email protected] Website:http://www.erc.uct.ac.za CentreInternationalForestryResearch(CIFOR) JohnsonNkem ProjectCoordinator CentreforInternationalForestryResearch CIFORBarat161115 Indonesia Fax:+622516222100 E.mail:[email protected] StockholmEnvironmentInstitute OxfordOffice Dr.ThomasDowning BenSmith 266BanburyRd,Suite193 Oxford,OX27DL,UnitedKingdom Tel+441865426316 Fax:+440865421898 Email:[email protected] Websites:http://www.sei.se/oxford http://www.weADAPT.org 12

MunasingheInstituteforDevelopment(MIND) Dr.MohanMunasinghe. SriaMunasinghe 10/1DeFonsekaPlaceColombo,SriLanka Tel+94112551208 Email:[email protected] Email:[email protected] Website:http://www.mindlanka.org

SecretariatofthePacificEnvironmentProgramme (SPREP) EspenRonenberg TaitoNakelevu Dr.AsterioR.Takesy,Director. POBox240,Apia,Samoa Tel:+685211929 Email:[email protected] Email:[email protected] Website:http://www.sprep.org CaribbeanCommunityClimateChangeCentre(CCCCC) Dr.KenrickR.Leslie,Director Dr.UlricTrotz 2ndFloorLawrenceNicholasBuilding RingRoad,P.O.Box563 BelmopanCityBelize CentralAmerica Tel:+0115018221094 Email:[email protected] Website:http://www.caribbeanclimate.bz InternationalInstituteforSustainableDevelopment(IISD) AnneHammill ProjectManager,ClimateChangeandEnergyEnvironemnt andSecurity InternationalInstituteforSustainableDevelopmentIISD InternationalEnvironmentHouse2 9,ChemindeBalexertoffice565 1219Chtelaine,Geneva,Switzerland Tel>+41229178637 Fax:+41229178054 [email protected](CSAGUCT) BruceHewtison UniversityofCapeTown PrivatebagX3Rondebosch, 7701SouthAfrica Tel:+27216502784 E.mail:[email protected]

4. PROJECTIMPLEMENTATIONThis project will be managed by UNITAR Climate Change Programme (CCP). UNITAR will enter into partnerships,withtheprojectpartnersbelowwhowilldirectlyimplementtheactivities.

The Project Management Committee (PMC) will be composed of senior representatives of the 7 regionalpartnerorganisationsandchairedbyUNITARclimatechangeprogrammemanager.ThePMC will directly supervise project execution and communicate/meet via teleconference or email up to fourtimesayearand/oronthemarginsoftheUNFCCCsessions. The Project Advisory Panel (PAP) will be set up in a very informal manner, and include individuals whoareregularlyfollowingtheUNFCCCprocess;itwillbecomposedof3or4personsincluding: Highrankingdiplomats/negotiatorsfromdevelopinganddevelopedcountriesrespectively; ArepresentativefromtheUNFCCCsecretariat; Leadinginternationalexperts;and Donorrepresentatives.

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5. FUNDINGThetotalanticipatedcostsoftheprojectisestimatedatEUR8409130.AsofDecember2009,the following sources of funding are committed and in October 2008, a grant of EUR 2,500,000 was approvedbyECAIDCO(EuropeAid/DCIENV/2008/149684/TPS)over36months. TheAustrianDevelopment Agency(ADA)inDecember DONOR GRANTCONTRIBUTION 2009contributedEUR 300,000tosupportthe activitiesofthecentresof ECAIDCO 2,500,000 excellence. AustrianDevelopmentAgency 300,000 SwissFederalOfficeforthe 62,613 FOEN/ Switzerland is Environment(FOEN) supporting the UNITAR TotalGrantContribution 2,862,613 Climate Change Programme TotalProjectcost with an annual grant from 8.409.130 the Swiss Agency for the Environment (FOEN). The 2009 and 2010 grant FUNDRAISINGTOTALEUR 5,546,517 request of 300,000 CHF to this agency was approved. EUR60,000oftheSwissgrantisallocatedtosupportingC3D+activities.

Thetablebelowsummarisetheentirebudgetoftheproject.Itshowsthatanamountof5,546,517 Euros are needed to cover all the planned activities over three years (see also Annex II, the total budgetandannualbudget,page15)foranaverageannualamountisof2,800.000peryear. Currency:budgetinEuros BUGDETSUMMARY TOTALCOSTS Toolsandmethodsdevelopmentand testing 2.235.000 Institutionandcapacitybuilding 4.809.000 Coordination&management 815.000 TOTALdirectcosts 7.859.000 [email protected]% 550.130 TOTALEUR 8.409.130 It is worth noting however that for the Institution and capacity building activities, the CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY CLIMATECHANGECENTRE(CCCCC)hasbudgetedanamountofEUROS2,922.000overthreeyears(seeline**above). Otherregionalpartnersarerequestingloweramountrangingbetween75,000and400,000Euros.

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Finally, the Global Environment Facility (UNDP Programme) is funding a regional five year programmewithatotalbudgetof2,639.000USDcalledPacificAdaptationtoClimateChange.Itis implementedbySPREP,theC3D+partnerforthePacificforthisaction.Severalactivitiesrelatedto methodsandtoolsarereferringtotheworkdescribedinthisactionthatwillbedoneincooperation withUNITARMIND,SEIandIISD.Thisprogrammeisincludedasparallelcostsharingandwillclosely interactatregionallevelwhichwillensuresynergiesandcoherenceatlocallevels.

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AnnexeI:Detailedbreakdownofprojectoverallobjective,immediateobjective,mainoutputs,activities,indicators,andcriticalassumptions.

Goal and purpose Overall ObjectiveDevelopment is made more sustainable by integrating climate change into national sustainable development strategies.

Results

Indicators

Critical Assumptions that need to be monitored

Climate change policies (adaptation and GHG mitigation) are mainstreamed into a broader range of development activities.

National policies and documents from a range of sectors (e.g. agriculture, water management, health, energy, etc.) reflect climate change concerns. Management reports on the capacities of the centres are completed Records of other international training activities are made available Support and engagement with multilateral agreements and processes on sustainable development and climate change are maintained State-level openness to activities continues Developing countries continue to pursue sustainable development strategies

Immediate ObjectiveRelevant human and institutional capacities are increased in developing countries. Minimum of 500 persons are trained At least 12 workshops are held Centres have increased their own capacity to deliver training Centres become increasingly self-sustained and directly involved in other international training activities

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Main Outputs1. High quality, integrated and cost-effective training activities on sustainable development & climate change are further developed and disseminated on a multiregional basis. The internal capacity of regional institutions to deliver training programmes is strengthened. Number of tools, analysis and case studies are produced by centres Targeted people are selected and registered Number of people trained Number of Fellows A computer training facility (climate modelling/data downscaling connected to local meteorological stations) using the most powerful software and Internet connection for 20 adult trainees is installed at the University of Cape Town for shared use; Same as above in Sri Lanka Participant evaluation of workshops Lists of participants in regional centres training activities Training report for trainees Reports of regional training centres Fellows reports Direct project stakeholders remain actively engaged in the training strategy Centres maintain:-

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Interest on climate change related issues; Staff levels at their centre; Commitment to the project; and motivation to assume ownership.

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ActivitiesTools and method development and testing Context framing for adaptation decision-making in Pacific Island States with CRiSTAL Development/validation/testing of a CRiSTAL Forest tool Community-based adaptation in Niger, Zambia and Gambia with CRiSTAL AIM Development context framing AIM Development & Contribution to the stakeholder analysis and engagement component CC mainstreaming in the Pacific Island Countries Contribution to Climate Change Explorer Tool Contribution to the Climate Change Explorer Tool Pacific Countries Contribution to the Climate Change Explorer Tool West Africa Contribution to the Decision Explorer Tool Contribution to the Climate change risk communication module Targeting the delivery and communication of climate information Contribution to the climate change risk communication module Integrating energy and CC policies into poverty alleviation strategy Development of a Mitigation Analysis Tool as support for National Communications Indicators to assess Climate Change impact at energy services project level Cities and Climate Change Analysis-

InputsDevelop proposed activities related to tools and methods, as well as other resources/approaches to enhance the work being done on Climate Change in the regions covered by this project. Develop tools, methods and materials that will facilitate a wider dialogue and share of lessons learned on climate change with experts, stakeholders, etc. An internet based platform called weADAPT (www.weADAPT.org) is currently being developed and is managed by a group of scientists who will work in close cooperation with the project partners. Project partners to develop a set of climate change policy /training modules in an interactive manner among themselves and by developing collaborative partnerships with leading experts in both developed and developing countries, to encourage effective designs, learning from shared experiences, and sound analyses appropriate for a wide variety of applications.-

Critical assumptionsPartner centers to work in a collaborative way, building on the existing expertise and experience within each of the center on the six thematic clusters. Project partners will be involved and/or take the lead in the area of their respective skills.

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Institution and capacity building CCCCC CSAG UCT ENDA TM ERC UCT SPREP MIND Management and coordination Establishment of PMC Establishment of PAP Collaboration with project partners Writing global narratives and financial reports Publication and distribution of final reports

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Staff is recruited, managed & core human resources skills are trained Internships / visiting scholars are organised by partners. Case studies are well identified and monitored

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Detailed budget is available and received on time. Key staff are still available in each organisation pending timely reception of funds

-

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PMC, PAP meetings and outreach events are organized Regional partner thematic coordination workshops (one per cluster) are organized Administrative and financial oversight functions are performed.

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Budgets are available and received on time to allow for smooth management without disruption; each partner is able to staff the project with persons with appropriate expertise, experience and communication skills. Key staff are still available in each organisation pending timely reception of funds17

AnnexeII:BUDGETinEurosTOOLSANDMETHODS Climatechangecontextframing ContextframingforadaptationdecisionmakinginPacificIslandStateswithCRiSTAL Development/validation/testingofaCRiSTALForesttool CommunitybasedadaptationinNiger,ZambiaandGambiawithCRiSTAL AIMDevelopmentcontextframing SUBTOTAL Stakeholderanalysisandengagement AIMDevelopment&Contributiontothestakeholderanalysisandengagementcomponent CCmainstreaminginthePacificIslandCountries SUBTOTAL ClimateChangeEnvelopes ContributiontoClimateChangeExplorerTool ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerToolPacific ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerToolWestAfrica SUBTOTAL Adaptationtoclimatechangedecisionscreening ContributiontotheDecisionExplorerTool SUBTOTAL Climatechangeriskcommunication ContributiontotheClimatechangeriskcommunicationmodule Targetingthedeliveryandcommunicationofclimateinformation Contributiontotheclimatechangeriskcommunicationmodule SUBTOTAL Energy,povertyandclimatechangemitigation IntegratingenergyandCCpoliciesintopovertyalleviationstrategy DevelopmentofaMitigationAnalysisToolassupportforNationalCommunications IndicatorstoassessClimateChangeimpactatenergyservicesprojectlevel CitiesandClimateChangeAnalysis SUBTOTAL INSTITUTIONANDCAPACITYBUILDING CCCCC CSAGUCT ENDATM ERCUCT SPREP MIND SUBTOTAL MANAGEMENTCOORDINATION&MONITORING ProgrammeManagement Regionalpartnerthematiccoordination(6workshops) Publication/website/outreach Travel Equipmentandstationery Officecosts SUBTOTAL 100.000 120.000 16.667 15.000 10.000 10.000 271.667 100.000 120.000 16.667 15.000 10.000 10.000 271.667 100.000 120.000 16.667 15.000 10.000 10.000 271.667 300.000 360.000 50.000 45.000 30.000 30.000 815.000 974.000 25.000 165.000 234.000 83.333 0 1.481,833 974.000 25.000 165.000 234.000 83.333 182.500 1.663.833 974.000 25.000 165.000 234.000 83.333 182.500 1.663.833 2.922.000 75.000 495.000 702.000 250.000 365.000 4.809.000 YEAR1 40.000 33.333 30.000 58.333 161.667 56.667 133.333 190.000 30.000 20.000 20.000 70.000 53.333 53.333 10.000 26.667 16.667 53.333 166.667 30.000 10.000 10.000 216,667 YEAR2 40.000 33.333 30.000 58.333 161.667 56.667 133.333 190.000 30.000 20.000 20.000 70.000 53.333 53.333 10.000 26.667 16.667 53.333 166.667 30.000 10.000 10.000 216,667 YEAR3 40.000 33.333 30.000 58.333 161.667 56.667 133.333 190.000 30.000 20.000 20.000 70.000 53.333 53.333 10.000 26.667 16.667 53.333 166.667 30.000 10.000 10.000 216,667 TOTAL 120.000 100.000 90.000 175.000 485.000 170.000 400.000 570.000 90.000 60.000 60.000 210.000 160.000 160.000 30.000 80.000 50.000 160.000 500.000 90.000 30.000 30.000 650.000

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ANNEX III AN EXPLANATORY NOTE ON COMPONENT A TOOLS AND METHODS

CAPACITYDEVELOPMENTFORADAPTATIONTOCLIMATECHANGE&GHGMITIGATIONINNON ANNEXICOUNTRIES TheactivitiesdescribedinthesectiontoolsandmethodsoftheprojectCapacityDevelopmentfor Adaptation to Climate Change & GHG Mitigation in Non Annex I Countries will result in the developmentofbetteradaptedtoolsandmethodsforuseintheprojectsspecificregions,aswellas specificguidanceortrainingbaseduponcasestudies,lessonslearntandothervalidationexercises. Several specific outputs are proposed under each of the tools/methods for adaptation to climate change listed below which include tool development, guidance documents (including publications, briefing notes and online documentation of lessons learnt) exemplary prototypes and training materialsthataresummarizedinthisnote.Thefigurebelowshowsthelogicofthevariousclusters amongthevarioustoolsandmethodsoutlinedinthisannex.

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1. THECLIMATECHANGECONTEXTFRAMINGCLUSTER 1.1ContextframingforadaptationdecisionmakinginPacificIslandStateswithCRiSTAL 1.2Development/validation/testingofaCRiSTALForesttool 1.3CommunitybasedadaptationinNiger,ZambiaandGambiawithCRiSTAL 1.4AIMDevelopmentcontextframing Adaptationtoclimatevariabilityandchangeisasocialprocess.Itrequiresustoassessandrespond to past climatic impacts, to increase adaptive capacity and resilience to multiple stresses, and to formulateplansandpoliciesinwayswhichreducetheriskofadverseoutcomesinthefuture.The purposeoftheclimatechangecontextframingworkwillbetodevelopacontextualunderstandingof the appropriate entry points and gaps in the existing cultural and political frameworks; help to identify the aim of the adaptation project (e.g. climate proofing and climate resilience), the needs and opportunities related to setting policy aims, objectives, targets and monitoring systems, and assess the key priorities for the selected adaptation options. Based on the discussions at the June 2008workshopinBonn,aswellasanumberoffollowupinteractions,anumberofopportunitiesfor using and improving the CRiSTAL and AIM tools were identified among the partners. The opportunitiesaremostlylinkedtoprovidingtrainingintheapplicationofthesetools,validatingtheir contributionstoadaptationdecisionmaking,andimprovingoradjustingthetooltosuitthespecific needs of targeted users. Moreover, the proposed application of these can be undertaken independently or in combination with other adaptation tools, such as the Climate Change Explorer (seexx). Several case studies will be carried out, using, among other, the CRiSTAL tool. Capacity building, training and policy dialogue should be grounded in real life experience gained on the ground with vulnerable communities. In the past year C3D has enabled ENDA to develop a programme of pilot actions on community based adaptation in Africa which is building on past experience. ENDA will conduct Participative Action Research through social learning in small, easily definable project locations where experiential climate information is sought from local life and livelihoods evidence, vulnerability identified and catalogued to which climate science is applied and made meaningful, understandable and deployable in the local situation. Local meteorological departments will be involved and conductmuch of the work in the vernacular. Adaptation priorities are then produced andscreened,andcapacityassessedandbuttressedinordertoimplementadaptationactions. In addition, climate change adaptation/mitigation measures ultimately must be implemented at national levels. These measures will receive attention from only if they are successfully integrated into national sustainable development (SD) strategy. To facilitate this process, the Action Impact Matrix (AIM) has been developed and previously applied by MIND to analyse climate change and sustainabledevelopmentlinkages,withconsiderablepracticalsuccess.Itisastrategictoolthathelps to better understand interactions among key elements, at the countryspecific level: national development policies and goals; and climate change adaptation (including key vulnerabilities) and mitigation. Linking Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation and SD to exploit synergies and resolve tradeoffs. Thisactivitywillbuildon AIMasastrategictoolforpolicyanalysis, whichhelps tostudytheinter linkages that exist among seemingly independent elements such as for example national macro economic policies, external shocks (like energy prices and food scarcity) and climate change adaptationandmitigationoptions.SpecificAIMstepsinclude:

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Step1:MultiLevelContestframing:ThistooldevelopstheaspectsoftheexistingAIMapproach thatanalyseskeyeconomic,environmentalandsocialinteractionstoidentifypotentialbarriersto making development more sustainable (MDMS) including climate change and other external pressures.Itwillhelptoframetheoverallcontextbydeterminingtheprioritymacropoliciesand strategies in economic, environmental and social spheres that facilitate the implementation of climatechangeadaptationandmitigationtoovercometheeffectsofclimatechange.Thecontext framingwillbepursuedatnational,sectoralandlocallevels. Step2:LinkingClimateChangeAdaptation,MitigationandSustainableDevelopmenttoexploit synergies and resolve tradeoffs: Based on the broad context framing in step, the second step willbuildonAIMasastrategictoolforanalysisofspecificremedialpoliciesthathaveemerged from step1, by studying the interlinkages that exists among seemingly independent elements suchasforexamplemacroeconomicpolicies,externalpressures(likehighenergypricesandfood security), and climate change adaptation and mitigation options. The AIM approach will be developedtofurtherpromoteamoreintegratedview,exploitingsynergiesandresolvingtrade offs.Atthenationallevel,thelinkagemaybemadeintwocomplementaryandinterlinkedways: - Upward link: where adaptation and mitigation options are embedded in the macrolevel national development strategy of a country via the medium to longterm sustainable developmentpathincludingbuildingupofadaptiveandmitigativecapacity. - Downward link : where adaptation and mitigation options are integrated into the sub national level development strategy in the short to medium term by carrying out sustainabledevelopmentassessmentsaimedatmakingspecificprojectsandpoliciesmore sustainable.

2. THESTAKEHOLDERANALYSISCLUSTER 2.1ActionImpactMatrixDevelopment&Contributiontothestakeholderanalysisand engagementcomponent 2.2ClimateChangemainstreaminginthePacificIslandCountries Identificationofstakeholdersanddevelopingaplanfortheirparticipationthroughoutthescreening process (see 1) will be based on sound stakeholder analysis. This theme will discuss the design of stakeholder engagement processes in order to support the full involvement of all those concerned withanoutcomeofaprojectorwhohavepowertoinfluenceadecision.Notallstakeholdershave equalaccesstoinformationandsomemayrequiremoresupportinordertobeabletoparticipateon anequalfootingwithothers.Effectiveuseofstakeholdersrequiresthatusetherightstakeholdersin therightplaceattherighttimeandundertakeappropriateanalysisoftheelicitedinformation.The techniquesavailablearediverseandcaremustbetakentoensurethatappropriatetoolsarechosen. Thishasbeenidentifiedasthemosteffectivewayofaddressingthethreatofclimatechange.This exercisewillbeappliedtothePacificIslandcountries(andothersintheAOSISgroup)whoarefacing especiallyseverethreats,1)theirvulnerabilitytosealevelriseandclimateinducedextremeevents and2)theireconomies,alreadyunderstressfromotherdevelopmentslikerisingoilpricesandfood scarcity.

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3. THECLIMATECHANGEENVELOPPECLUSTER 3.1ContributiontoClimateChangeExplorerTool 3.2ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerToolinthePacific 3.3ContributiontotheClimateChangeExplorerToolWest Africa Adaptation to climate variability and change is a social process which includes assessing and responding to present and future impacts, planning to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes, and increasingadaptivecapacityandresilienceinrespondingtomultiplestresses.Anotherkeystepisto makeuseofthebestavailablesciencetoidentifyconditionsandrisksthepresentextent,condition and trends and how they may be exhibited in years to comeand their relevance for adaptation strategies and actions. There are volumes of climate data available from various sources, often of littleusetowhodonothavethetimetotrackdowndatasourcesortheexpertisetoreformat,re projectandloadthemintoappropriateanalyticaltools. Successfulintegrationanddisseminationis dependent on creating flexible and scalable frameworks that provide complex analysis tools for advanced users and deliver information to a wider audience in ways that will allow these users to evaluate how best they may be applied. The Climate Change Explorer (CCE) is a tool that aims to facilitatethegatheringofclimatologicalinformationanditsapplicationtoadaptationstrategiesand actions. The CCE packages data access routines with guidance and customized analytical and visualization procedures. Currently in prototype deploymentphase, the Climate Change Explorer Tool is a collaborationledbyClimateSystemsAnalysisGroupattheUniversityofCapeTownandAWhere,Inc. with contributions from the Stockholm Environment Institute and the University of Exeter and in cooperation with UNITAR and the EC multi donor funded Advancing Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation Program (ACCCA) project. It provides users with a sound analytical foundation from which to explore the climate variables relevant to their particular adaptation decisions, and is designed to simplify the tasks associated with the extraction, query and analysis of climate information.TheCCEencouragesuserstofocusontheconditions,assumptionsanduncertaintiesof modelbased statements about future climate. This enables them to evaluate the relevance of the information,theappropriatenessofresponseoptions,andtomakeaninformedassessmentofrisk. The overall objective of analysis is to support adaptive management and planning responses to climatechangebyprovidinginformationandguidanceontheresultsfromclimatemodels,inways that will allow the potential user of the information to evaluate how best it may be applied. The Climate Change Explorer (CCE) provides a way for users to focus on several key assumptions regardingtheinterpretationofclimatescience: - Onlybyunderstandingtheconditions,assumptionsanduncertaintiesofmodelbasedstatements about future climate can evaluate the relevance of the information, the appropriateness of responseoptions,andsomakeaninformedassessmentofrisk. - Anenvelopeanalysisofensembles,ratherthanasinglemodel,istheonlywayofaddressingthe uncertainty inherent in making a decision which is influenced by the future evolution of the climatesystem.Theseenvelopesofclimatechangehelpdefinetheclimatologicalboundariesof potentialclimatechangefromawiderangeofmultimodelprojections,drivenbythesearchfor climatespacesfromtheneedsofspecificlocalities. - Exposureandadaptationarecontextspecific.Inclimateanalysis,onesizedoesnotfitall.This requires the analysis of different variables, time frames and analytical representations. An

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interactive exploration of the climate science is therefore critical to the provision of useful information,andappropriatecontextualizationfordecisionsupport. The delivery of climate information encourages users to become familiar with displaying and queryingclimatedata,fromaquickscanoffutureenvelopesthroughtomoredetailed,downscaled informationtoexplorethelocalscaledetailsofregionalchange.AcentralfeatureoftheCCEisthatit notonlyprovidesanalyticalroutinesbutalsoaccesstodownscaledclimatedata,anduserguidance throughawizardstyleinterface.TheCCEencouragesuserstofocusontheconditions,assumptions and uncertainties of modelbased statements about future climate. This enables them to evaluate therelevanceoftheinformation,theappropriatenessofresponseoptions,andtomakeaninformed assessmentofrisk.Theoverallobjectiveofanalysisistosupportadaptivemanagementandplanning responses to climate change by providing information and guidance on the results from climate models,inwaysthatwillallowthepotentialuseroftheinformationtoevaluatehowbestitmaybe applied. DesignoftheClimateChangeExplorer

The Climate Change Explorer (CCE) provides a way for users to focus on several key assumptions regardingtheinterpretationofclimatescience: Only by understanding the conditions, assumptions and uncertainties of modelbased statements about future climate can decisionmakers evaluate the relevance of the information, the appropriateness of response options, and so make an informed assessmentofrisk. An envelope analysis of ensembles, rather than a single model, is the only way of addressingtheuncertaintyinherentinmakingadecisionwhichisinfluencedbythefuture evolution of the climate system. These envelopes of climate change help define the climatological boundaries of potential climatechange from a wide range of multimodel projections,drivenbythesearchforclimatespacesfromtheneedsofspecificlocalities. Exposure and adaptation are contextspecific. In climateanalysis, one size does not fit all. This requires the analysis of different variables, time frames and analytical

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representations.Aninteractiveexplorationoftheclimatescienceisthereforecriticalto the provision of useful information, and appropriate contextualization for decision support. Thedeliveryofclimateinformationencouragesuserstobecomefamiliarwithdisplaying and querying climate data, from a quick scan of future envelopes through to more detailed,downscaledinformationtoexplorethelocalscaledetailsofregionalchange.A centralfeatureoftheCCEisthatitnotonlyprovidesanalyticalroutinesbutalsoaccessto downscaledclimatedata,anduserguidancethroughawizardstyleinterface.

The analytics code for user interest on the Climate Change Explorer tool suggests that at least 150 peoplehavedownloadedthetoolinthelast6months.Therearelikelytobemorepeoplewhoreceived individualtrainingsessions,demonstrationsandworkshoppresentationsonthetoolandthesewillbe collatedintoauserdatabasefortheactivitiesoutlinedabove. 4. THEADAPTATIONTOCLIMATECHANGEDECISIONSCREENINGCLUSTER 4.1ContributiontotheClimateChangeAdaptationDecisionExplorer It is not possible to forecast all consequences of climate change and their impacts to the society; however,acomputeraidedtoolsuchastheClimateChangeAdaptationDecisionExplorertool,CADx can still be beneficial to decisionmakers if the tool helps them make decisions, for example, by eliminating 'noisy' options. Climate change involves deep uncertainties and adaptation to climate change is a type of strategic (long term) decisionmaking. In most cases, conventional approaches may not be applicable and need to use appropriate methods to handle particular types of uncertainties.Otherwise,itwillgetmorecreditabilityorsafertotesttheanalysisinmultipleanalysis. The potential users of the CADx will be analysts or engineers working for decisionmakers such as donoragencies orpolicymakers. TheCADx willhelptheanalystsidentifyrelevantinformationand consequentlyappropriateadaptationoptionstotheirdecisionmakers.Therelevantinformationcan be selected according to similarities in situations, required methods, or merely their human networks. Therefore, the purpose of this tool is to support decisionmaking processes related to adaptation to climate change for the policymaker, directly and indirectly; the tool will provide opportunities to learn from existing knowledge without carrying out new primary research, nor relyingononeapproach. To explore decision making options, we have to identify adaptation options. Some options may be gatheredfromexperiencesuchasprojectreportsandconversationswithotherdecisionmakers,or otheroptionscanbesuggestedtheoretically.Inotherwords,wecannotexploreoptionswhichhave notbeenexperiencedordiscussedaspotentialoptions.Muchinformationmightbeusefultomake decisions, but the real question is how to explore multiple options selected by different analytical methods and studies. For example, if two relevant studies with costbenefit analysis and multi criteria analysis choose the different sets of adaptation options, a decision maker needs to know which options should be more appropriate. Therefore, some mechanism to explore potential adaptationoptionsisneeded.Thisvisualtool(seeFigurebelow)canconstituteausefulapproachto makeadaptationoptionscomparable.

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MCA 1 5 6 2 3 4 7 9 PAR CBA 11 10 8 High (Cardinal Low cost information) cost

Optioned by council A 1 5 6 2 3 4 7 9 10 8 High (Cardinal Low cost information) cost 11

Awareness

(Ordinal information)

Action

Awareness

(Ordinal information)

Action

Exploring adaptation options by methods

Exploring adaptation options by social network ExploringDecisions

CADxwill: Mappotentialadaptationoptionstoascertainwhetherthereexistsalogicalchoiceofamong theavailableoptionsto. Allowdecisionmakerstoexploreoptionsbymethods.Forexample,theoptions1,2,3,and 4 (Figure 6 left) were identified by MultiCriteria Analysis as good adaptation options in previous studies. Similarly, the options 2, 4, 5, and 6 were selected by CostBenefit Analysis; and the options 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 (Figure 6 left) were selected by Participatory ActionResearch. Alternatively allow to explore by social network: the decision maker will be informed aboutwhatotherpeople(councilsinthisexample)aredoing.CADxwillprovideanalytical functionstoallowdecisionmakerstoexploreoptionsviaknownnetworksofoptions.In thissituation,thedecisionmakermayputmoreweightonthoseoptions5and6(Figure6, right).

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5. THECLIMATECHANGERISKCOMMUNICATIONCLUSTER 5.1ContributiontotheClimatechangeriskcommunicationmodule 5.2Targetingthedeliveryandcommunicationofclimateinformation 5.3Contributiontotheclimatechangeriskcommunicationmodule Climate change risk communication is about more than delivering a message using specific techniques,itisaboutsettingaprocessinmotionthatwillencouragelearningandtheexchangeof information, possibly even change the perceptions and behaviors of the target audience. Again, becauseadaptationisaprocessofsociallearning,developingappropriatecommunicationtoolsthat allow stakeholders to build consensus on adaptation options through shared information and a commonvisionareanessentialcomponentoftheprojectdesign. Projectionsofclimatechangeareasignificantsourceofuncertaintyforthedecisionmakingprocess. Theinterpretationofavailabledatatoinformspecificdecisionsshouldthereforebeweighedagainst expertopinionontheuncertaintiesinherentinthemodelsandreliabilityofspecificoutputs.Thatis, even the best available models or datasets, regardless of their link to direct/indirect data and

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observed/hypothesizedrelationshipsareinessenceanoversimplificationofthecomplexinteractions and feedbacks between the components of the climate system. These uncertainties arise from imperfect scientific knowledge, computational constraints, mathematical reductions (parameterizations)ofclimatephenomena,andinevitableimpactsofsurprises,whichmayalterthe trajectoriesofclimate. Yetinthecomplexnexusofwhatactionstotakeandatwhatcost,concise,userfriendlyguidanceon understandingclimatechangeinformationisstilllacking.Moreover,lessattentionhasbeengivento communicating how model inputs can be interpreted in ways that will help leverage the best availabledataandsynthesistoolswhenaddressingtheproblem.Mostdiscouragingisthepaucityof coherentguidanceondealingwiththedeepuncertaintiesinherentinmodeloutputs,apointthatis desperatelyimportanttoidentifyingeffectiveadaptationstrategies. Understanding of user needs and targeting thedelivery and communication of climate information will help decision makers in properly assessing the risk factors involved. To date, few tools or exercises provide the muchneeded climate relevant to decision makers. Most discouraging is the paucityofworkconductedatthenexusbetweenclimatescientistsandthoseconcernedwithmaking decisions.Itisagainstthisbackgroundandwiththeultimategoalofimprovingtheunderstanding, packaging, delivery and communication of climate information that this project sets a process in motionthatwillencouragetheexchangeofinformationamongprovidersofclimatedataandusers. Specifically,theprojectseekstoevaluate,developandtestthedesignofcustomroadmapstothe access and interpretation of climate information by target users3, allowing them to draw not only correctinferencesfromclimatedata,butalsotoapplythesedataintherealmofplanningresponses. A special emphasis is placed on understanding the decisionmaking context of target users, particularlywithrespecttotheircontextualconstraintsandtheroleofuncertaintyintheirdecisions. This is also expected to provide valuable insight on how to improve the delivery of climate information. Climate change science is only recently maturing enough to provide much needed answers to a growingbaseofdecisionmakers.Themethodologyemployedherecouldbeusedtoidentifypriority targetgroups,andwouldbehelpfulinthedevelopmentofmoreefficienttrainingmodulesanddata delivery systems for the use of climate information. This is a relatively new field, and builds on relativelyfewexperiencestodateinevaluatinghowtomakeclimatechangeinformationaccessible andrelevanttothosewhoaretaskedwithmakingdecisionsaboutadaptation. Thisworkwilldocument,collectanddisseminatetheexperienceandinsightsofclimatemodellers, highlightingthe contributions thatthe climate science community can provide to the task at hand. Themethodwillcoupleusersurveysandinterviewswithpedagogicalandinnovativecommunication and visualization techniques in an iterative manner to develop test and redesign the deliverables proposed.

3

The identification of target users is a part of this project.

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6. THEENERGY,POVERTYANDCLIMATECHANGEMITIGATIONCLUSTER 6.1IntegratingenergyandClimateChangepoliciesintopovertyalleviationstrategy 6.2DevelopmentofaMitigationAnalysisToolassupportforNationalCommunications 6.3IndicatorstoassessClimateChangeimpactat energyservicesprojectlevel 6.4CitiesandClimateChangeAnalysis The elements of this cluster are regrouping all activities involving practical action research with a focusonenergy,povertyandclimatechange.Theyfit inboththecluster5and6. While thereisa rapidlygrowing literature on poverty and adaptation to climate change, the potential linkages betweenpovertyalleviationandclimatechangemitigationislesswellexplored.Thelinkwaspartially explored in the IPCCs Third Assessment Report (IPCC 2001: Chapter 5.1), and highlighted in the Fourth Assessment Report, where linkages were expressed in terms of a sustainable development approachtobothmitigationandadaptation(IPCC2007:Chapter1.2.3.1)intheintroductorychapter, the specific relationship between sustainable development and mitigation (the subject of Chapter 12), and specifically in terms of cobenefits of specific mitigation measures in the energy sector (Chapter 6.6). Finding linkages between poverty alleviation, development and climate change is critical to the global mitigation effort (Davidson et al. 2003; Heller & Shukla 2003). The twoway connectionbetweenmitigationandsocioeconomicdevelopmentpathsneedsbetterunderstanding to enable more focused action, especially in the light of the importance now being attached to SustainableDevelopmentPoliciesandMeasures,alsocalledSDPAMs,inthecurrentnegotiations on post2012 commitments. It is likely that developing countries will undertake to implement mitigationactivitiesinsomeformeitherbasedonemissionsreductionsrelativetoabaseline,orviaa commitment to SDPAMs. There are three problem contexts in which energy, poverty and climate changemitigationintersectindevelopingcountries: Theproblemofenergypovertythelackofaccessibleand/oraffordableandsafeenergyservices tothepoor,whichrequirevariouspolicyinterventions,includinganincreaseintheavailabilityof appropriate energy services (intervention in infrastructure, markets etc). Aside from the direct provisionofenergyservices,povertyisalsodirectlyrelatedtoenergydependentservicessuchas transport/mobility. The broader relationship between energy provision and growth in the economy required to createeconomicopportunitiesforthepoorgenerally,economicgrowthrequiresincreasingthe supply of energy services. The imperatives of climate change mitigation mean that this can no longerbedonethroughincreasedsupplyofcarbonbasedenergysources. Therequirementtoswitchtoalowcarbondevelopmentpath,whichhassignificantimplications for employment, welfare, income distribution, and ultimately, the vulnerability of the poor to climate change impacts. For instance, South Africas current development path is capital and energyintensive,butineffectiveincreatingemploymentordistributingincomemoreeffectively, and thus a more sustainable development path also holds significant promise for poverty alleviation. While climatefriendly energy and poverty alleviation policies will have to be implemented at a national level, as part of an overall sustainable development framework, the parameters for mitigationefforts(finance,technology)willformpartofapost2012climateregime.Thus,thereare complex linkages between poverty alleviation, energy sector GHG mitigation, and the international climate change policy environment. In addition, as mentioned above, there are significant synergies/possibilities for cobenefits between resolving energy poverty problems, climate change mitigation, and switching to a sustainable growth path (including options for reducing the

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vulnerabilityofthepoortoclimatechangeimpacts).Thesesynergiescanonlybeoptimallyrealised thoughexploringwaysofintegratingdecisionmakingprocessesinthesedifferentspheres. Tacklingtheseproblemstogetherrequiresintegratedinterventionintwointerrelatedcontexts: a) At a national level, including intranational coordination which will be explored with activitiesA.6.2,A.6.3andA.6.4(nationalcommunications,energyservicesatprojectlevel andcities). b) Ataninternationallevel,viadevelopingcountryparticipationinthecurrentdevelopment of a post2012 climate regime which will be explored with activity A.6.1 (integration of climatechangepoliciesintopovertyalleviation). The tools and methods developed/tested in clusters 1 to 5 will be applied, further developed and refinedtorespondtotheanalyticalneedsoftheactivitiescarriedoutinthiscluster.

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