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Concrete Mix Design Report

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  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 1

    Summer Office Training Report 2015

    AHMED ZAKARIa

    BS CIVIL TECHNOLOGY

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 2

    INTERNSHIP SUPERVISOR: Engr. Ahmed Yahya

    AUTHOR: Ahmed Zakaria

    (670-2013)

    Hosting Organization: Al-Haramain Company of

    Commerce and Contracting.

    Commencement Date: September 1, 2015

    Completion Date: September 20, 2015

    Approved By:

    Name of supervisor:Engr. Ahmed Yahya

    Signature:

    Name of mentor: Muhammad Munawwar Khan

    Signature:

    Hosting company stamp

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 3

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to thank Al-Haramain Company of Commerce and Contracting for giving me

    the opportunity to undertake my three week training in their laboratory work area. I would

    like to convey my heartiest thanks to Lab engineer Mohammad Munawwar Khan and the

    project manager Engr. Ahmed Yahya for their immense support and cooperation which

    made this experience very learning and worthwhile

    Dated: September 25, 2015

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 4

    List of Tables

    Table No. Title Page No.

    Table 1 F.A Gradation 08

    Table 2 L.A.A Test 12 Table 3 Grading of 3/4 Aggregate 16 Table 4 Grading of 3/8

    Aggregate 16

    Table 5 Aggregate Blend 17 Table 6 Sample for specific

    gravity 18

    Table 7-A Specific gravity of 3/4 19 Table 7-B Specific gravity of 3/8 20 Table 8 Specific gravity record 21 Table 9 Calculation of Ave.

    specific gravity 21

    Table 10 Nominal Max. Size conversions

    22

    Table 11 Gradation standards C.A 23 Table 12 Gradation standards F.A 23 Table 13 Concrete Class

    Designation 24

    List of Figures

    Figure No. Title Page No.

    Fig 5

    Collage of C.A

    specific gravity

    procedure

    Fig 6 Recording weight of sample on weighing

    scale

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 5

    CONTENTS

    Chapter Title Page No.

    Chapter One

    Introduction

    Concrete Mix Design Things Should Know

    Before Designing

    Concrete.

    Precautions And Things To Remember During Design

    Concrete Mixes

    03

    04

    05

    06

    Chapter Two

    Fine Aggregate

    Gradation Test. Fine Aggregate Angularity

    Test

    Sand Equivalent Test Fine Aggregate Specific

    Gravity Test

    07

    08

    09

    09

    10

    Chapter Three

    Coarse Aggregate

    Los Angeles abrasion test. Soundness Test of

    Aggregate

    Determination of Flakiness index

    Determination of Elongation Index

    Calculation of percentage passing of aggregate 3/4 &

    3/8 separately.

    Making Blend of Aggregate 3/4 & 3/8.

    11

    11

    13

    14

    15

    16

    17

    Chapter Four Concrete Mix Design 22

    Chapter Five Asphalt 31

    Pictorial Explanation 34

    References 37

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 6

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    A wide range of problem associated with concrete mix design has to be faced during graduation period. Keeping in view such difficulties it has been written in a way to gain

    the complete knowledge of Concrete Mix Design before stepping into professional life.

    The report is written on standards followed by KSA and its calculation, method will only

    applicable in the kingdom. However report is written briefly and divided into five parts:

    Fine Aggregate

    Coarse Aggregate

    Concrete Mix Design

    Asphalt

    Pictorial Explanation

    Concrete:

    Concrete is the most building material on earth it was the building block of the Roman Empire. Today

    its the material for new generation. The raw ingredients that create this magic formula can nearly

    found in every country on earth. The basic formula is simple, sand, crush rock aggregate, water and

    cement.

    Concrete can take nearly any shape thats why it is being used in mega dam structures, sky scrapers or

    bridges or any structure on earth.

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 7

    Concrete mix Design

    Concrete mix design may be defines as the art of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and

    determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum

    strength & durability as economically as possible.

    Similarly the common method of expressing the proportions of ingredients of a concrete mix is

    in the terms of parts or ratios of cement, fine and coarse aggregates. For e.g., a concrete mix of

    proportions 1:2:4.

    1. Standards for Mix design

    ACI and other standards only serves as a guide, initial designs must be confirmed by

    laboratory trial and plant trial, adjustments on the design shall be done during trial

    mixes.

    Initial design on paper is never the final design.

    2. Trial Mixes

    Always carry out trial mixes using the materials for actual use

    3. Design Variation Tests

    Carry out 2 or 3 design variations for every design target

    4. Safety Factors

    Consider always the factor of safety, (1.125, 1.2, 1.25, 1.3 X target strength)

    5. Material Sources

    Before proceeding to plant trials, always confirm the source of materials to be the

    same as the one used in the laboratory trials.

    6. Batching Plant Calibration

    Check calibration of batching plant before trials

    7. Tests at Batching Plant

    Carry out full tests of fresh concrete at the batching plant, specially the air content

    and yield which is very important in commercial batching plants

    8. Quality Control

    Correct quality control procedures at the plant will prevent future concrete problems

    9. Admixture

    Follow admixture recommendations from your supplier

    10. Strength Development Check

    Check and verify strength development, most critical stage is the 3 and 7 days strength

    Technical knowledge is an advantage for batching plant staff, even if you have good concrete design but

    uncommon or wrong procedures are practiced it will eventually result to failures

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 8

    Things should know before designing concrete.

    1. What are the strength requirements?

    Compressive (on cube or cylinder specimen) strength

    Flexural strength

    Tensile strength

    2. What is the placing method?

    By pump or direct pouring.

    3. How far is the JOB SITE from the batching plant?

    4. How many Transit Mixers are available on plant?

    5. How much cubic meter concrete to be done in one working day?

    6. Capacity of each Transit Mixer?

    7. What is the capacity of Batching Plant?

    8. What will be the expected temperature of site?

    9. Which type of water is provided to use in concrete?

    10. What type of cement is provided?

    11. Fine and Coarse Aggregates quality test results.

    12. Water temperature?

    13. What is the structure for casting?

    Pavement, foundation, elevated slab, etc.

    14. What are the projects specifications?

    Maximum or minimum cement contents

    Maximum water/cement ratio

    Slump or consistency limit

    Minimum Strength requirement @28 days

    Material specifications

    15. Latest testing results of materials is needed in the preliminary selection of materials and

    design calculation

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 9

    PRECAUTIONS AND THINGS TO REMEMBER DURING

    DESIGN CONCRETE MIXES

    1. Increasing the sand/totalaggregate ratio, increases the water requirement at the

    same consistency.

    2. Increasing the water/cement ratio decreases the strength of concrete at the same

    cement content.

    3. Remember that adding 5 liters of water per cubic meter increases the slump by

    2.5cm.

    4. Remember that adding 5 liters of water per cubic meter decreases strength by

    approximately 4%.

    5. Always follow recommended admixture dosage.

    6. Always have control when performing trial mixes, always perform trial mixes with

    another mix using the same materials. This data can be useful in diagnostics if a

    problem occurs.

    7. Always adjust batching quantities to the actual moisture condition of theaggregates.

    8. Volume tolerance for 1m3 concrete is 1 0.2 m3.

    9. Range of normal weight concrete is from 2,200 kg/m3 to 2,400 kg/m3

    10. Always take 3 samples for each test.

    11. Calculate the average of all 3 samples for accuracy.

    12. Complete all the required necessary tests before you start Concrete Mix Design

    calculations and make a table of their resulted values.

  • Department of

    Civil

    Technology

    Written By: Ahmed Zakaria 10

    CHAPTER TWO

    FINE AGGREGATE

    Fine Aggregate Test Section

    The tests are used to determine the material characteristics and properties of

    aggregate materials for use in pavemen

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