- 1. Confucius By: Ong, David Bryan Tan Drajat, Gibran Group 5
2. Flow of the Report Introduction to Confucius and Confucianism Getting to Know Confucius (more detailed) Ethics Virtues Right Ordering of State Evaluation and Critiques Summary/Conclusion * A more detailed outline is included in the handouts 3. Introduction to Confucius
- Confucius is one of the most known and influential of Chinese philosophers.
- His ideas about creating social and political harmony through good governance, proper human relations and individual moral development shape Chinese thought and history for many centuries.
- He did not pretend to be a prophet, but dedicated his whole life to save the mankind.
4. Introduction to Confucius
- Confucius promised those who followed him no great riches, no secrets for worldly power or fame.
- Instead of gold or glory, he spoke only of a dreama world where happiness, good, and peace would replace misery, evil, and war.
5. Introduction to Confucius Confucius was a man who never led an army, ruled a kingdom, or conquered a nation, but shaped the flow of human history and established a system of ideas that has lasted over twenty five hundred years. (Bennett Sims, 1968) 6. Introduction to Confucianism
- Confucianism is humanism, a philosophy or attitude that is concerned with human beings, their achievements and interests, rather than with the abstract beings and problems of theology
- Humanism is the belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially including self-cultivation and self-creation
7. Introduction to Confucianism
- Confucianism was never intended to be a religion. It has no revelatory sacred writings, no priesthood, no doctrine of an afterlife, and frowned on asceticism and monasticism
- Confucianism has been the chief cultural influence of China for centuries.
8. Who is this man? 9. The Life of Confucius 10. Ancestry, Childhood and Youth (551-523 B.C.)
- Confucius was born in the town of Tsou, in the county of Changping in the country of Lu (now Shantung Province).
- His early ancestor was Kung Fangshu (member of the Royal State of Song/Sung)
- His great grandfather moved to Lu, fleeing the turmoil in Song to the country of Lu, where they became impoverished.
- Shuliang Ho was the Father of Confucius by extra-marital union.
- Confucius was born in answer to his parents prayers at a sacred hill called Ni, thus, they named him Chiu/qiu.
- Soon after he was born, his father died
11. Ancestry, Childhood and Youth (551-523 B.C.)
- As a child, Confucius used to play at making sacrificial offerings and performing ceremonies.
- In spite of his familys financial problems, Confucius received a good education in music, arithmetic, calligraphy, and other disciplines
- He left his country and headed to Chou to study the ancient rites and ceremonies
12. Ancestry, Childhood and Youth (551-523 B.C.)
- At around 19, he got married, he earned a living tending stable animals and keeping accounts for granaries of Baron Chi.
- but soon divorced his wife and had an aloof relationship with his son and daughter. (They died before Confucius)
- In his twenties, he became a teacher and gathered a group of loyal disciples.
13. Between Thirty and Fifty (522-503 B.C.)
- Confucius returned from Chou to the country of Lu, and more disciples came to study under him.
- At the age of 35, due to a conflict between the rulers of 2 different countries, Confucius left his country and went to the country of Chi, where he worked as a secretary to Baron Chao Kao, in the hope of establishing a connection with the duke of Chi
14. Between Thirty and Fifty (522-503 B.C.)
- The Duke of Chi was very impressed with Confucius and wanted to give him some sort of power but other nobilities were plotting against him so he was forced to return to his country.
- The number of his students rapidly grew.
15. The Period of Great Power (502-496 B.C.)
- During his 50s/ early 50s, Confucius was made magistrate of Chungtu by Duke Ting/Ding
- Then he was promoted to the office of the secretary of Public Works (or Labor) then later on became the Grand Secretary of Justice.
- Confucius disciple named Tselu was made Secretary of the Barony of Chi
- At 56, Confucius, from Grand Secretary of Justice, he was promoted as the Chief Minister
16. The Period of Great Power (502-496 B.C.)
- After 3 months of being Chief Minister, people started to strictly follow the rules
- This frightened their rival country (Chi) because of the worry that the country of Lu with Confucius having some power might dominate.
- Due to political disagreements and internal conflicts, he resigned his post at fifty-five and left the province of Lu.
17. Five Years of Wandering (496-492 B.C,)
- In the company of his disciples, Confucius left Lu and traveled in the states of Wei, Song, Chen, Cai, and Chu, purportedly looking for a ruler who might employ him but meeting instead with indifference and, occasionally, severe hardship and danger
- When he was in Wei for the second time, the duke was pleased to see him but did not put him in power
18. Five Years of Wandering (496-492 B.C,)
- If someone will put me in power, I shall need only one month (to lay the foundation for a new order) and in three years time, I shall accomplish great results
- So he left Wei because he felt that he couldnt accomplish anything in Wei. And decided to go back to Chen
19. In Extremities between Chen and Tsai (491-489 B.C.)
- After a year, Confucius left Chen to go to Tsai and wandered there for 3 years.
- The rulers of Chu sent for Confucius but the rulers of Chen and Tsai heard of this and wont let it happen. So, they surrounded Confucius with soldiers.
- Confucius was able to get out of this difficulty with the help of the King of Chu.
- Confucius left Chu and headed again back to Wei. (He was 63 this time)
20. Further Years of Wanderings (488-484 B.C.)
- When he was in Wei, he had many disciples who were in the government.
- Kung Wentse of Wei asked Confucius about Military tactics but he politely declined.
- Then he decided to leave Wei
- Confucius returned to Lu in 484 B.C .and spent the remainder of his life teaching, putting in order theBook of Songs , theBook of Documents , and other ancient classics, as well as editing theSpring and Autumn Annals , the court chronicle of Lu
21. Further Years of Wanderings (488-484 B.C.)
- He traveled for thirteen years from state to state seeking to persuade political leaders to adopt his teachings before returning to Lu. Although many lords respected him, no one gave him a position
22. Scholarly Labors and Personal Habits of Confucius (484-481 B.C)
- In his old age, Confucius developed a love of study of different books.
- Confucius taught poetry, history, ceremonies and music to 3,000 pupils of whom 72, had mastered the Six arts (ceremonies, music, archery, carriage-driving, reading and mathematics)
23. His Death (479 B.C.) and Posterity
- Confucius said to Tsekung while he was ill: For a long time the world has been living in moral chaos and no ruler has been able to follow me
- Seven days afterwards he died at the age of 72 or 73
- For generations sacrifices were offered at the temple of Confucius
24. His Death (479 B.C.) and Posterity
- The belongings of Confucius were preserved in the Confucian Temple and all the princes and high ministers paid respects first at the Confucian Temple before assuming office
- Confucius who was but a common scholar became acknowledged Master of scholars for over ten generations
- All people in China who discuss the six arts, from the emperors, kings, and princes down, regard the Master as the final authority
- Confucius was recognized as a unique figure, a sage who was ignored but should have been recognized and become a king
25. How his life effected his Philosophy
- The ending of the Zhou Dynasty in China was marred by warring factions within the empire, harsh rule by the power wielding elites, and to some extent, political chaos. Confucius, lived during these times and sought for an understandable and capable way of ruling.
- The moral and social order was in a state of decay. Confucius sought a way to restore the cultural-political order. He believed that reform would come through educating the leaders in the classics and in his philosophy.
26. Confucian Ethics 27. Confucian Ethics: Outline
- The Basis of Ethical Thought in Confucianism
- Virtue Ethics in Confucianism
- Ethical Particularism: the Golden Rule and the Silver Rule
- Conception of Civil Society in Confucian Thought
28. Confucian Ethics: Emphasis