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CONTENTS Prior knowledge Types of polymerisation Addition polymerisation Polymerisation of propene...

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General A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer CONDENSATION monomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer POLYMERISATION
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CONTENTS Prior knowledge Types of polymerisation Addition polymerisation Polymerisation of propene Condensation polymerisation Peptides Hydrolysis of peptides POLYMERS Before you start it would be helpful to know the functional groups found in organic chemistry know the arrangement of bonds around carbon atoms recall and explain electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes POLYMERS General A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer CONDENSATION monomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer POLYMERISATION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer occurs with alkenes mechanism can be free radical or ionic ADDITION POLYMERISATION Preparation Often by a free radical process involving high pressure, high temperature and a catalyst. The catalyst is usually a substance (e.g. an organic peroxide) which readily breaks up to form radicals which initiate a chain reaction. Another catalyst is a Ziegler-Natta catalyst (named after the scientists who developed it). Such catalysts are based on the compound TiCl 4. POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES ADDITION POLYMERISATION Preparation Often by a free radical process involving high pressure, high temperature and a catalyst. The catalyst is usually a substance (e.g. an organic peroxide) which readily breaks up to form radicals which initiate a chain reaction. Another catalyst is a Ziegler-Natta catalyst (named after the scientists who developed it). Such catalysts are based on the compound TiCl 4. Properties Physicalvary with reaction conditions (pressure, temperature etc). Chemical based on the functional groups in their structure poly(ethene) is typical; it is fairly inert as it is basically a very large alkane. This means it is resistant to chemical attack and non-biodegradable. POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES ADDITION POLYMERISATION POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES Process during polymerisation, an alkene undergoes an addition reaction with itself all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed ADDITION POLYMERISATION POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES Process during polymerisation, an alkene undergoes an addition reaction with itself all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed ADDITION POLYMERISATION The equation shows the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER n represents a large number POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES ADDITION POLYMERISATION The equation shows the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER n represents a large number POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES ETHENE EXAMPLES OF ADDITION POLYMERISATION PROPENE TETRAFLUOROETHENE CHLOROETHENE POLY(ETHENE) POLY(PROPENE) POLY(CHLOROETHENE) POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PVC POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE) PTFE Teflon POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES SPOTTING THE MONOMER POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES SPOTTING THE MONOMER POLYMERISATION OF PROPENE - ANIMATION AN EXAMPLE OF ADDITION POLYMERISATION ISOTACTIC SYNDIOTACTIC ATACTIC PROPENE MOLECULES DO NOT ALWAYS ADD IN A REGULAR WAY THERE ARE THREE BASIC MODES OF ADDITION POLY(PROPENE) ISOTACTIC CH 3 groups on same side - most desirable properties - highest melting point SYNDIOTACTIC CH 3 groups alternate sided ATACTIC random most likely outcome CONDENSATION POLYMERS monomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer Examplespolyamides(nylon)(kevlar) polyesters(terylene) (polylactic acid) peptides starch Synthesis reactions between diprotic carboxylic acids and diols diprotic carboxylic acids and diamines amino acids ESTER LINKAMIDE LINK POLYESTERS - TERYLENE Reagentsterephthalic acidHOOC-C 6 H 4 -COOH ethane-1,2-diolHOCH 2 CH 2 OH Reactionesterification Eliminatedwater Equation n HOCH 2 CH 2 OH + n HOOC-C 6 H 4 -COOH > -[OCH 2 CH 2 OOC(C 6 H 4 )CO] n - + n H 2 O POLYESTERS - TERYLENE Reagentsterephthalic acidHOOC-C 6 H 4 -COOH ethane-1,2-diolHOCH 2 CH 2 OH Reactionesterification Eliminatedwater Equation n HOCH 2 CH 2 OH + n HOOC-C 6 H 4 -COOH > -[OCH 2 CH 2 OOC(C 6 H 4 )CO] n - + n H 2 O Repeat unit [-OCH 2 CH 2 OOC(C 6 H 4 )CO-] n Productpoly(ethylene terephthalate)Terylene, Dacron Propertiescontains an ester link can be broken down by hydrolysis the C-O bond breaks behaves as an ester biodegradable Usesfabricsan ester link POLYESTERS POLY(LACTIC ACID) Reagent2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid)CH 3 CH(OH)COOH CARBOXYLIC ACID END ALCOHOL END POLYESTERS POLY(LACTIC ACID) Reagent2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid)CH 3 CH(OH)COOH Reactionesterification Eliminatedwater Equation n CH 3 CH(OH)COOH > [-OCH(CH 3 )CO-] n + n H 2 O Productpoly(lactic acid) Repeat unit [-OCH(CH 3 )CO-] CARBOXYLIC ACID END ALCOHOL END POLYESTERS POLY(LACTIC ACID) Reagent2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid)CH 3 CH(OH)COOH Productpoly(lactic acid) Propertiescontains an ester link can be broken down by hydrolysis the C-O bond breaks behaves as an ester (hydrolysed at the ester link) biodegradable photobiodegradable (C=O absorbs radiation) Useswaste sacks and packaging disposable eating utensils internal stitches CARBOXYLIC ACID END ALCOHOL END POLYAMIDES KEVLAR Reagentsbenzene-1,4-diamine benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid Repeat unit Propertiescontains an amide link Usesbody armour POLYAMIDES - NYLON-6,6 Reagents hexanedioic acidhexane-1,6-diamine HOOC(CH 2 ) 4 COOH H 2 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 2 Mechanismaddition-elimination Eliminatedwater Equation n HOOC(CH 2 ) 4 COOH + n H 2 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 2 > -[NH(CH 2 ) 6 NHOC(CH 2 ) 4 CO] n - + n H 2 O POLYAMIDES - NYLON-6,6 Reagents hexanedioic acidhexane-1,6-diamine HOOC(CH 2 ) 4 COOH H 2 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 2 Mechanismaddition-elimination Eliminatedwater Equation n HOOC(CH 2 ) 4 COOH + n H 2 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 2 > -[NH(CH 2 ) 6 NHOC(CH 2 ) 4 CO] n - + n H 2 O Repeat unit[-NH(CH 2 ) 6 NHOC(CH 2 ) 4 CO-] n ProductNylon-6,6two repeating units, each with 6 carbon atoms POLYAMIDES - NYLON-6,6 Propertiescontains a peptide (or amide) link can be broken down by hydrolysis the C-N bond breaks behave as amides biodegradable can be spun into fibres for strength Usesfibres and ropes PEPTIDES Reagentsamino acids Equation H 2 NCCH 2 COOH + H 2 NC(CH 3 )COOH > H 2 NCCH 2 CONHHC(CH 3 )COOH + H 2 O Productpeptide (the above shows the formation of a dipeptide) Eliminatedwater Mechanismaddition-elimination PEPTIDES Reagentsamino acids Equation H 2 NCCH 2 COOH + H 2 NC(CH 3 )COOH > H 2 NCCH 2 CONHHC(CH 3 )COOH + H 2 O Productpeptide (the above shows the formation of a dipeptide) Eliminatedwater Mechanismaddition-elimination Amino acids join together via an amide or peptide link 2 amino acids joineddipeptide 3 amino acids joinedtripeptide many amino acids joinedpolypeptide a dipeptide HYDROLYSIS OF PEPTIDES Hydrolysis + H 2 O > HOOCCH 2 NH 2 + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid and amine groups remain as they are Hydrolysis is much quicker if acidic or alkaline conditions are used. However, there is a slight variation in products. HYDROLYSIS OF PEPTIDES Hydrolysis + H 2 O > HOOCCH 2 NH 2 + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid and amine groups remain as they are Acid hydrolysis + 2HC l > HOOCCH 2 NH 3 + C l + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 3 + C l The acid groups remain as they are and the amine groups are protonated HYDROLYSIS OF PEPTIDES Hydrolysis + H 2 O > HOOCCH 2 NH 2 + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid and amine groups remain as they are Acid hydrolysis + 2HC l > HOOCCH 2 NH 3 + C l + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 3 + C l The acid groups remain as they are and the amine groups are protonated Base (alkaline) hydrolysis + 2NaOH > Na+ OOCCH 2 NH 2 + Na+ OOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid groups become sodium salts and the amine groups remain as they are HYDROLYSIS OF PEPTIDES Hydrolysis + H 2 O > HOOCCH 2 NH 2 + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid and amine groups remain as they are Acid hydrolysis + 2HC l > HOOCCH 2 NH 3 + C l + HOOCCH(CH 3 )NH 3 + C l The acid groups remain as they are and the amine groups are protonated Base (alkaline) hydrolysis + 2NaOH > Na+ OOCCH 2 NH 2 + Na+ OOCCH(CH 3 )NH 2 The acid groups become sodium salts and the amine groups remain as they are PROTEINS polypeptides with large relative molecular masses (>10000) chains can be lined up with each other the C=O and N-H bonds are polar due to a difference in electronegativity hydrogen bonding exists between chains dotted lines represent hydrogen bonding

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CONTENTS Prior knowledge Types of polymerisation Addition polymerisation Polymerisation of propene Condensation polymerisation Peptides Hydrolysis of peptides POLYMERS POLYMERS
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