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Contingency Approaches

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Contingency Approaches. Ex. 3.1 Comparing the Universalistic and Contingency Approaches to Leadership. Outcomes (Performance, satisfaction, etc.). Leadership Traits/behaviors. Universalistic Approach. Leader. Style Traits Behavior Position. Contingency Approach. Outcomes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Page 1: Contingency Approaches

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Contingency Contingency ApproachesApproaches

Page 2: Contingency Approaches

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Ex. 3.1Ex. 3.1 Comparing the Universalistic and Comparing the Universalistic and Contingency Approaches to LeadershipContingency Approaches to Leadership

Universalistic Approach

Contingency Approach

Followers

Leader

Situation

Leadership Traits/behaviors

Style Traits

BehaviorPosition

NeedsMaturityTraining

Cohesion

TaskStructureSystems

Env.

Outcomes(Performance, satisfaction,

etc.)

Outcomes(Performance, satisfaction,

etc.)

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Contingency ApproachesContingency ApproachesContingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively

The answer then is:That the answer depends on leader, follower, and situation variables. Leaders skills will differ and situation will differ in each case.

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Contingency ApproachesContingency Approaches

Contingency approaches:

Ultimately, the leader, the followers, and the situation must match for true leadership to take place!

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Let’s take a look at Leader Behavior Let’s take a look at Leader Behavior and Four Leader Stylesand Four Leader Styles

High Task-LowRelationship

High Task-HighRelationship

Low Task-LowRelationship

High Relationship-Low Task

Low

High

Low HighRELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR

TAS

K

BE

HA

VIO

R

Page 6: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision

Page 7: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision

• Ability

Page 8: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision• Ability

• Enthusiasm/Vitality

Page 9: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision• Ability• Enthusiasm/Vitality

• Stability

Page 10: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision• Ability• Enthusiasm/Vitality• Stability

• Concern for others

Page 11: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision• Ability• Enthusiasm/Vitality• Stability• Concern for others

• Self Confidence

Page 12: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader

• Vision• Ability• Enthusiasm/Vitality• Stability• Concern for others• Self Confidence

• Integrity

Page 13: Contingency Approaches

Qualities that influence a LeaderQualities that influence a Leader• Vision• Ability• Enthusiasm/Vitality• Stability• Concern for others• Self Confidence• Integrity

• Charisma

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Situational TheorySituational TheoryLet’s look at Situational approachesLet’s look at Situational approaches

Hersey and Blanchard’s extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently, of determining effective leader behavior

Page 15: Contingency Approaches

Situational TheorySituational Theory

1515

• Chart:

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Ex. 3.4Ex. 3.4 Hersey and Blanchard’s Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory of LeadershipSituational Theory of Leadership

Follower Characteristics Appropriate Leader Style

Low readiness level

Moderate readiness level

High readiness level

Very high readiness level

Telling (high task-low relationship)

Selling (high task-high relationship)

Participating (low task-high rel.)

Delegating (low task-low relationship)

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Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory

A contingency approach to leadership in which the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards

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Ex. 3.5Ex. 3.5 Leader Roles in the Path-Goal Leader Roles in the Path-Goal ModelModelPath Clarification Increase Rewards

Leader defines what followermust do to attain work outcomes

Leader clarifies follower’s work role

Follower has increased knowledge & confidence to accomplish outcomes

Leader learns follower’s needs

Leader matches follower’s needs to rewards if work outcomes are accomplished

Leader increases value of work outcomes for follower

Follower displays increased effort and motivation

Organizational work outcomes are accomplished

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Ex. 3.6Ex. 3.6 Path-Goal Situations and Path-Goal Situations and Preferred Leader BehaviorsPreferred Leader Behaviors

Situation Leader Behavior Impact on Follower Outcome

Supportive Leadership

Directive Leadership

Achievement-Oriented

Leadership

Participative Leadership

Followers lack self-confidence

Ambiguous job

Lack of job challenge

Incorrect reward

Increases confidence to achieve work outcomes

Clarifies path to reward

Set and strive for high goals

Clarifies followers’ needs to change rewards

Increased effort; improved satisfaction and performance

Page 20: Contingency Approaches

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Ex. 3.7Ex. 3.7 Five Leader Decision Styles Five Leader Decision Styles

Area of Influence by Leader

Area of Freedom for Group

Decide Consult Individually

Consult Group

Facilitate Delegate

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Substitute and NeutralizerSubstitute and Neutralizer

Substitute: a situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant

Neutralizer: a situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors

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Ex. 3.10Ex. 3.10 Substitutes and Neutralizers Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadershipfor Leadership

Variable Task-Oriented Leadership

People-Oriented Leadership

Organizational variables

Group cohesivenessFormalizationInflexibilityLow positional powerPhysical separation

Substitutes forSubstitutes forNeutralizesNeutralizesNeutralizes

Substitutes forNo effect onNo effect onNeutralizesNeutralizes

Task characteristics

Highly struct. taskAutomatic feedbackIntrinsic satisfaction

Substitutes forSubstitutes forNo effect on

No effect onNo effect onSubstitutes for

Follower characteristics

ProfessionalismTraining/experienceLow value of rewards

Substitutes forSubstitutes forNeutralizes

Substitutes forNo effect onNeutralizes

Page 23: Contingency Approaches

Filling the “GAPS”Filling the “GAPS”

• JACK WELCH• “Before you are a leader,

success is all about growing yourself. When you become a leader, success is all about growing others and filling the Gaps.”

Page 24: Contingency Approaches

Through Individualized Through Individualized LeadershipLeadership

• Vertical Dyad Linkage• Leader Member Exchange (LMX)• Partnership Building• Systems and Networks

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Through Communication Through Communication

• Build Relationships • Create the sense of Community• Remember to ask questions• Maintain Open Channels of

Communication

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Through LeadershipThrough Leadership

• Remember that everything filters down• Allow for opportunities• Seek to Engage• Don’t Delegate. Motivate!

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Through EmpowermentThrough Empowerment

• Empowerment is the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization

• Are they a “4” or are they a “5”?• Share the Power.

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Through ToolsThrough Tools

• Personal Evaluations• One on One meetings• Building rapport with your team• Going to meetings• Having outings• Team Building Exercise• Though Conferences


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