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Control & ions Review on SCR Catalysts - walshcarlines.com Catalysts Bernd Amon.pdf · Review on...

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  • 1

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Review on SCR Catalysts Dr.- Ing. Bernd Amon

    3rd Aaqius & Aaqius Paris Forum28 Sep 2004, Paris

    &Strategies SolutionsControl of diesel emissions:

    2

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Content

    Introduction - About SCR Technology

    Euro4 SCR Systems - Current Status

    Advanced SCR Technology

    Combined Emission Control Strategies

    Conclusions

    3

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Power Plants

    Gas Turbines

    Marine Engines

    Stationary Engines

    About SCR Technology

    SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) is a well-established and well-known technology to reduce exhaust emissions in various stationary applications all over the world

    Automotive Application

    4

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Strategies to Reduce Diesel Emissions

    Europe

    PM[g/kWh]

    EU 3 (2000)

    0.16

    0.12

    0.08

    0.04

    1 2 3 4 5

    NOx[g/kWh]

    EU 5 (2008) EU 4 (2005)

    BSFC

    SCR SCR

    EGR

    DPF BSFC

    NOx / PM / BSFC Tradeoff

  • 2

    5

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Impact of Emission Control Strategies on Fuel Consumption and Operation Costs

    Fuel Consum ption Euro 4

    105

    93100 102

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    120

    Euro 3 EGR +DPF

    SCR LNT +DPF

    BSFC

    [%]

    Fuel Consum ption Euro 5

    107

    94100

    107

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    110

    120

    Euro 3 EGR +DPF

    SCR LNT +DPF

    BSFC

    [%]

    Assumptions: Fuel Consumption Baseline: 33 l/100km Lifetime of Truck: 500.000 km Costs: Diesel: 0,90 /l;AdBlue: 0,65 /l Urea / Fuel for SCR (Euro5): 6%

    Fuel penalty LNT+DPFFuel benefit SCR

    Urea consump. Cost advantage

    10,000 9,000

    6,500 12,500 S

    ourc

    e: A

    CE

    A R

    epor

    t , A

    CEA

    , 200

    3

    6

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Diesel Engine

    EDC

    SCR-Cat.

    SCR SystemAdBlue

    Dosing Tank

    NOx, O2

    AdBlue(NH2) 2CO Cleaned

    Exhaust

    N2, H2O

    Exhaust

    HC, PM HC, PM

    Function of SCR SystemAnnouncement of ACEA (July 2003):The European heavy-duty commercial vehicle manufacturers have finally chosen SCR technology to comply with ...Euro4 and Euro5. Optimum reliability Stable performance and extended durability Compatibility with engine technology and other aftertreatment devices And above all high effectiveness at reasonable costs

    7

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    SCR Components on the TruckSINOx

    SCR Catalyst

    Urea Tank with Pump Unit Urea Nozzle to Exhaust Pipe

    Urea Metering Unit

    Compressed Air Supply

    8

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    NOx Reduction - European Steady State Cycle (ESC)

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    0

    10

    20Mode

    Diesel engine: 12l, 330 kW / SCR Catalyst: 300 cpsi, 26.4 ltr., w/o oxid. and slip cat

    NH3 [

    ppm]

    NOx [

    g/h]

    NOx before catalyst: 9.2 g/kWhNOx after catalyst: 1.9 g/kWh

    NOx reduction: 79%

  • 3

    9

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800

    NOx Reduction - European Transient Cycle (ETC)

    NH3 [

    ppm]

    NOx [

    g/h]

    1000

    2000

    3000

    0

    10

    NOx before catalyst: 11 g/kWhNOx after catalyst: 2.3 g/kWh

    NOx reduction: 81%

    Time [sec]

    Diesel engine: 12l, 330 kW / SCR Catalyst: 300 cpsi, 26.4 ltr., w/o oxid. and slip cat

    10

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    NOx Reduction - European Steady State Cycle (ESC)

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

    0

    10

    20Mode

    Diesel engine: 12l, 290 kW / SCR Catalyst: 300 cpsi, 35 ltr., w/o oxid. and slip cat

    NOx before catalyst: 7.5 g/kWhNOx after catalyst: 0.9 g/kWh

    NOx reduction: 88%

    NH3 [

    ppm]

    NOx [

    g/h]

    11

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    SCR Components on a Passenger Car

    Exhaust systemOxydation catalyst Urea tank

    SCR catalyst

    Urea nozzle

    Cat. Housing

    12

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    NOx Reduction - Passenger Car Application

    NOx-e

    miss

    ion [%

    ]

    EUDC NEDC

    -80 %-80 %

    -65 %-65 %

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Engine out emissionwith SCR

    -77%-77%

    NEDC

    Engine with optimised calibration

    Engine without optimised calibration

  • 4

    13

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Advanced SCR Technology

    Euro 4: conservatively designed SCR catalyst volume due to an open loop control configuration; uncertainties like estimation of NOx engine out emissions, urea injection pump metering error, etc. must be covered.

    Diesel Engine

    EDC

    SCR-Cat.

    SCR SystemAdBlue

    Dosing Tank

    Introduction of 2nd generation SCR systems:Sensors (NH3 or NOx) will allow better NOx performance of given SCR systems by enhancing the dosing control strategies.

    NOx/NH3SensorNOx

    Sensor

    14

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Development of NOx and Ammonia Sensors

    Source: Siemens/NGK

    Source: Delphi

    NOx Sensor

    Ammonia Sensor

    On Road results (Class 8 truck; HD 12-ltr.) SINOx SCR Catalyst + Prototype NOx Sensor from Siemens/NGK

    Source: Ford, DEER Aug 2003

    Comparison of Ammonia measured at tailpipe using FTIR with that predicted by the ammonia sensor

    15

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    NOx Reduction with SCR closed loop control

    open loop closed loop open loop closed loop

    100

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    NOx c

    onve

    rsion

    [%]

    ESC ETC

    Euro 4

    Euro 5

    Source: TNO, SAE 2004-01-0154

    Calculated NOx conversion with open loop and closed loop control over different cycles

    Increase in NOx conversion of approx. 15% (abs.)

    16

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Combined System DPF + SCR

    Diesel Engine

    EDC

    SCR-Cat.

    SCR SystemAdBlue

    Dosing Tank

    Reduction of > 80% NOxwith SCR

    SCR technology can be combined with various emission control technologies like EGR, DPF and Oxidation Catalyst

    Filter System

    Oxi-Cat. (opt.) DPF

    Reduction of > 90% PMwith DPF

    Combined systems of SCR and DPF provide for highest conversion rates of PM and NOx to comply with post Euro 5, US 2007/2010 and Jap. PNLT Regulations

  • 5

    17

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    NOx/PM Reduction with Combined DPF/SCR System

    0

    0.01

    0.02

    0.03

    0.04

    0.05

    0.06

    0.07

    0.08

    0.09

    0.1

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    HC

    [gr

    /bhp

    -hr]

    81%99%

    & HCare below the US 07 emission limits

    FTP results of an Class 8 truck engine; HD 12-ltr. 4 valve/cyl. inline-6 Diesel engine(no EGR) + DPF + SINOx-SCR-Catalyst

    NOx

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    NO

    x [g

    r/bhp

    -hr]

    82%

    76%

    0

    0.01

    0.02

    0.03

    0.04

    0.05

    0.06

    0.07

    0.08

    0.09

    0.1

    EngineOut

    SCR DPF +SCR

    PM [

    gr/b

    hp-h

    r]

    22%

    90%

    & PM

    18

    SINOx Emissions Control

    Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28

    Conclusions

    SCR is a feasible and well-proven technology to reduceDiesel emissions and make to use of fuel optimized engines

    European HDV manufacturers have decided to use SCR to comply with Euro 4 (2005) and Euro 5 (2008) emissionregulations and reduce fuel consumption

    For future emissions regulation in Europe, but also in US and Japan SCR in combination with filter technology offersa solution even for the most stringent emission limits

    Use of NOx/Ammonia sensors will further improve NOx reduction efficiency of SCR technology

of 5/5
SINOx Emissions Control ® Review on SCR Catalysts Dr.- Ing. Bernd Amon 3 rd Aaqius & Aaqius Paris’ Forum 28 Sep 2004, Paris & Strategies Solutions Control of diesel emissions: 2 SINOx ® Emissions Control Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28 Content Introduction - About SCR Technology “Euro4” SCR Systems - Current Status Advanced SCR Technology Combined Emission Control Strategies • Conclusions 3 SINOx ® Emissions Control Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28 About SCR Technology SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) is a well-established and well-known technology to reduce exhaust emissions in various stationary applications all over the world Automotive Application 4 SINOx ® Emissions Control Automotive Applications / BA / 2004-09-28 Strategies to Reduce Diesel Emissions Europe PM [g/kWh] EU 3 (2000) 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 1 2 3 4 5 NO x [g/kWh] EU 5 (2008) EU 4 (2005) BSFC SCR SCR EGR DPF BSFC NOx / PM / BSFC Tradeoff
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