4 IMPORTANT ASPECTS IN COOKING HYGIENEPERSONAL HYGIENEHYGIENE IN SITE OF COOKING HYGIENE IN UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENTHYGIENE IN FOOD
COOKING HYGIENE PERSONAL COOKING SITE
CLEAN BODY AND HAIRCLEAN HANDS- SHORT
AND CLEAN FINGER NAILS
CLEAN CLOTHEAVOID:SNEEZING,COUGHING,TOUCHINGHAIR,MOUTH,NOSE,EARS.OUR MICROBES CAN PASS DOWN TO OTHERS
CLEAN FLOOR.ALL TRASH IN THE
TRASH CANT. CAN MUST BE FAR
FROM FOOD PREPARATION SITE.
CLEANWALLS,CORNERS, CEILINGS (spider webs and insects nests)
COOKING HYGIENEUTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT
WASH THEM AFTER USEDDON’T LEAVE THEM
DIRTY FOR A LONG TIME- FLIES
RAGS AND CLOTHSPUT AWAY UTENSILS
LAYING DOWNWARD OR COVER THEM WITH CLOTH.
MAKE EMPHASIS IN WASHING THROUGHLY WITH HOT WATER THE SCRUB,CUTTING BOARD AND SMASHING STONE.
VEGETABLES ,FRUITS AND GRAINS NEED TO BE WASHED.
SOMETIMES SOAP NEEDS TO BE USED.
SOME FOOD NEED MORE TIME,PARTS NEED TO BE WASHED SEPARATE;SPINACH,LETTUCE, CABBAGE
SOME SHOULD BE LEFT IN SALT AND WATER FOR 5 MIN. TO ELIMINATE INSECTS AND MICRORGANISMS.
WAYS OF COOKINGBOILING FRYINGThe less quantity of
water should be used to avoid loosing viamins B and C.
That same water should be used for soups, sauces or rice to used dissolved vita.
Destroys microorganisms in food.
Oil must be very hot.When food is taken out of
frying pan it should be placed on paper towels so it absorbs excess of oil.
STIR FRYINGLittle oil is used and food is stired constantly at a variable temperature.
Here the food is in direct contact with fire.
Best done outdoors.The hard outer coat
formed stops the nutritious substances from coming out.
Usually used on thin cuts.
The hot air in the oven is transmitted to the food.
The hard outside coat stops the nutritious substances from coming out.
If the food needs more time in oven then it should be covered
MEATS AND VEGETABLES ARE COOKED IN A JUICY WAY IN MEDIUM OR LOW TEMPERATURE. SMALL AMOUNT OR NO OIL IS ADDED.
VERY POPULAR IN THE ORIENTAL COUNTRIES. FOOD IN A RECIPIENT IS COOKED IN ANOTHER RECIPIENT WITH HOT WATER. THE FOOD IS COOKED WITH THE STEAM.
INVESTIGATION ON FOOD SPOILAGETHEMES: FERMENTATION --YEAST,MOLD,BACTERIA PUTREFACTION RANCIDITY DEFINITIONS INFORMATION3 PICTURES OF EACH EXCEPT RANCIDITY.PICTURES IN EACH PAGE OF INFORMATION6 SLIDES FRONT PAGE 20 PTS.
BACTERIA . MICROORGANISMS
FOOD SPOILAGE FERMENTATION, PUTREFACTION, AND
Fermentation is the convertion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol.Yeasts,molds and bacteria are types of fermentation.
Yeasts are microscopic fungi found in the air ,soil, and of surface of fruit.Some tolerate high acidity ,salt and sugar concentration and can grow without presence of oxygen.
There are 3 types of yeasts: BENEFICIAL YEAST SPOILAGE YEASTPATHOGENIC YEAST –causes diseases.Yeast can be true – metabolizes sugar producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. False yeast grows as a dry film on food surface such as on pickle. False occurs in foods with high sugar or acid environment.
MOLDSAre microscopic fungi .They grow in tiny spores that float in
the air .When spores fall into a piece of damp food then it grows into mold. There are thousands known species of molds.
They grow on dead organic matter everywhere in nature and their presence is only visible when mold colonies grow.
BACTERIA: Are microscopic organisms round, spiral,or rod shaped that cause spoilage in food . Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods like vegetables and meats.
It grows in warmth and in moisture.
PUTREFACTIONIs the process in which organic material is
broken down into simpler forms of matter –poisonous substances , with the formation of foul smelling and tasting products. It is caused by bacteria ,fungi,oxygen and moisture.
Enzymes are chemical substances that exist in the majority of the plants . In the course of certain period of time they can cause changes that spoil the food.
RANCIDITYIs the chemical decomposition of fats,oils,and
other lipids. Oxygen molecules interact with the structure of food in a way that can change the odor,taste,and its safety for consumption.
There are three types of rancidity:Microbial rancidity,hydrolytic rancidity,and
FOOD PRESERVATIONAdvantages:Extends the life of foodMaintains as much as possible nutritional quality.Avoids growth of unwanted micro-organismsSALTINGFood is preserved with salt. Salt inhibits the growth of microorganisms by taking out water of cells through osmosis. Most bacteria,fungi,and other pathogenic organisms can’t survive in a highly salted environment.One of the oldest methods for preserving food.DRY SALTING : meat or fish are buried in salt.BRINE-CURING : Meat is put in strong salt water.
SUGARINGRequires food to be dehydrated and then to
be packed with sugar or liquids containing high amount of sugar such as honey or molasses.
Sugar inhibits bacterial growth
PICKLING Can be done in vinegar ,a strong acid in
which few bacteria can survive.It can also be done in a salt brine to
encourage fermentation.Here the growth of good bacteria makes food less vulnerable to bad spoilage –causing bacteria.
HONDURAN PICKLE1 glass jar –big 2 kitchen cloths boiling
pots3 medium size onions 1 garlic clove 1 carrot
¼ coliflower 1 big plastic bowl
¾ bottle of vinegar apron ½ bag of purified waterSalt, cummins,sugarSour orange Raw Jalapeño peppers (optional)THE GLASS JAR MUST BE WASHED
THROUGHLY AND BOILING WATER MUST BE POURED IN IT.
Boil kitchen cloths.
Pickling factorsJars ,utensils and kitchen cloths should be
boiled and dried.Vegetables need to be very clean and cut in
desired size.A teaspoon of sugar can be added to balance
the acid taste.If the vinegar is too strong it can be diluted
in a small portion of water.Each vegetable needs to be placed in boiling
water for a certain time which differs according to the consistency of the vegetable.
JELLY MARMALADE SYRUP JAM
JELLYPreservation done by boiling the juice of the fruit
and sugar until it has a semisolid consistency.PROCEDURE: Shredded or cut fruits. Measure them in cups.Boil them in double quantity of water Sieve this juice .Measure it in cups and the same amount of sugar
cups will be added.Put it in the stove and do not stir it.Remove foam with a spoon as it appears.Cook it until a ball is formed when jelly is dropped
in a cup of water.Pour it hot in a sterilized jar up to the top and place
a thin cloth on top for 24 hours.Then put the lid.
MARMALADEMARMALADE : Thick preserve made with citrus
fruits that are usually shredded.PROCEDURE: Shred , cut or blend fruit. Cook it in very small quantity of water at low
temperature.Sieve it . Measure the fruit in cups and place it in a pan
with the same amount of sugar.Cook it at medium heat until it forms a ball when
marmalade is placed in a cup of water.Remove foam with a spoon at all times.Pour it hot in a sterilized jar up to the top and
place a thin cloth on top for 24 hours. Then put the lid.
SYRUPFor a very fluid consistency boil 2 cups water and 1 of sugar.For a normal consistency boil 1 cup of water and 1 of sugar.For a thick consistency boil 1 cup of water and 2 of sugar.If the fruit is small do not cut it. If big ,you can
halve it,slice it or cut it in big cubes.Add fruit to syrup that has boiled for ten minutes
and cook it according to chart.Place the fruit in a jar and fill it up with the syrup
until all the fruit is covered.Place thin cloth on top and after 24 hours put on the lid.