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cumene to phenol

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A Report on Production of Phenol from 99.9% pure Cumene from Naptha Cracker Production of 99.9% pure Bisphenol A from 99.9% pure Phenol February-14-2015 Major Project Report Submitted by Virender Pratap Singh Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Roorkee
  • A Report on

    Production of Phenol from 99.9% pure Cumene from Naptha Cracker Production of 99.9% pure Bisphenol A from 99.9% pure Phenol February-14-2015

    Major Project Report Submitted by

    Virender Pratap Singh

    Department of Chemical Engineering

    IIT Roorkee

  • 1 | P a g e


    1. Material and Energy Balance

    1.1 Material Balance

    1.2 Energy Balance

    2. Environmental Protection & Energy Conservation

    2.1 Air Pollution

    2.2 Liquid Effluents

    2.3 Solids disposal

    2.4 Noise Pollution

    2.5 Energy conservation

    3. Organizational Structure and Manpower Requirement

    3.1 Organizational Principles and Basics

    3.2 Hierarchy

    3.3 Manpower Requirement


    4.1 Plant Location

    4.2 Plant Layout

  • 2 | P a g e


    1.1 Material Balance

    BASIS: 24133 kg/hr production of phenol

    1.1.1 Overall reactions:

    1. Oxidation of Cumene:


    C6H5CH(CH3)2 + O2 C6H5C (CH3)2OOH

    (120) (32) (152)

    2. Decomposition of Cumene hydroperoxide:

    C6H5C (CH3)2OOH + H2S04 C6H5OH + CH3COCH3

    (152) (94) (58)

    1.1.2 Molecular weights of components:

    Cumene (Isopropyl benzene) = 120 kg moles

    Cumene Hydroperoxide = 152 kg moles

    Oxygen = 32 kg moles

    Phenol = 94 kg moles

    Acetone = 58 kg moles

    Mass of inlet of Cumene and oxygen = 120+32=152 kg moles

    Mass of outlet of phenol and acetone = 94+52= 152 kg moles


    1.1.3 Feed:

    Cumene = 1650 kg (For 1000 kg of Phenol)

    Required oxygen = 440 kg

    1 kg of air contains 0.23 kg of O2

    X kg of air contains 440 kg of O2

    Amount of air supplied = 1913 kg of air

    25% excess air supplied = 478 kg of air

    Actual amount of air supplied = 2319 kg of air

    1.1.4 Balances:

  • 3 | P a g e



    Cumene 39552.975 10020.087

    Air 57315.8565 ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide ---- 40080.348

    Off gases ---- 46768.3965

    Total 96868.8315 96868.8315



    Cumene hydroperoxide 40080.348 10022.48415

    Cumene 10020.087 ---

    Cleavage --- 40089.9366

    H2SO4 11.98575 ---

    Total 50112.42075 50112.42075



    Cumene hydroperoxide 40089.9366 10022.48415

    Carryover Cleavage --- 1002.0087

    Cleavage 10022.48415 39087.9279

    Total 50112.42075 50112.42075



  • 4 | P a g e

    Cleavage 39087.9279 ---

    Water 575.316 ---

    Acid free Cleavage --- 38968.0704

    Acidified wash water --- 695.1735

    Total 39663.2439 39663.2439




    Cleavage 38968.0704 --- ---

    Acetone --- 11956.9842 ---

    Carryover cleavage --- 119.8575 ---

    Carryover acetone in

    residue --- --- 119.8575

    Residue --- --- 26771.3712

    Total 38968.0704 12076.8417 26891.2287




    Feed 26891.2287 --- ---

    Cumene --- 1948.88295 ---

    Carryover acetone in

    Cumene --- 119.8575 ---

    Residue --- --- 24822.48825

    Total 26891.2287 2068.74045 24822.48825


  • 5 | P a g e



    Feed 24822.48825 --- ---

    - methyl styrene --- 546.5502 ---

    Residue --- --- 24275.93805

    Total 24822.48825 546.5502 24275.93805




    Feed 24275.93805 --- ---

    Phenol --- 24041.01735 ---

    Carryover acetophenone --- 91.0917 ---

    Acetophenone --- --- 119.8575

    Total 24275.93805 24132.10905 119.8575

    The amount product phenol = 24133 kg/hr

    Purity of the product phenol = 99.9%

    1.2 Energy Balance

  • 6 | P a g e


    A) Inlet heat@ 70C:

    1. Cumene @ 30C

    mass 1 39552.975 kg

    Cp1 0.415 kcal/kg C

    T1 5 C

    Q1 82072.42313 Kcal

    343473.0908 KJ

    2. Air @ 30C

    mass 2 57315.8565 kg

    Cp2 1.005 KJ/kg C

    T2 5 C

    Q2 288012.1789 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet

    Q = Q1+ Q2

    Q = 631485.2697 KJ

    B) Outlet heat@ 110C:

    1. Cumene Hydroperoxide @ 110C

    mass 1 40080.348 kg

    Cp1 0.45 kcal/kg C

    T1 85 C

    Q1 1533073.311 Kcal

    6415911.807 KJ

    2. Cumene @ 110C

  • 7 | P a g e

    mass 2 10020.087 Kg

    Cp2 0.455 kcal/kg C

    T2 85 C

    Q2 387526.8647 Kcal

    1621799.929 KJ

    3. Off gases @ 110C

    a) Oxygen

    mass 3 2636.865 Kg

    Cp3 0.936 KJ/kg C

    T3 25 C

    Q3 61702.641 KJ

    b) Nitrogen

    mass 4 44131.5315 Kg

    Cp4 1.035 KJ/kg C

    T4 25 C

    Q4 1141903.378 KJ

    4. Total heat outlet Q= Q1+ Q2+ Q3+ Q4

    Q = 1044923.774 KJ

    Heat of reaction of Cumene Hydroperoxide = 736 KJ/kg

    For 38171.76kg of Cumene Hydroperoxide = 29499136.13


  • 8 | P a g e

    Cumene 343473.0908 1621799.929

    Air 288012.1789 ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide 29499136.13 ---

    Cumene hydroperoxide --- 6415911.807

    Off gases --- 1203606.019

    Heat removed by water --- 19894575

    Total 30130621.4 29135892.75


    A) Inlet heat @ 110C:

    Heat taken by Cumene

    Hydroperoxide 6415911.807 KJ

    Heat taken by Cumene 1621799.929 KJ

    Total Heat 8037711.735 KJ

    B) Outlet heat @70C:

    1. Cumene hydroperoxide @ 70C:

    mass 1 40080.348 kg

    Cp1 0.45 kcal/kg C

    T1 45 C

    Q1 811627.047 Kcal

    3396659.192 KJ

    2. Cumene @ 70C:

  • 9 | P a g e

    mass 2 10020.087 kg

    Cp2 0.435 kcal/kg C

    T2 45 C

    Q2 196143.203 Kcal

    820859.3047 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet

    Q= Q1+ Q2

    Q = 4217518.496


    Cumene hydroperoxide 6415911.807 3396659.192

    Cumene 1621799.929 820859.3047

    Heat removed by water --- 3638279

    Total 8037711.735 8027810


    A) Inlet heat @ 70C:

    Heat taken by Cumene

    Hydroperoxide 3396659.192

    Heat taken by Cumene 820859.3047

    Total Heat


    1. H2SO4 @ 30C:

    mass 2 11.98575 kg

    Cp2 1.44 KJ/kg C

    T2 45 C

    Q2 776.6766 KJ

  • 10 | P a g e

    2. Total heat inlet Q = Q1+Q2 = 4218295.173KJ

    B) Outlet heat @ 80C:

    1. Mass of cleavage = 40089.9366 kg


    Phenol 24856.04835 2.29

    Acetone 12426.8256 1.481

    Cumene 2004.0174 1.842

    - methyl styrene 563.33025 1.406

    Acetophenone 244.5093 1.97

    Q1=((24856.0482.29)+( 12426.8256*1.481)+( 2004.01741.842)+( 536.330251.406)+(

    244.50931.97)) (80-25)

    Q1= 4415928.283 KJ

    2. Cumene hydroperoxide@ 80C:

    mass 2 10022.48415 kg

    Cp2 0.45 kcal/kg C

    T2 55 C

    Q2 248056.4827 Kcal

    1038116.38 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2 = 5454044.663 KJ

    Heat of reaction of cleavage = 2983 KJ/kg

    For 38180.9 kg of cleavage =113893624.7

  • 11 | P a g e


    Cumene Hydroperoxide 3396659.192 1038116.38

    Cumene 820859.3047 ---

    H2SO4 776.6766 ---

    Heat of reaction of

    cleavage 113893624.7 ---

    Cleavage --- 4415928.283

    Heat removed by water --- 112716720.4

    Total 118111919.9 118170765.1


    A) Inlet heat @80C:

    Heat in Cumene

    Hydroperoxide 1038116.38

    Heat in Cumene 4415928.283

    Total 5454044.663

    B) Outlet heat @80C:

    Heat in Cumene

    Hydroperoxide 1038116.38

    Heat in cleavage 4415928.283

    Total heat outlet 5454044.663


    A) Inlet heat @80C:

    1. Mass of Cleavage =39087.9279 kg



    Phenol 24235.1865 2.29

    Acetone 12117.59325 1.481

    Cumene 1953.67725 1.842

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.406

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

  • 12 | P a g e

    Q1= 4305105.725 KJ

    2. Water @ 30C

    mass 2 575.316 kg

    Cp2 4.18 KJ/kg C

    T2 5 C

    Q2 12024.1044 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet Q = Q1+Q2 = 4317129.829

    B) Outlet heat @75C:

    1. Acid free cleavage = 38969.074 kg


    Phenol 24158.4777 2.29

    Acetone 12076.8417 1.462

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.821

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.367

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q1=4275595.914 KJ

    2. Acidified wash water @ 40C

    mass 2 575.316 kg

    Cp2 4.18 KJ/kg C

    T2 15 C

    Q2 36072.3132 KJ

    3. Heat taken by carryover cleavage Q3=5201.9KJ

  • 13 | P a g e

    4. Total heat outlet

    Q= Q1+Q2+ Q3= 4316869.727 KJ


    Cleavage 4305105.725 ---

    Water 12024.1044 ---

    Acid free cleavage --- 4275595.514

    Acidified wash water --- 36072.3132

    Carryover cleavage --- 5201.9

    Total 4317129.829 4316869.727


    A) Inlet heat @75C:


    Mass of cleavage = 38968.0704 kg


    Phenol 24158.4777 2.29

    Acetone 12076.8417 1.462

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.821

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.367

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q = 4275595.514 KJ

    B) Outlet heat @90C:

    Mass of cleavage = 38968.0704


    Phenol 24158.4777 2.29

    Acetone 12076.8417 1.509

  • 14 | P a g e

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q = 4313660.77 KJ


    Cleavage 4275595.514 4313660.77

    Heat added by steam 36252.62 ---

    Total 4311848.134 4313660.77


    A) Inlet heat @90C:

    Mass of cleavage =38689.0704 kg


    Phenol 24158.4777 2.29

    Acetone 12076.8417 1.509

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q = 5097962.728 KJ

    B) Outlet heat:

    1. Acetone vapours @ 56C

    Mass 1 11956.9842 kg

    1 212.3 KJ/kg C

    Q1 2538467.746 KJ

  • 15 | P a g e

    2. Cleavage vapours @ 56C

    Mass 2 119.8575 kg

    2 109.96 KJ/kg C

    Q2 13179.5307 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet as vapour

    = 2551647.276

    4. Bottom residue @90C

    Mass of residue= 2799.8712 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q3= 2126745.403KJ

    5. Carryover acetone @90C

    mass 4 119.8575 kg

    Cp4 1.509 KJ/kg C

    T4 65 C

    Q4 11756.22289 KJ

    6. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2+ Q3+ Q4

    Q =4690148.902 KJ

  • 16 | P a g e


    Cleavage 5097962.728 ---

    Vapour acetone --- 2538467.746

    Vapour cleavage --- 13179.5307

    Bottom residue --- 2126745.403

    Carryover acetone in residue --- 11756.22289

    Total 5097962.728 5097954


    A) Inlet heat @ 56C:

    1. Acetone vapours @ 56C

    Mass 1 11956.9842 kg

    1 212.3 KJ/kg C

    Q1 2538467.746 KJ

    2. Cleavage vapours @ 56C

    Mass 2 119.8575 kg

    2 109.96 KJ/kg C

    Q2 13179.5307 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet as vapour Q = Q1+Q2

    Q= 2551647.276

    B) Outlet [email protected]:

    1. Acetone

    mass1 11956.9842 kg

    Cp1 1.397 KJ/kg C

    T1 25 C

    Q1 417597.6732 KJ

  • 17 | P a g e

    2. Heat produced by Cleavage Q2 = 4837.75 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet Q = Q1+Q2

    Q = 422435.4232 KJ


    Vapour acetone 2538467.746 ---

    Vapour cleavage 13179.5307 ---

    Heat removed by water --- 2027590.4

    Condensed acetone --- 417597.6732

    Condensed cleavage --- 4837.75

    Total 2551647.276 2541652


    A) Inlet heat @90C:

    1. Mass of residue= 2799.8712 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q1 = 2126745.403 KJ

    2. Acetone

    mass2 119.8575 kg

    Cp2 1.509 KJ/kg C

    T2 65 C

    Q2 11756.22289 KJ

  • 18 | P a g e

    3. Total heat inlet Q = Q1+Q2

    Q =2138501.626 KJ

    B) Outlet heat @95C:

    1. Mass of residue= 2799..8712 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q1=2126745.403 KJ

    2. Acetone

    mass2 119.8575 kg

    Cp2 1.51 KJ/kg C

    T2 70 C

    Q2 12668.93775 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2 =2139414.341 KJ


    Residue 2126745.403 2126745.403

    Carryover acetone 11756.22289 12668.93775

    Heat added by steam 869.25 ---

    Total 2139370.876 2139414.341


    A) Inlet heat @95C:

    1. Mass of feed= 2799.8712 kg

  • 19 | P a g e


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q1=4253490.806 KJ

    2. Acetone

    mass2 119.8575 kg

    Cp2 1.51 KJ/kg C

    T2 70 C

    Q2 12668.93775 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet

    Q = Q1+Q2 = 4266159.744 KJ

    B) Outlet heat:

    1. Cumene vapours @ 90C

    Mass 1 1948.88295 kg

    1 343.9 KJ/kg C

    Q1 670220.8465 KJ

    2. Acetone vapours @ 90C

    Mass 2 119.8575 kg

    2 212.3 KJ/kg C

    Q2 25445.74725 KJ

  • 20 | P a g e

    3. Residue @ 95C

    Mass = 24822.48225 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    Cumene 1948.88295 1.863

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Q3 = 4253490.806 KJ

    4. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2+Q3=4949157.4 KJ


    Feed 4253490.806 ---

    Vapour Cumene --- 670220.8465

    Vapour acetone --- 25445.74725

    Residue --- 4253490.806

    Carryover acetone in feed 12668.93775 ---

    Total 4713483 4949157.4


    A) Inlet heat:

    1. Cumene vapours @ 90C

    Mass 1 1948.88295 kg

    1 343.9 KJ/kg C

    Q1 670220.8465 KJ

  • 21 | P a g e

    2. Acetone vapours @ 90C

    Mass 2 119.8575 kg

    2 212.3 KJ/kg C

    Q2 25445.74725 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet Q

    Q1+Q2 = 695666.5938 KJ

    B) Outlet [email protected]:

    1. Cumene

    mass1 1948.88295 kg

    Cp1 1.842 KJ/kg C

    T1 55 C

    Q1 197441.3317 KJ

    2. Acetone

    mass1 119.8575 kg

    Cp1 1.51 KJ/kg C

    T1 55 C

    Q1 9954.165375 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2 = 207395.497 KJ


    Vapour Cumene 670220.8465 ---

    Vapour acetone 25445.74725 ---

    Heat removed by water --- 465020.1

    Condensed Cumene --- 197441.3317

    Condensed acetone --- 9954.165375

  • 22 | P a g e

    Total 695666.5938 695670.5

    Total 662539.6131 662539.621


    A) Inlet heat @ 95C:

    1. Mass = 24822.48825 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q = 3999336.981 KJ

    B) Outlet heat @ 110C:

    1. Mass = 24822.48825 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.445

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q=4856337.763 KJ


    Residue 3999336.981 4856337.763

    Heat added by steam 816191 ---

    Total 4815527.981 4856337.763

  • 23 | P a g e


    A) Inlet heat @ 110C:

    1. Mass 24822.48825 kg


    Phenol 24086.5632 2.32

    - methyl styrene 546.5502 1.523

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q=4859961.39 KJ

    B) Outlet heat:

    1. - methyl styrene vapours @ 100C

    Mass 1 546.5502 kg

    1 449.1 KJ/kg C

    Q1 245455.6948 KJ

    2. Residue @110C

    Mass = 24275.93805Kg


    Phenol 24041.01735 2.32

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q2 = 4780229.093 KJ

    3. Total heat outlet

    Q = Q1+Q2 = 5025681.787 KJ


    Residue 4859961.39 ---

    Vapour - methyl styrene --- 245455.6948

    Bottom residue --- 4780226.093

    Total 4859961.39 4859960

  • 24 | P a g e


    A) Inlet heat:

    1. - methyl styrene vapours @ 100C

    Mass 1 546.5502 kg

    1 449.1 KJ/kg C

    Q1 245455.6948 KJ

    B) Outlet heat:

    1. - methyl styrene condensed @ 95C

    mass 1 546.5502 kg

    Cp1 1.445 KJ/kg C

    T1 70 C

    Q1 55283.55273 KJ


    Vapour - methyl styrene 245455.6948 ---

    Heat removed by water --- 181116.3

    Condensed - methyl styrene --- 55283.55273

    Total 245455.6948 236399.8527


    A) Inlet @110C

    1. Mass =24275.93805 kg


    Phenol 24041.01735 2.32

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

  • 25 | P a g e

    Q=4780226.093 KJ

    B) Outlet @130C

    1. Mass =24275.93805 kg


    Phenol 24041.01735 2.32

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97



    Residue 4780226.093 5904985.173

    Heat added by steam 1071199 ---

    Total 5851425.093 5904985.173


    A) Inlet @130C

    1. Mass =24275.93805 kg


    Phenol 24041.01735 2.32

    Acetophenone 234.9207 1.97

    Q=5904985.173 KJ

    B) Outlet heat

    1. Phenol vapours @ 120C

    Mass 1 24041.01735 kg

    1 296.7 KJ/kg C

    Q1 7132969.848 KJ

  • 26 | P a g e

    2. Acetophenone vapours @ 120C

    Mass 2 91.0917 kg

    2 116.1 KJ/kg C

    Q2 10575.74637 KJ

    3. Bottom acetophenone @130C

    mass 3 119.8575 kg

    Cp3 1.97 KJ/kg C

    T3 105 C

    Q3 24792.52388 KJ

    4. Total heat outlet

    Q= Q1+Q2+ Q3= 7168338.118


    Feed 7168338.1 ---

    Vapour phenol --- 7132969.848

    Vapour Acetophenone --- 10575.74637

    Acetophenone --- 24792.52388

    Total 7168338.1 7168338.118


    A) Inlet heat

    1. Phenol vapours @ 120C

    Mass 1 24041.01735 kg

    1 296.7 KJ/kg C

    Q1 7132969.848 KJ

    2. Acetophenone vapours @ 120C

  • 27 | P a g e

    Mass 2 91.0917 kg

    2 116.1 KJ/kg C

    Q2 10575.74637 KJ

    3. Total heat inlet

    Q= Q1+Q2=7143545.594 KJ

    B) Outlet heat@ 100C

    1. Mass = 24132.10905 kg


    Phenol 24041.01735 2.32

    Acetophenone 91.0917 1.97

    Q=4196595.818 KJ


    Vapour phenol 7132969.848 ---

    Vapour Acetophenone 10575.74637 ---

    Heat removed by water --- 2806618

    Condensed phenol &

    acetophenone --- 4196595.818

    Total 7003213 7003213.818

  • 28 | P a g e

    2. Environmental Protection & Energy conservation 2.1 AIR POLLUTION

    In this section, air emissions are characterized by location, effective emission heights, and emission

    factors for criteria pollutants and selected pollutants; the hazard potential of each pollutant is

    quantified, and the affected population is determined; the national and state emission burdens are

    calculated; and the growth factor of the industrys emissions is determined. The data in this section

    were obtained through industry cooperation.


    Compounds identified as potential emissions from the manufacture of acetone and phenol from

    cumene are listed in Table 12. A sampling program was undertaken to quantify these compounds

    plus others which may not previously have been known to be present.




    Acetic acid



    Diacetone alcohol





    Methyl isobutyl carbinol


    Cumene hydroperoxide

    Dicumyl peroxide

    1,1,2, 2Tetramethyll,2diphenylethane


    Formic acid



    Heavy tars

    2, 6Dimethyl-2, 5heptadiene4-one

    l-Hydroxyethyl methyl ketone

    Methyl isobutyl ketone

    Lactic acid



    Dimers of -methylstyrene

    2-Methyl-3, 4-pentanediol

  • 29 | P a g e

    4-Hydroxy-4-methyl- 2-pentanone


    2,4,6-Tris (2-phenyl-2-propyl)phenol


    2-Phenyl-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane







    Emission source

    Allied Cumene peroxidation.

    Cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent.

    Separation column vent.

    Acetone concentration column vent.

    Cumene column vent.

    Methylstyrene column vent.

    Refined -methylstyrene column vent.

    Phenol column vent.

    Acetophenone column vent.

    Cumene tank vent.

    Acetone tank vent.

    Catalyst tank vent.

    Acetone transport loading vent.

    -Methylstyrene transport loading vent

    Phenol transport loading vent.

    Acetophenone transport loading vent.

    Acetophenone transport loading vent.

    Hercules Cumene peroxidation vent.

    Cumene hydroperoxide wash vent.

    Cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent.


    Acetaldehyde Local irritant; central nervous system narcotic

    Acetone Skin irritant, narcotic in high concentrations

    Acetophenone Narcotic in high concentrations

    Benzene Carcinogen

    Cumene Narcotic ; toxic

    Ethyl benzene Skin and mucous membrane irritant

    Formaldehyde Irritant ; toxic

    methyl styrene Toxic

    Naphthalene Moderate irritant

    Phenol Toxic & irritant

  • 30 | P a g e

    Vent of cuxnene hydroperoxide cleavage and product wash operations


    Separation column vent.

    Acetone column vent.

    Separation column vent.

    Dewatering column vent

    Hydrogenation column vent

    Acetone tank vent

    -Methylstyrene tank vent

    Phenol tank vent

    Buffer tank vent



    1. Cumene Peroxidation Vent

    The cumene feed is contacted with air in a reaction vessel to peroxidize the cumene. Air is

    continuously introduced and removed. The offgas stream carries vaporized hydrocarbons and

    some volatile trace elements. Cumene is recovered from the spent gas for recycle by condensation.

    The emission control equipment is the last piece of equipment before the gas is emitted to the

    atmosphere. That is, any prior equipment is process equipment, and the control of any material

    released to the atmosphere is performed by the last piece of equipment prior to release. For

    example, in the Allied process the emission control equipment is the carbon bed system, and in the

    Hercules process it is the refrigerated condenser, unless another piece of equipment is added on.

    2. Cleavage Section Vents, Combined

    The composite emission factors, Table 18, are determined by aggregation of the emission factors

    available from sampling and industry communication. These emission factors combine values for

    the cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent (Allied process technology) and the cumene

    hydroperoxide wash vent, the cumene hydroperoxide concentration vent, and the combined cunene

    hydrperoxide cleavage and product wash vent (Hercules process technology).


    Material emitted g/kg phenol produced

    Total nonmethane hydrocarbon 0.17

    Acetone 0.0000060

    Acetophenone 0.0000044

    Benzene 0.000031

    2Butanone 0.0000018 0.0000018

    2Butenal 0.000000085

    tButylbenzene 0.000023

    Cumene 0.14

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    Ethylbenzene 0.0000050


  • 32 | P a g e

    Emissions in the cleavage section are most often controlled by condensation. Absorption and

    incineration are also used.

    Emissions in the product purification section are controlled by condensation, adsorption,

    absorption, and incineration.

    Floating roofs are used to control emissions from tanks, particularly acetone and cumene storage

    tanks. Condensation, sealed dome roofs, and conservation vents are also used for this purpose, but

    not as commonly as floating roofs.

    Product transport loading emissions are controlled by absorption or vapor recovery. Not all plants

    control this emission source.

    The Scope of fugitive emissions and control methods are under study by EPA.



    Organic compounds can be removed from an air stream by condensation. A vapor will condense

    when, at a given temperature, the partial pressure of the compound is equal to or greater than its

    vapor pressure. Similarly, if the temperature of a gaseous mixture is reduced to the saturation

    temperature (i.e., the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the partial pressure of one of

    the constituents), the material will condense. Thus, either increasing the system pressure or

    lowering the temperature can cause condensation. In most air pollution control applications,

    decreased temperature is used to condense organic materials, since increased pressure is usually

    impractical. Equilibrium partial pressure limits the control of organic emissions by condensation. As

    condensation occurs, the partial pressure of material remaining in the gas decreases rapidly,

    preventing complete condensation.


    Adsorption is a phenomenon in which molecules become attached to the surface of a solid. The

    process is highly selective, and a given adsorbent, or adsorbing agent, will adsorb only certain types

    of molecules. The material adhering to the adsorbent is called the adsorbate. Adsorption involves

    three steps.

    First, the adsorbent comes in contact with the stream containing the adsorbate, and separation due

    to adsorption results. Next, the unadsorbed portion of the stream is separated from the adsorbent.

    Finally, the adsorbent is regenerated by removing the adsorbate.

    Activated carbon is the most suitable adsorbent for organic vapors. Carbon adsorbs 95% to 98% of

    all organic vapor from air at ambient temperature regardless of variations in concentration and

    humidity given a sufficient quantity of carbon. The adsorption of a mixture of organic vapors in air

    by carbon is not uniform, however, higher boiling point components are preferentially adsorbed.

    When a contaminated gas stream is passed over an activated carbon bed, the organic vapor is

    adsorbed and the purified stream passes through. Initially, adsorption is rapid and complete, but as

  • 33 | P a g e

    the carbon bed approaches its capacity to retain vapor, traces of vapor appear in the exit air. This is

    the breakpoint of the activated carbon. If gas flow is continued, additional amounts Of Organic

    material are adsorbed, but at a decreasing rate.


    Absorption is a process for removing one or more soluble component from a gas mixture by

    dissolving them in a solvent. Absorption equipment is designed to insure maximum contact

    between the gas and the liquid solvent to permit interphase diffusion between the materials.

    Absorption rate is affected by factors such as the solubility of gas in the particular solvent and the

    degree of chemical reaction; however, the most important factor is the solvent surface exposed.

    A vent gas scrubber-cooler system used on a cumene peroxidation vent is illustrated in figure. In this

    system off gases are scrubbed in a tray tower to absorb hydrocarbons into the scrubbing liquid,

    which is an aqueous Na2CO3 solution. Some of the scrubbing liquid is sent to the oxidation section,

    and some is recycled through the scrubber with makeup solution. The scrubbed gas is cooled,

    condensate is removed and sent to the oxidation section, and the gas is released to the atmosphere.


    Complete combustion of the hydrocarbons present in the emissions from a cumene peroxidation

    phenol plant produces carbon dioxide and water. NOx may be produced depending on the method

    of combustion the temperature. SOx production depends on the sulphur content of the auxiliary

    fuel, if any. The types of incinerators (i.e., direct flame afterburners, catalytic after burners, or flares),

    used to combust hydrocarbons at plants manufacturing acetone and phenol from cumene were not



    Six kinds of evaporation loss from storage of organic materials occur: breathing, standing storage,

    filling, emptying, wetting, boiling. Vapors expelled from a tank because of thermal expansion,

    barometric expansion, or additional vaporization are breathing losses. Vapor loss from such areas

    as seals, hatches, other openings (but not due to breathing or level changes) constitute standing

    storage loss. Vapors expelled from a tank is filled constitute filling loss. Vapors expelled from tank

    during emptying (due to the fact that vaporization occurs slowly, air enters to equalize pressure,

    vaporization stabilizes, and there is excess vapor in the tank) are emptying loss. Wetting loss is the

    vaporization of liquid from wetted exposed wall in a floating roof tank when the roof is lowered.

    Vapors expelled because of boiling are boiling loss.


    Floating roof tanks are of various designs but the basic concept is that the roof floats on the surface

    of the stored material. A seal provides intimate contact between the roof and the tank wall. These

    tanks reduce breathing and filling losses by reducing the space available for vapor accumulation.

    Wetting losses are small and not a problem.

  • 34 | P a g e


    This type of tank can withstand relatively large pressure variations without incurring a loss. There is

    little or no breathing loss. Filling loss will depend on the tank design.


    The conservation vent is a device to inhibit evaporation loss while protecting the tank from possible

    damage due to under pressure or overpressure. The vent has two set points, an upper a lower

    pressure. If the pressure is outside this range the vent opens to allow pressure equalization with the

    atmosphere. This reduces evaporation losses.


    This control device collects the vapors produced from product loading and disposes of them by one

    of the control methods previously described, such as condensation, adsorption, etc. Vapor recovery

    is a general term for emission control practices.

    2.2 Liquid effluents


    Acetophenone is a colorless liquid with a sweet, pungent odor that is sparingly soluble (0.55 wt % at

    20C) in water. Acetophenone is used as a chemical Intermediate for resins, pharmaceuticals,

    corrosion Inhibitors and dyestuffs; as a solvent for gums, resin dyestuffs and highmelting aromatic

    chemicals; as a polymerization catalyst and photosensitizer. In organic synthesis; as a flavoring agent

    for tobacco and in perfumery. If acetophenone is released to water, microbial degradation and

    volatilization are expected to be the major environmental fate and transport processes.

    Biodegradation studies have shown that acetophenone is significantly biodegradable. The

    volatilization halflife from a river 1m deep flowing at 1 m/sec with a wind velocity of 3 m/sec was

    estimated to be 3.7 days. Hydrolysis, oxidation, adsorption to sediments and bioconcentration are not

    expected to be significant. When acetophenone is released to the ambient atmosphere, reaction with

    photochemical)yproduced hydroxyl radicals is expected to be the dominant removal mechanism;

    the halflife for this reaction has been estimated to be 2 days (U.S. EPA. 1981). In the atmosphere,

    acetophenone will exist almost entirely in the vapor phase.

    If acetophenone is released to soil, microbial degradation is likely to be

    the major degradation process. Based on various adsorption studies

    acetophenone is expected to be mobile in soil and susceptible to significant leaching. Acetophenone

    is also expected to evaporate from dry soil surfaces. Acetophenone occurs naturally. In varius plant

    oils, in the buds of balsam poplar and In Concord grapes (Dorsky et al., 1963; NIcholas, 1973). It has

    been detected in drinking waters, surface waters, groundwaters and waste effluent waters. The

    presence of acetophenone in environmental waters is most likely the result of discharges from

    industrial sources. Metabolism and toxicity data indicate that acetophenone is absorbed by both

    gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Studies using rabbits indicate that acetophenone Is

    metabolized to ()1phenylethanol, which is excreted in the urine as glucuronide and sulfate


  • 35 | P a g e

    Health Hazard Information

    Acute Effects:

    Acute exposure of humans to acetophenone vapor may produce skin irritation and

    transient corneal injury. One study noted a decrease in light sensitivity in exposed


    Acute oral exposure has been observed to cause hypnotic or sedative effects,

    hematological effects, and a weakened pulse in humans.

    Congestion of the lungs, kidneys, and liver were reported in rats acutely exposed to

    high levels of acetophenone via inhalation.

    Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, and rabbits have demonstrated

    acetophenone to have moderate acute toxicity from oral or dermal exposure.

    Reproductive/Developmental Effects:

    No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of

    acetophenone in humans.

    In one study of pregnant rats exposed dermally, no effects on reproduction or

    development were noted.

    Cancer Risk:

    No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of acetophenone in humans or


    EPA has classified acetophenone as a Group D, not classifiable as to human


    Potential Health Effects


    May cause irritation to the respiratory tract; symptoms may include sore throat, coughing,

    headache, and dizziness. Higher concentrations may cause narcosis.


    May cause sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, coughing, headache, dizziness, anesthetic

    effects, and central nervous system effects.

    Skin Contact:

    May cause irritation with redness and pain.

    Eye Contact:

    May cause severe irritation, redness, pain, and transient corneal injury.

    Chronic Exposure:

    Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause dermatitis.

    Aggravation of Pre-existing Conditions:

    No information found.

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    First Aid Measures


    Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give

    oxygen. Call a physician.


    Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by

    mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician.

    Skin Contact:

    In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.

    Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Call a physician.

    Eye Contact:

    Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper

    eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

    Fire Fighting Measures

    As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH

    (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may

    be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed

    containers cool. Combustible liquid and vapor.

    Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.

    Flash Point: 77 deg C ( 170.60 deg F)

    Autoignition Temperature: 570 deg C ( 1,058.00 deg F)

    Explosion Limits, Lower:1.1%

    Upper: 6.7%

    Accidental Release Measures

    Ventilate area of leak or spill. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear appropriate personal protective

    equipment as specified in Section 8. Isolate hazard area. Keep unnecessary and unprotected

    personnel from entering. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Use non-sparking tools and

    equipment. Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g.,

    vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container. Do not use combustible

    materials, such as saw dust. Do not flush to sewer! Environmental Regulations require reporting spills

    and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities.

    Handling and Storage

    Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical

    damage. Isolate from any source of heat or ignition. Isolate from oxidizing materials. Containers of

    this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid);

    observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. Keep away from heat and flame. Keep

  • 37 | P a g e

    away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated

    area away from incompatible substances.

    Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

    Airborne Exposure Limits:

    - Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm (TWA)

    Ventilation System:

    A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the

    Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the

    emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area.

    Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices,

    most recent edition, for details.

    Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):

    If the exposure limit is exceeded, a respirator with an organic vapor cartridge may be worn for up to

    ten times the exposure limit. Since this compound has been identified as possibly existing in both

    vapor and particulate phase, a dust/mist prefilter is recommended. For emergencies or instances

    where the exposure levels are not known, use a positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator.

    WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

    Skin Protection:

    Wear protective gloves and clean body-covering clothing.

    Eye Protection:

    Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash

    fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.


    Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage.

    Hazardous Decomposition Products:

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition.

    Hazardous Polymerization:

    Will not occur.


    Strong oxidizers.

    Conditions to Avoid:

    Heat, flame, other sources of ignition.

  • 38 | P a g e

    Maharashtra Pollution Control board Standards under Water Act

    The daily quantity of trade effluent from the factory shall not exceed 18 m3.

    The daily quantity of sewage effluent from the factory shall not exceed 7 m3.

    (i) Trade Effluent Treatment: The applicant shall provide comprehensive treatment system consisting

    of Primary / secondary and / or tertiary treatment and is warranted with reference to influent quality

    and operate and maintain the same continuously so as to achieve the quality of the treated effluent

    to the following standards:

    pH Between 5.5 to 9.0

    Suspended Solids Not to Exceed 100 mg/l.

    BOD Not to Exceed 100 mg/l.

    COD Not to Exceed 250 mg/l

    Oil & Grease Not to Exceed 10 mg/1.

    TDS Not to Exceed 2100 mg/1.

    Chlorides Not to Exceed 600 mg/1.

    Sulphates Not to Exceed 1000 mg/1.

    Chromium Not to Exceed 0.1 mg/l

    Total Chromium Not to Exceed 2.0 mg/l

    Total metal Not to Exceed 10 mg/l

    Iron Not to Exceed 5.0 mg/l

    (ii) Trade Effluent Disposal: The treated effluent shall be used in the process to the maximum extent

    and remaining shall be used on land for green belt development.

    (iii) Sewage Effluent Treatment: The applicant shall provide comprehensive treatment system as is

    warranted with reference to influent quality and operate and maintain the same continuously so as

    to achieve the quality of treated effluent to the following standards.

    (1) Suspended Solids - Not to exceed 100 mg/I.

    (2) BOD 3 days 27 C - Not to exceed 100 mg/I.

    (iv) Sewage Effluent Disposal: The treated domestic effluent shall be soaked in a soak pit, which shall

    be got cleaned periodically. Overflow, if any, shall be used on land for gardening / plantation only.

    (v) Non-Hazardous Solid Wastes:

    Sr. No. Type of waste Quantity Disposal

    1 Slag 158267MT/Yr Landfill

    2 Machine returns 10000 MT/Yr By reuse in own sinter


    3 Flue Dust 24000 MT/Yr By reuse in own sinter


    4 Fly ash 12000 MT/Yr Sale to brick & cement

    mfg. & landfill

  • 39 | P a g e

    (vi) Other conditions: The industry shall monitor effluent quality regularly. The applicant shall comply

    with the provisions of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Class Act, 1977 (to be referred as

    Class Act) and Rules there under: The daily water consumption for the following categories is as under:

    (i) Domestic -80 CMD

    (ii) Industrial Processing CMD

    (iii) Industrial Cooling - 3135 CMD

    (iv) Agriculture/Gardening - 16 CMD

    The applicant shall regularly submit to the Board the returns of water consumption in the prescribed

    form and pay the Class as specified under Section 3 of the said Act.

    2.3 Solid Waste Disposal

    There is no substantial solid waste in the plant; the only solid waste will be dried sludge from the

    effluent treatment plant, canteen wastes, worn office equipment and tools, stationery, cleaning rags,

    packing boxes, broken pallets and broken office chairs. Solid waste disposal is done by thermal

    incineration or by tipping. The design of a solid waste incinerator is difficult to do due to the wide

    variety of feed to be disposed. It is important to determine the burning characteristics of the solid

    waste material. A major problem with the solid incinerator is fly ash control. Various methods

    employed for this purpose ate two-stage combustion, filter baffle and provision of large secondary

    chambers where velocities are low and settling takes place. If the fly ash problem is chronic, special

    separation devices like electrostatic precipitators can be employed. The flash produced can be used

    as a land fill.

    2.4 Noise Pollution

    The major sources of noise pollution in our plant are:



    Electric motors


    Steam Vents

    Various equipments noise levels and control measures are listed in the table below:

    Equipment Sound level at 3ft(dB) Possible Noise Control


    Electric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fan covers,

    enclosures and motor mutes,

    absorbent mounts.




    Axial position




    Acoustically lined fan covers,

    enclosures and motor mutes,

    absorbent mutes.

  • 40 | P a g e

    Screw type




    Heaters and furnaces 90-110 Acoustic plenums, intake

    mufflers, lined/ damped ducts

    Valves 80-108 Avoid sonic velocities, limit

    pressure drop and mass

    flow,and replace with special

    low noise valves.

    Piping 90-105 Isolation and lagging, in liner

    silencers, vibration isolators.

    Apart from the listed noise sources, minor sources of the noise pollution may be pipes and hoses

    hitting the floor, panels etc. i.e. rattling noises, which can be stabilized with adsorbent mounts. All

    the bolts should be tightened to prevent vibration and clatter. Venting of process gas out the

    condensers may result in serious noise pollutions. This is due to turbulent mixing of high velocity

    gas with the stationary gas. Steam leaks and another common noise problem with the sound level

    are reaching sometimes 100 dB at the distance of 25 feet of the leak. All steam leaks should be

    timely repaired. Where noise levels cannot be reduced to acceptable levels of a person, ear

    protection equipment should be used. The industry shall take adequate measures for control of

    noise levels from its own sources within the premises so as to maintain ambient air quality

    standard in respect of noise to less than 75 dB(A) during day time and 70 dB(A) during night time.

    Day time is reckoned in between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. and night time is reckoned between 10 p.m.

    and 6 a.m.

    Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Standards for Noise Pollution:

    1) The industry should not cause any nuisance in surrounding area.

    2) The industry should monitor stack emissions and ambient air quality regularly.

    Conditions for D.G. Set:-

    1] Noise from the D.G. Set should be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by treating

    the room acoustically.

    2] Industry should provide acoustic enclosure for control of noise. The acoustic enclosure/acoustic

    treatment of the room should be designed for minimum 25 dB(A) insertion loss or for meeting the

    ambient noise standards, whichever is on higher side. A suitable exhaust muffler with insertion

    loss of 25 dB(A) shall also be provided. The measurement of insertion loss will be done at different

    points at 0.5 m from acoustic enclosure/room and then average.

    3] The industry shall take adequate measures for control of noise levels from its own sources

    within the premises in respect of noise to less than 55 dB(A) during day time and 45 dB(A) during

    the night time. Day time is reckoned between 6 a.m. to 10 p.m and night time is reckoned between

    10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

  • 41 | P a g e

    4] Industry should make efforts to bring down noise level due to DG set, outside industrial

    premises, within ambient noise requirements by proper siting and control measures.

    5] Installation of DG Set much be strictly in compliance with recommendations of DG Set


    6] A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure for DG set should be set and followed

    in consultation with the DG manufacturer which would help to prevent noise levels of DG set from

    deteriorating with use.

    7] D.G. Set shall be operated only in case of power failure.

    8] The applicant should not cause any nuisance in the surrounding area due to operation of D.G.


    2.5 Energy Conservation

    Chemical plants have always been designed to operate economically due to product competition.

    However before 1970, the objectives of building a low cost plant was generally considered more

    important than low operating cost. This concept changed due to the oil crisis of 1973 and the

    subsequent action at several environment protection agencies in promoting the use of non-low

    polluting attention has been paid to such topics such as energy conservation schemes, process

    integration, heat exchanger network design, cogeneration etc. This attention is evident by the large

    number of books and journals published on these topics in the recent years. The design engineer

    must consider appropriate energy conservation schemes that are designed to:

    (i) Utilize as much of the energy available within the plant.

    (ii) Minimize the energy requirements for the plant.

    The energy balances performed for the plant items provide the initial key to identify areas of high

    energy availability or demand. An attempt can then be made to utilize excess energy in those areas

    where energy must be provided. However, this is not always possible because:

    (i) A high energy load may constitute a large volume of liquid at relatively low temperature, exchanging

    this energy may require large and expensive equipment.

    (ii) This energy source may be distant from the sink and piping and insulating costs may make

    utilization uneconomic, sometimes a rearrangement of the plant lay out required.

    (iii) The energy source may be corrosive.

    Any energy conservation scheme must also consider the costs involved in removing or transferring

    the excess energy i.e. capital cost of heat exchangers, piping, valves, pumps, insulation and operating

    costs of pumping and maintenance. Energy conservation is only worthwhile if the reduction in energy

    costs exceed the cost of implementation. A scheme maybe devised for a plant and then held over until

    energy prices make the proposal attractive. This type of forward planning requires that the plant

    layout adopted can be easily modified. Energy conservation can be achieved at three levels:

    (i) Correct plan and operation and maintenance

  • 42 | P a g e

    (ii) Major changes to existing plant and processes.

    (iii) New plants and new processes.

    The time required to implement energy conservation measures, the capital cost required, and the

    potential savings, all increase from level (i) to (iii) above. The cost of downtime for level.(ii) can be

    significant, and the level (iii) offers the greatest long term potential for energy conservation. This latter

    objective can be achieved either by designing new, energy efficient plants for established process

    routes, or adopting new and less energy- intensive process routes. The basic approach towards

    conservation of energy should be taken into account:

    i. Operational modification

    ii. Research and development

    iii. Design modification

    iv. Insulation

    v. Maintenance

    vi. Process integration

    vii. Process modification

    viii. Waste utilization

    In the near future all industrial operations that have reacted to the energy crisis must be organized to

    institute a systematic approach towards conserving energy in all forms through more efficient

    utilization of existing processes and carefully studied reduction of losses and wastes. The following

    examples illustrate some application of the basic engineering principles t the design of equipment for

    improved energy efficiency.

    (i) Plant Operation:

    Energy savings can be achieved by good engineering practice and the application of established

    principles. These measures may be termed as good housekeeping and include correct plant operation

    and regular maintenance. The overall energy savings are usually small and may not be easy to achieve

    and significant time may be required for regulate maintenance and checking. However, such

    measures do help to establish commitment of a company to a policy of energy conservation.

    (ii) Heat Recovery:

    Heat recovery is an important and fundamental method of energy conservation. The main limitations

    of this method are:

    (a) Inadequate scope for using recovered waste heat because it is too low grade for existing heat

    requirements, and because the quantity of waste heat available exceeds existing requirements for

    low- grade heat.

  • 43 | P a g e

    (b) Inadequate heat transfer equipment. Developments and improvements are continuing in design

    and operation of different types of heat exchangers including the use of extended heat transfer

    surfaces, optimizing heat exchanger networks, heat recovery from waste fuels, heat exchanger fouling

    and the use of heat pumps.

    (iii) Combined Heat and Power Systems:

    Significant energy conservation is achieved by well-established method of combined heat and power

    generation. This is often referred to as CHP or COGEN. The heat is usually in the form of intermediate

    or low pressure steam and the power as direct mechanical drives or as electricity generated with the

    turbo alternators. The choice of system is usually between back pressure steam turbines or gas

    turbines with waste heat boilers for the process streams. The amount of power generated is usually

    determined by the demand of heat. It is not usually possible to balance exactly the heat and power

    loads in a system .The best method of achieving this aim is to generate excess electricity for

    subsequent sale, other balancing methods tend to be less efficient. Therefore it is important to

    forecast the heat to power ratio accurately at the design stage to avoid large imbalances and reduced

    system efficiency.

    (iv)Power recovery systems:

    A power recovery turbine can recover heat from an exchanger gas and then use this heat to provide

    a part of the energy required to drive the shaft of a motor driven process air compressor. Other

    examples are the use of the steam turbine drive and a two stage expansion turbine with reheating

    between the stages.

    A hydraulic turbine can be incorporated on the same shaft as a steam turbine. This arrangement can

    be used to provide about 50% of the energy needed to recompress the spent liquor in a high

    pressure absorption /low pressure stripping system. Power generation using steam or gas turbine is

    now well established; however power recovery by the pressure reduction of process fluids is more

    difficult and less common. In general the equipment is not considered to be particularly

    reliable.Rankine cycle heat engines have been developed to use relatively low grade waste heat

    sources to generate power in the form in the form of electricity or direct drives. They tend to be

    used when the heat source would otherwise be completely wasted, the low efficiencies do not

    represent a significant disadvantage.

    (v) Furnace efficiency

    Incorporating an air heater can be more economic than using a hot oil system which is designed for

    high level heat only.

    (vi) Air cooler v/s water cooler:

    Air coolers have higher installed cost but lower operating cost water coolers.

    (vii) Low pressure steam:

    Energy savings can be achieved by the efficient use of low pressure steam.

    (viii) Heat integration:

  • 44 | P a g e

    Energy can be saved by optimum balance of heat sources and sinks in a process plant so as to

    maximize recycling of energy input .thus however has to be done carefully as it leads to loss of

    operational independence.

    (ix) Thermal insulation:

    Owing to the great size of the distillation column large amount of heat is dissipated from the surface

    .This necessitates thermal insulation of distillation column reboiler and other piping attached to it so

    that minimum heat is dissipated.Multi-layer energy saving insulation should be used which provide

    protection from fire, liquid spillage and result in energy savings. Usually, inner insulation layers are

    made from alumina silica fibers to reduce the heat loss from the valves and joints to keep the system

    heat constant and prevent heat loss.


    Use of efficient instrumentation in the plant can result in consistent high quality of product and lesser

    no. of rejections. In a plant design utmost care must be taken to conserve energy. The reboiler and

    the heat exchanger should be set up after a long analysis

    Energy conservation in the design of complete process may be achieved in four ways:

    (i) Major modifications to the existing plants.

    (ii) New plant using an existing process route.

    (iii) New process routes and alternative raw materials.

    (iv) New processes for new products that are less energy intensive.

    Items (i) and (iii) represent short term and medium term energy conservation measures. Item (iv)

    requiring the use of new products or processes is more appropriate for new technology in the

    chemical industry. Although energy conservation is an obvious objective of all equipment

    manufacturers and plant designers, more attention iis necessary in relation to education , training

    and the application of new and existing technology to ensure significant medium term and long term


    Energy conservation must be considered at various stages of the project, e.g. feasibility study, process

    selection, plant layout, energy balances and in conjunction with the detailed equipment design. If he

    energy utilization is not only an afterthought, either unnecessary or costly modifications may be

    required to the design work, or the plant may not be economically feasible as it originally appeared.


    The high value of energy should be acknowledged in plant operation by treating it as a product with

    monetary value than can be sold or traded, just like the chemical product. This should be the basis for

    operational policies concerned with the energy management or energy conservation. These duties

    can be incorporated by the process engineer. EAM&T is a means to efficient operation in this area,

    but there must be a commitment from all operational and managerial personnel to the importance

    of these tasks if they are to be successful. The reaction and product recovery areas have been

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    identified as critical units from an energy perspective. Detailed monitoring and targeting should be

    established in these areas.


    The fuel resources of the world are fast depleting and there is an urgent need to explore the

    possibility of the alternate sources of energy. Although rapid breakthrough has been achieved

    in the use of nuclear energy for the distillation of the steam, which in turn is used for the

    generation of electricity, it is not used widely due to the lack of the flexibility in its utilization

    and because of the non-feasibility of its operation on the smaller scale. Some of the alternate

    energy sources being developed nowadays have been briefly discussed below:

    Solar energy

    Solar energy is the most important form of renewable energy for plant. The energy incident

    on the solar panel installed in the roof and other areas of the plants are highly useful in heating

    up the water and converting to steam. This is one renewable source of the energy which is

    now slowly finding wide acceptance in the process industry. In the process industry it is being

    used widely for heating the process water and in some cases for the production of the low

    pressure steam. Energy conservation is not only concerned with the process industries but is

    also concerned with other small household purposes carried out in the industrial areas. It can

    also be used for the heating and providing warm water in the canteen and the other non-

    production areas in the process plant.

    Energy from biomass conversion

    Biomass in todays Chemical Industries is going to play a vital role in the production of energy

    as well as in different chemical products. The biomass have been widely used however major

    considerations include:

    Which raw materials will be needed in the new situation?

    How will biomass be processed?

    How will feedstock be made available at the appropriate location?

    What kind of storage facilities is needed?

    How can the production of bio-based bulk chemicals be integrated?

    How will products be shipped to the (geographic) area covered by the Port?

    Which are the most likely companies to produce new bio-based bulk chemicals?

    Two extremes can be envisioned by which the transformation to a biomass based chemical

    industry may take place:

    1. Biomass will be refined and cracked into the familiar platform chemicals (i.e. ethylene,

    propylene, C4-olefines and BTX) and synthesis gas (syngas, a mixture of mainly carbon

    monoxide and hydrogen gas). From these one- to six-carbon building blocks, all other

    chemicals and materials can be produced. Provided that efficient processes will become

    available by which oxygen-rich biomass of a varying composition can be transformed into

    basic hydrocarbon building blocks, the big advantage is that the current petrochemicals

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    infrastructure and processes can be used. The fossil feedstock refining companies of today

    may then become the biorefineries of tomorrow.

    2. A wide range of bio-based building blocks, in which as much of the functionality of biomass

    as possible has been retained, become the raw materials from which all other chemicals and

    materials are made. Not a few refineries that produce a limited number of platform chemicals

    will be present, but a large number of (smaller scale) bio-refineries that produce a whole array

    of building blocks.

    Between these two extremes lies a whole spectrum of non-exclusive scenarios that are

    perhaps more realistic. As a less extreme example of the first scenario: ethylene, one of the

    current platform chemicals, can be produced from (bio) ethanol. In fact, the Brazilian company

    Braskem and US based Dow Chemical will each start commercial production of polyethylene

    from bio-ethanol. Bio-ethanol is currently made from sugar or starch. In the future, it is

    expected that ethanol will be made from the more abundant lignocellulosic or woody


    The Gobar gas concept has found wide acceptance in the rural India. Although bioconversion

    technology has been very successful in the waste treatment, the technology to generate

    energy for the industrial uses is in early stages of the development. However, this technology

    holdsgreat promise as its fundamental advantage is that apart from being a clean source of

    the fuel, it is a renewable source of energy.

    Ocean thermal energy:

    The Ocean energy is one of the contributors in renewable energy. The temperature of the

    water in the ocean varies drastically with the depth. The principal here is to run a heat engine

    to retract heat energy from ocean by utilizing the difference in temperature of the ocean at

    various depths.

    This technology is in the very early stages of the development and can only be utilized if the

    plant is situated close to the coastlines.

    Wind energy:

    The unequal heating of the earth by the sun causes winds. This effect is particularly

    pronounced in the coastal areas with a difference between the temperature for the land and

    the sea. The force of the wind is used to rotate windmills, which are rotating blades to collect

    the force of the wind. This mechanical energy produced can be used directly on it can be

    converted into electrical energy. These have been used with partial success in the process

    industry, mainly to pump water both process water and the water to effluent treatment plants.

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    3. Organizational Structure and Manpower Requirement

    3.1 Organizational Principles and Basics

    According to one of the prominent scholars, organizations are social units (or human

    groupings) deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals. (Etzioni, 1964).

    Organization is a prescribed pattern of relations among the various tasks and the individuals who

    perform the tasks. Organizations are characterized by explicit, common parts which require the co-

    ordination of individuals and group efforts towards their attainment. The co-ordination is achieved

    by the establishment of vertical and horizontal network of relationships among various components

    of the organization. The basic goals of the organization are three-folds:

    1. To produce the best quality product at the lowest cost

    2. To sell the product to the consumer in a manner that maximizes profit, both in the short as well

    as long term.

    3. To do these in a manner that is sustainable and is in the interest of the society.

    In order to achieve these goals, an effective organizational structure is required both at the

    management and operational levels. There are various steps involved in specifying the kind of

    organization and the total labour requirement of the plant complex, before beginning the

    construction and commissioning of the plant. We briefly take some of the important points.

    Consideration of objectives: One should be very clear as to what are the objectives of the

    enterprise. Objectives determine the various activities, which need to be performed and the type of

    organization, which needs to be built for the purpose.

    Grouping of activities into departments: Identify the activities necessary to achieve the objectives

    and group the similar or related activities into well-defined groups or departments.

    Deciding key departments: Key departments are those which render activities that are essential

    for the achievement of goals. These are primary departments; the others exist merely to serve


    Determine decision levels: The levels at which all the major and minor decisions in each

    department are to be made must be determined. The amount of decentralization and spread of

    authority are at the discretion of each firm.

    Span of Management: The next step to be taken in designing a structure is the number of sub-

    ordinates who will report to each executive.

    Coordination mechanism: The whole structure should be like a well-oiled machine, with cohesion

    and co-ordination at all levels.

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    Duties of organization and administration:

    Principles of work administration and control, labour organization and control, raw material

    and their storage

    Selection of site, layout of works, building and plants

    Problem of internal transport and material handling

    Construction work

    Proper equipment selection

    Minimization of labour

    Office administration and finance

    Marketing and distribution of products.

    There are sixteen principles of organization:

    1. Unity of objectives

    2. Specialization

    3. Coordination

    4. Chain of command

    5. Authority responsibility

    6. Delegation

    7. Unity of command

    8. Span of Control

    9. Balance

    10. Communication

    11. Efficiency

    12. Personal ability

    13. Decision making and control by exception

    14. Flexibility

    15. Departmentalization

    16. Goal centered and purposeful activities

    But an organization that works well in one type of environment (environment being defined as

    combination of markets, customers, producers and technology) may fail in another. The failure may

    arise due to contingency factors such as:

    1. Task uncertainty, technology and environment

    2. Power and conflict

    3. Growth and size

    Here task uncertainty is the degree to which the task necessary for the performance is unpredictable.

    Technology and environment are the sources of unpredictability.

    Organizational structure should manage conflict so that it helps the company. It is helpful to

    understand the basic determinants of power in an organization and how conflicts are related

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    Organization effectiveness includes the following criteria

    1. Organizational efficiencies

    2. Adaptability to external changes

    3. Satisfaction of individual needs

    3.2 Hierarchy

    I. Board of Directors

    i. Establishes objectives

    ii. Overall accountability to stock holders

    II. Chief Executive Officer

    i. Operates business to accomplish objectives

    ii. Accountable to board of directors.

    III. Operating management

    i. Overall coordination and activities necessary to accomplish objectives

    ii. Accountable to CEO

    IV. Operating supervision

    i. Supervision of non-supervisory employs

    ii. Accountable to operating Management


    Keeping the above factors in mind, we have divided the organization of our plant into the following


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    General administration

    Production division

    Maintenance division

    Commercial and inventory division

    Human recourses division

    Marketing division

    Research and development division

    A. Finance Sector

    When it comes to the overall scope and duties of a finance department, there are many functions to

    be fulfilled. For the most part, the duties include all things related to budgeting.

    From appropriations to control of expenditure and auditing duties, the finance department of any

    given company has an array of duties.

    A finance department basically has three main functions:

    To provide strategic financial support regarding operational and general business planning

    To provide daily financial services functions

    To meet and surpass the internal and external needs and financial reporting requirements of

    the company at large

    The finance department generally focuses on providing relevant information necessary for upper level

    management. Such information is crucial in determining how a company can make better financial


    Services and Duties of a Finance Department

    In order to implement these functions, there are a number of services that need to be performed.

    For example, the proper preparations of the annual budget as well as compliance of regulatory codes

    are both important services of a finance department.

    Key Positions in a Finance Department

    A finance department is comprised of several key positions that bear the burden of responsibility

    when it comes to maintaining the cohesiveness and overall productivity of the department as a unit

    of the company.

    When you think about the overall structure of the finance department, there are four key point people

    that may come to mind:

    The finance director

    Deputy finance director


    Finance specialist

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    Finance Director

    The finance director is the head of the finance department. This individual will have the supreme

    responsibility to ensure that all financial reports are accurate and up to date. The finance director is

    tasked with giving a financial forecast for the company and disclosing certain financial information

    about the company to the shareholders.

    Deputy Finance Director

    The deputy finance director is usually responsible for putting together the companys annual budget.

    In this position, the deputy finance director will be responsible for developing an overall financial

    strategy. Sometimes referred to as the finance manager, the deputy finance director is also

    responsible for managing the finance departments team of employees.


    The next position of importance in the department of finance is the accountant. The accountant is

    responsible for handling the accounts payable and accounts receivable.

    Accountants also process payroll. Other duties include putting together financial-related documents

    such as reports, auditing, and closing out accounting books.

    Finance Specialist

    The finance specialist basically handles capital investments. This position may also require a bit of

    analytical work such as reconciliations, maintaining the general ledger and keeping a close eye on the

    funds of the company.

    Evolution of the Finance Department

    With each passing year the company evolves into an entity that is responsible for increasing the

    company (and shareholders value). This shall be done by increasing the number of employees of the

    department according to requirement and including other employees like clerical staff and inter-

    section commuters.

    B. Personnel & Administration department

    Human resources is the business administration function responsible for finding, hiring, managing

    and retaining employees, and for ensuring that the right employees, in the right numbers, are

    deployed throughout the organization to achieve its goals. Human resources are a function that exists

    in every business regardless of size, industry or geographic location. In fact, even though small

    businesses may not have a formal human resource department or an employee with a title that

    includes "human resources," the function is performed when employees are hired, training,

    supervised and, hopefully, retained.

    Administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the organizations

    goals. These "functions" of the administrator were described by Henri Fayol as the 5 elements of

    administration" (in italic below).

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    Planning - is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps

    the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning function involves

    establishing goals and arranging them in a logical order. Administrators engage in both short-range

    and long-range planning.

    Organizing - involves identifying responsibilities to be performed, grouping responsibilities into

    departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships. The purpose is to achieve

    coordinated effort among all the elements in the organization (Coordinating).

    Organizing must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of control

    within supervisory units.

    Staffing - means filling job positions with the right people at the right time. It involves determining

    staffing needs, writing job descriptions, recruiting and screening people to fill the positions.

    Directing (Commanding) - is leading people in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization.

    This involves proper allocation of resources and providing an effective support system. Directing

    requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people.

    One of the crucial issues in directing is to find the correct balance between emphasis on staff needs

    and emphasis on economic production.

    Controlling - is a function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations

    from the organization's plan. This ensures high-quality performance and satisfactory results while

    maintaining an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information

    management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective actions.

    Budgeting - exempted from the list above, incorporates most of the administrative functions,

    beginning with the implementation of a budget plan through the application of budget controls.

    C. Research and development

    A research and development department is responsible for innovations in design, products, and style.

    This department will be responsible for creating innovative new products to keep the company a step

    ahead of the competition. R&D Department will work on improving existing consumer products, and

    to explore new ways of producing them.

    Often, a Research and Development Department works closely with the Marketing Department. The

    Marketing Department studies consumer trends by surveying and researching consumer demands,

    purchasing methods, product sales, and the existence and development of technology across the

    relevant market. The marketing department gathers all the data, and makes this information available

    to the R&D department, which will take action in response to the findings and proceed to keep the

    company on top of current market needs.

    D. Operations

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    Operations management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and

    redesigning business operations in the production of goods and/or services. It involves the

    responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as

    needed, and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the

    process that converts inputs (in the forms of materials, labour, and energy) into outputs (in the form

    of goods and/or services). The relationship of operations management to senior management in

    commercial contexts can be compared to the relationship of line officers the highest-level senior

    officers in military science. The highest level officer shapes the strategy and designs it over time, while

    the line officer makes tactical decisions in support of carrying out the strategy.

    According to the U.S. Department of Education, operations management is the field concerned with

    managing and directing the physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization, particularly

    those relating to development, production, and manufacturing.

    Operations management programs typically include instruction in principles of general management,

    manufacturing and production systems, plant management, equipment maintenance management,

    production control, industrial labour relations and skilled trades supervision, strategic manufacturing

    policy, systems analysis, productivity analysis and cost control, and materials planning. Management,

    including operations management, is like engineering in that it blends art with applied science. People

    skills, creativity, rational analysis, and knowledge of technology are all required for success.

    E. Product Marketing & Sales

    In a manufacturing company the production function may be split into four sub-functions:

    Production and planning department

    The production and planning department will set standards and targets for each section of the

    production process. The quantity and quality of products coming off a production line will be closely

    monitored. In businesses focusing on lean production, quality will be monitored by all employees at

    every stage of production, rather than at the end as is the case for businesses using a quality control


    Purchasing department

    The purchasing department will be responsible for providing the materials, components and

    equipment required to keep the production process running smoothly. A vital aspect of this role is

    ensuring stocks arrive on time and to the right quality.

    Stores department

    The stores department will be responsible for stocking all the necessary tools, spares, raw materials

    and equipment required to service the manufacturing process. Where sourcing is unreliable, buffer

    stocks will need to be kept and the use of computerized stock control systems helps keep stocks at a

    minimal but necessary level for production to continue unhindered.

    Works Department

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    The works department will be concerned with the manufacture of products. This will include the

    maintenance of the production line and other necessary repairs. The works department may also

    have responsibility for quality control and inspection.

    3.3 Manpower Requirement

    Designation Number Required Annual Salary


    n Qualification



    MD/Chairperson 1 40 Engineer cum MBA

    with 15 years


    Board Of Directors

    Designation Number Required Annual Salary


    n Qualification



    CEO 1 30 Engineer cum MBA

    with 10 years


    COO 1 30 Engineer cum MBA

    with 10 years


    CFO 1 30 Engineer cum MBA

    with 10 years


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    Vice President 2 20 Chemical Engineer

    (for production) with


    year experience

    Production Engineer 4 12 Chemical Engineer

    with 4 year


    Maintenance 4 11 Mechanical Engineer

    Engineer with 4 year


    Instrumentation 4 8 Instrumentation

    Engineer Engineer with 4 year


    Shift Engineer 8 5.5 Chemical engineer

    with 4 year


    Shift Operator 12 4 Diploma in Chemical


    Labor(permanent) 12 1 High School

    Labor(temporary) Quantity depending High School

    upon work required

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    Vice President 1 15 MBA with 10 year


    Manager 1 12 MBA with 6 year


    Security Officer 2 5.5 Retired Army or



    Fire & Safety Officer 4 5.5 8 years experience in

    fire and safety


    Medical Officer 2 5.5 MBBS with 4 years


    experience e

    Medical Staff 2 2 Diploma

    Public Relation 1 5 Graduate with 5 year

    Officer experience in public


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    Vice President 1 20 C.A. with 10 years


    Manager 1 15 MBA (finance) with


    years experience

    Account Officer 2 10 C.A. with 4 year


    Clerical Staff 8 3 B.Com with some or

    no experience


    Vice President 1 20 MBA (marketing)


    12 years of


    Manager 2 15 MBA (marketing)

    with 8 years

    Marketing Officer 3 10 MBA (marketing)

    with 5 years


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    Research & Development

    Vice President 1 20 C.A. with 10 years


    Manager 2 15 MBA (finance) with


    years experience

    Research Assistor 3 10 C.A. with 4 year


    Clerical Staff 8 3 B.Com with some or

    no experience

    Total manpower requirement (permanent staff) = 95

    This is the number of higher order permanent staff and highly skilled labour. The number of total

    employed worker, either skilled or semi-skilled varies with the project being carried out.

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    4.1 Plant Location

    One of the key features of a transformation system is the efficiency with which the output is

    transferred to the recipients. Any consideration of this will include the determination of where to place