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Cycling Economy – reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility’ Dr...

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Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask Scientists for Cycling Colloquium, University of South Australia, Adelaide, June 26, 2014 Slide 2 Macroperspective Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask Kiev Vienna Gdansk Slide 3 Content 1.The serious decline of cycling and its re-birth in an on-going motorized world three phenomena 2.Reasons for de-investing in cycling 3.Reasons for (re-)investing in cycling 4.From marginalised leisure activity to the mainstream of public policies the golden triangle 5.Perspectives for further research and conclusions This presentation is based on content and structure of the paper by Manfred Neun, Piotr Kuropatwiski [2014]: Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility. Scientists for Cycling Colloquium, University of South Australia, Adelaide, June 26, 2014 Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask Slide 4 Up & downs: 3 Phenomena The serious decline of cycling and its re-birth in an on- going motorized world three phenomena 1.The phenomenon of the decline of the overwhelming competitor the car 2.The phenomenon of the re-birth of cycling because of various reasons new generations of bicycles and their users 3.The phenomenon of becoming a symbol for all- thats-good Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 1 1 Slide 5 Up & downs in Cities The serious decline of cycling and its re- birth in an on-going motorized world: Big differences in European Cities How to explain them? Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 1 1 Source: Evolution of bicycle use in European cities [Albert de la Bruhze, Verart, 1999], quoted after Alex Sully, 2010 Slide 6 Reasons for Declining Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 2 2 Institutional position of cycling and motorisation in transport planning (sustainable scenario) Large volumes of cycling Considerable amount of resources used to create cycling facilities Strong competitiveness of cycling Modest volumes of car transport Thoughtful development of car transport facilities Weak competitiveness of car transport Slide 7 Reasons for Declining Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 2 2 Institutional position of cycling and motorisation in transport/urban planning (usually applied scenario) Modest volumes of cycling Modest resources used to create cycling facilities Weak competitiveness of cycling Large volumes of car transport Substantial resources devoted to improve car cdriving conditions Strong competitiveness of car transport Source: J. Kallioinen, 2003, with authors modifications Slide 8 Reasons for (re-)investing 1.Critical incidents and political decisions to invest 2.Growth made by the industry: Bicycle innovations 3.The role of the governments: the golden triangle 4.The impact of cycling in times of crises: key-issues, new terms and paradigms 5.Cycling as a system: the impact of cycling on the Sustainable Development Goals Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3 3 Slide 9 Critical incidents .. and political decisions to invest: Stop der Kindermord in the NL - civic pressure oil crisis of 1973, 79 (plus 2000ff) Wake of human-oriented city-planning in Denmark Limitations of the car-oriented urban transport systems > fight against pollution and later: urban space constraints Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.1 Slide 10 The industry: Growth based on innovations The bike industry subsequent innovations as driving forces for development Neun, Manfred [2011]: Re-inventing the Bicycle for Creating Healthier and Wealthier Societies, University of Tampere. Key-note Speech, Sept 16 th 2011, Helsinki. Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.2 Leisure Bike MTB Bicycle Tourism E-bicycle Bike-share 1980 1990200020102020 1970 ? 1 2 3 4 5 Slide 11 All together: Growth based on Policy The bike industry subsequent innovations need now cycling advocacy for investments Neun, Manfred [2011]: Re-inventing the Bicycle for Creating Healthier and Wealthier Societies, University of Tampere. Key-note Speech, Sept 16 th 2011, Helsinki. Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.2 Leisure Bike MTB Bicycle Tourism 1980 1990200020102020 1970 Biycle Mobility 1 2 3 4 5 Active Mobility E-bicycle Bike-share Slide 12 The industry: Growth based on innovations M. Neun [2013]: Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013 Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask industryconsumers bikes people Bilateral market relationship in sport goods business, worked quite well in the bike industry, Confirmed validity in the case of the mountain bike revolution 3.2 Slide 13 For Governments: The Golden Triangle M. Neun [2013]: Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013 Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask industryconsumers governments bikes people Accessible. public space Accessible. public space 3.3 Slide 14 The impact of cycling in times of crises: key-issues, terms & paradigms Agenda setting: 8 key issues about the impact of cycling Active and Passive Mobility a complementary system for integrated transport The Human Rights approach... Public Cycling ? Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.4 Slide 15 The development of Mobility Pyramids Sources: Nahmobilitt 2.0, www,fahrradfreundlich.nrw.de, AGFS 2012 p. 13, Lasse Schelde, Bicycle Innovation Lab, The future of intermodality, presentation given at the 4th Congress of Active Mobility in Gdansk Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.4 Passive mobility Active mobility Hybrid E-mobility Slide 16 The development of Mobility Pyramids Sources: Nahmobilitt 2.0, www.fahrradfreundlich.nrw.de, AGFS 2012 p. 13 Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.4 Ideal Modal Split Pyramid A tool for integrated transport planning and a reminder to use the impact of intermodality. Slide 17 The impact of cycling for SDGs Sustainable Development Goals Cycling may fruitfully contribute to the achievement of all three dimensions of sustainable development Economic creating revenues and jobs Social contributing to social cohesion Environmental reducing/reversing the impact of non-sustainable transport and suburbanisation (urban sprawl) development processes. Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 3.5 Slide 18 From Margin to the Mainstream 1.Basic economic analysis: comparison of marginal costs and marginal benefits speak for investing in cycling providing the highest ROI ratios. 2.The Cycling Economy concept, however, implies widening the frame of reference supplying arguments coming from outside narrowly understood economics 3.The Cycling Economy 2.0, the Human Rights Approach and The Cycling Economy Grid bring it all together Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 4 4 Slide 19 b Cycling in numbers enefits of cycling economy 19 4 4 The Seville example : A functioning cycling network cost 32 million euros, and transports 66,000 people daily. In comparison, Sevilles single-line metro system cost 600 million Euro and carries only 40,000 people daily and its motorways cost 6 million Euro per kilometer. (see www.cyclingmobility.com/feature/the-circle-of-life) Slide 20 Economic benefits of cycling 20 in EU-27 in 2010 4 4 Health 121.0 bn Congestion-easing 24.0 bn Fuel savings 6.0 bn Reduced CO2 emission 3.0 bn Reduced air pollution 1.0 bn Reduced noise pollution 0.3 bn Tourism industry 44.0 bn Bicycle manufacture 18.0 bn Combined total 217.3 bn Slide 21 Financial costs of motoring 21 4 4 Average yearly cost of operating a sedan in 2012 USD 8.946 (AAA, Dec.2013) assuming 15,000 miles of annual driving -Median Income in US in 2012 : USD 51,017 (PBS) -Quotient: 17.5% I n 2012 each car (on average) cost 1/6th to 1/5th of median income Average car owner working 5-day week -worked about 1 day for his car -Source: Mansfield, Sam, The American culture of automobility: Whorfian effects? in the USA in 2012 Slide 22 Cycling economy Cycling Economy reasons for de-investing and (re-)investing in cycling mobility Dr Piotr Kuropatwiski University of Gdask 4 4 the 5 most important tools 1.Active Mobility streets based on the 30 km/h recommendation mixed use human friendly street design 2.Cycle Highways 3.Active E-mobility with pedelecs 4.Bike sharing > public cycling 5.Cargo cycling Source: M. Neun [2013]: Active mobility - how cities can satisfy human needs by cycling Velo-City Global Workshop. Taipei, March 2013 Slide 23 Cycling economy public

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