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Derivational morpemes and their allomorphs

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  • 2015

    DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES

    AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    IN TURKISH AND

    THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

    Yksel Gknel

    W W W . Y U K S E L G O K N E L . C O M

  • DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    2

    MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful language units in lan-

    guages. For instance, the word um*brel*la has three syllables. None of these

    three syllables are significant units on their own; they have sense only when

    they are articulated or heard together. So, these three syllables form a single

    shortest meaningful unit together, and consequently, umbrella is both a

    morpheme and a word. Such words are called free morphemes.

    However, although the suffixes are also the smallest meaningful units, they do

    not convey any sense unless they are attached to word roots or stems. Such

    morphemes are called bound morphemes.

    All the words have roots or stems like open, soft-en, clean, beauty,

    success, book, etc. Some morphemes (suffixes or prefixes) are attached to

    these roots or stems. For instance, open-ed, clean-ed, success-ful, beauti-

    ful, "whiten-ed" teach-er, ir-respons-ible, un-count-able, un-necessari-

    ly, go-ing, etc. Look at page 391 for roots, stems and verb frames.

    As one could see, there are two kinds of suffxes and prefixes in the given

    examples above. Some of these morphemes change the meaning and the part

    of speech they belong with when they are attached to different roots or stems.

    Some others, however, add certain inflectional meanings to verb and noun

    roots or stems such as tense, voice, person, mood, number, direction or state

    without changing their root or stem meanings. A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a

    derivational morpheme (yapm eki); the other one, which does not change the

    meaning of a root or stem, is called an inflectional morpheme (ekim eki). Both

    the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes. Some bound morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation

    variants that bear the same meanings as the morphemes. For instance, in

    English, when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun book, it is

    pronounced as /s/; in boy-s as /z/; and in box-es as /iz/. As they are the

    different pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named as

    the allomorphs of the morpheme [S]. There are a lot more allomorphs in Turkish than there are in English. This is

    because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant changes

    according to the vowel and consonant rules of the Turkish lan-guage when they

    are attached to roots or stems and to one another, and this process causes

    different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain morpheme carry

  • DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    3

    the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore they do not change the

    meaning of the morphemes because The Turkish sound system functions

    independently of the Turkish morphemic system.

    DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    Anlaml Yapm Ekleri Ve Onlarn Altbiimbirimleri

    Derivational morphemes (suffixes) are bound morphemes that change the

    lexical meaning or the part of speech of a word used in a sentence:

    MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS THAT PRODUCE NOUNS [C] allomorphs: [ci, c, c, cu, i, , , u] When the nouns ending with vocals (vowels or voiced consonants) are at-

    tached to the morpheme [C], the /i/ vowel in this morpheme changes into /i, , ,

    u/ in accordance with the vowel harmony rules. However, if a noun ends with an

    unvoiced consonant, the /c/ voiced consonants also change into the //

    unvoiced consonants in agreement with the consonant harmony rules:

    peynir-ci (cheese seller), posta-c (postman), zm-c (grapes seller), turu-

    cu (pickles seller), sepet-i (basket maker), balk- (fisherman), st-

    (milkman), ok-u (archer), a- (cook), kale-ci (goal-keeper), kahve-ci (coffee

    seller), saat-i (watch repairer or seller), mobilya-c (furniture seller), kaak-

    (smuggler), musluk-u (plumber), yaban-c (foreigner), iek-i (florist), yol-cu

    (traveler), sanat- (artist), gz-c (watch, watchman), sz-c (spokesman),

    politika-c (politician), milliyet-i (nationalist), di-i (dentist), kira-c (tenant),

    ark-c (singer), brek-i (someone who sells pies), boya-c (painter), demir-

    ci (blacksmith), halter-ci (weight lifter). [LK] allomorphs: [lik, lk, lk, luk]

    meyve-lik (a bowl where fruit is kept), kitap-lk (bookcase), gz-lk (eye-

    glasses), odun-luk (a place where firewood is kept), az-lk (cigarette holder),

    kulak-lk (headphones), aydan-lk (tea pot), mezar-lk (graveyard), eker-lik

    (a bowl in which candies are kept), okevli-lik (polygamy), tuz-luk (saltshaker),

    ocuk-luk (childhood), maskara-lk (farce, foolery), soytar-lk (clowning),

    dost-luk (friendship), dman-lk (enmity), gece-lik (pajamas, nightgown), n-

    lk (apron), gven-lik (safety), anne-lik (motherhood), evlat-lk (adopted child),

    kahraman-lk (heroism). [C-LK] allomorphs: [ci.lik, c.lk, c.lk, cu.luk, i.lik, .lk, .lk, u.luk] av-c.lk (hunting), meyve-ci.lik (selling fruit), n-c.lk (leadership), yol-cu-luk

    (traveling), a-.lk (cooking), fal-c.lk (fortune telling), tefe-ci.lik (usury), iek-

  • DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS

    4

    i.lik (selling flowers), if-i.lik (farming), hava-c.lk (aviation), balk-.lk (fish-

    ing), kaak-.lk (smuggling), p-.lk (scavenge)

    [CK] allomorphs: [cik, ck, ck, cuk, ik, k, k, uk] (diminutiv

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