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Development and Challenge Development and Challenge of Vanadium flow Battery Technologyof Vanadium flow Battery Technologyof Vanadium flow Battery Technologyof Vanadium flow Battery Technology

Prof.Prof. HuaminHuamin ZhangZhangProf.Prof.HuaminHuamin ZhangZhangDalianInstituteofChemicalPhysics(DICP)DalianInstituteofChemicalPhysics(DICP)

VP and CTOVP and CTO RongkeRongke Power Co LtdPower Co Ltd KRPKRPVP.andCTO.VP.andCTO.RongkeRongke PowerCo.,Ltd.PowerCo.,Ltd.KRPKRP

Vanadium Flow BatteryVanadium Flow Battery

Sep. 27th2013 Beijing

Energy storage division

Dalian National Lab for Clean energyDalian National Lab for Clean energy

DivisionHead:DivisionHead:Prof.Prof.HuaminHuamin ZhangZhangDivision of Energy storageDivision of Energy storageDivision of Energy storageDivision of Energy storage

Around 30 staffsAround 30 staffs20 graduate students20 graduate studentsgg

High energy density High energy density Li batteryLi battery

High energy density High energy density Li batteryLi battery

PEMFC & flow battery testing, PEMFC & flow battery testing, evaluation evaluation

PEMFC & flow battery testing, PEMFC & flow battery testing, evaluation evaluation

Materials and technologiesMaterials and technologiesFor flow batteriesFor flow batteries

Materials and technologiesMaterials and technologiesFor flow batteriesFor flow batteries

Sub 01

Department

Sub 01

DepartmentSub 01

D t t

Sub 01

D t t

Li-Air Li-S

DepartmentDepartment

Materials (Catalyst membranes)Materials (Catalyst membranes) M t i lM t i l M t i lM t i lMaterials(Catalyst,membranes)Materials(Catalyst,membranes)MEAMEATestandstandardizationTestandstandardization

Materials Materials StacksStacksSystem integrationSystem integration

Materials Materials ComponentsComponents

Rongke Power at a Glance

RongkeRongke Power is a leading VFB manufacturer :Power is a leading VFB manufacturer : I ti t i l & t d l t d d tiI ti t i l & t d l t d d ti Innovative materials & components development and productionInnovative materials & components development and production Integrated energy storage solutions from engineering to finished turnIntegrated energy storage solutions from engineering to finished turn--key systems.key systems.

Company own 16 000 mCompany own 16 000 m22 manufacturing andmanufacturing and Company own 16,000 mCompany own 16,000 m22 manufacturing and manufacturing and

R&D facilitiesR&D facilities

Stacks and System Assembly Facilities 150 employees150 employees

Manufacturing Facilities: Stack annual Manufacturing Facilities: Stack annual

Materials Manufacturing Facilities

capacity of 30MW/Y , Electrolyte annual capacity of 30MW/Y , Electrolyte annual

capacity of 300MWh/ Y capacity of 300MWh/ Y Materials Manufacturing Facilities

Certified ISO9000/14000 and Certified ISO9000/14000 and GB/T28001GB/T28001

R&D C t f Fl B tt E StR&D C t f Fl B tt E St

Technology Innovation Centre

R&D Center for Flow Battery Energy Storage R&D Center for Flow Battery Energy Storage

authorized by National Energy Administrationauthorized by National Energy Administration

Why energy storage?

Wind energyWind energySolar energySolar energy NonNon--controllablecontrollableToo random to be Too random to be

connected to the grid connected to the grid for widely usefor widely use

gygygygy NonNon--controllablecontrollable

for widely use.for widely use.

Aff t d b thAff t d b thGridGrid Affected by weatherAffected by weatherGridGrid

Smart gridSmart gridTide energyTide energyTide energyTide energy

4

Market in ChinaSolar and wind power application target of ChinaSolar and wind power application target of ChinaRenewable Energy Revival Plan of china

Target: By 2020,Target: By 2020, 15 %15 % of all consumption energy is to come from REof all consumption energy is to come from REg y ,g y , p gyp gyInstallation Capability Installation Capability Wind Wind Solar Solar

20092009 yr (GW)yr (GW) 2020 0 750 752009 2009 yr (GW)yr (GW) 2020 0.750.752010 2010 yr (GW)yr (GW) 3030 112020 yr (GW)2020 yr (GW) 150150 2020

150 20

2020 yr (GW)2020 yr (GW) 150150 2020

WindWindGW GW

SolarSolar20150

100

150

15

WindWind SolarSolar

505

10

0 75 120 30

02009 2010 2020 Yr

02009 2010 2020 Yr

0.75

Characteristics of Different Energy Storage TechniquesCharacteristics of Different Energy Storage Techniques

ours

ours

UPSUPSPower QualityPower Quality

Grid SupportGrid SupportLoad shiftingLoad shifting Bridging PowerBridging Power

Energy ManagementEnergy ManagementBulk Power MgtBulk Power Mgt

Fl B iFl B iow

erow

erH

oH

o

MetalMetal--Air Air BatteriesBatteriesNaSNaS BatteriesBatteries

Advanced LeadAdvanced Lead

Pumped Pumped HydroHydro

Compressed AirCompressed Air

FlowBatteriesFlowBatteries

High EnergyHigh EnergyRat

ed P

oR

ated

Po

Min

utes

Min

utes

Lead Acid BatteriesLi-Ion Batteries

AdvancedLeadAdvancedLeadAcidbatteryAcidbattery

CompressedAirCompressedAirEnergyStorageEnergyStorage

g gyg gySuper capacitorsSuper capacitors

me

at R

me

at R

MMnd

snd

s

Ni-Cd Batteries

Ni-MH Batteries

harg

e ha

rge

TiTiSe

con

Seco

n High Power Fly Wheels

High Power Super Caps SEMSDis

chD

isch

RastlerRastler, D. Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits; , D. Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits; System Power RatingsSystem Power Ratings

1 kW 10 kW 100 kW100 kW 1 MW 10 MW 100 MW100 MW 1 GW1 GW

Our work focus on Our work focus on Vanadium Flow Battery Vanadium Flow Battery Energy Storage TechniqueEnergy Storage TechniqueEPRI: Palo Alto, CA, 949 2010; p 1020676.EPRI: Palo Alto, CA, 949 2010; p 1020676.

66

Requirements for largeRequirements for large--scale scale energy storage technologyenergy storage technologyenergy storage technologyenergy storage technology

SafetySafety SafetySafety

Higher PerformancePerformance--toto--price ratio of life cycleprice ratio of life cycle

Lower Environmental load of life cycleLower Environmental load of life cycle

ForlargeForlarge--scaleenergystorage,theharmandlossscaleenergystorage,theharmandloss

l i f f id i bl i f f id i bresultingfromsafetyaccidentsareseriousbecauseresultingfromsafetyaccidentsareseriousbecause

ofitslargepowerandcapacity.Thus,theprimaryofitslargepowerandcapacity.Thus,theprimaryg p p y , p yg p p y , p y

requirementforlargescaleenergystorageissafety.requirementforlargescaleenergystorageissafety.

Formulation of the research program on energy Formulation of the research program on energy storage from the US energy department in 2011storage from the US energy department in 2011g gy pg gy p

Japan is building a largeJapan is building a large--scale (15MW/60MWh) scale (15MW/60MWh) VFB energy storage system in HokkaidoVFB energy storage system in Hokkaidoe e gy sto age syste o a doe e gy sto age syste o a do

Output Smoothing,Output Smoothing, frequency modulation, and frequency modulation, and Power Prediction Power Prediction generation for renewable energy generation for renewable energy

Principle of the flow batteryPrinciple of the flow batteryFlow battery electrochemically store/release electricity

by the valence change of the species in the electrolyte that circulate through the anode and the cathode, which are separated by an ion exchange membrane.

Principle diagram of flow batteryPrinciple diagram of flow battery

Cr/Fe Flow Battery Cr/Fe Flow Battery

S i h d l tiS i h d l ti11

Serious hydrogen evolution,Serious hydrogen evolution,capacity loss, low energy capacity loss, low energy efficiencyefficiency

Sodium Polysulfide /Br flow batterySodium Polysulfide /Br flow battery

12

ZnZn--Br flow batteryBr flow battery

13

Vanadium flow battery (VFB)Vanadium flow battery (VFB)

VFBVFB electrochemicallyelectrochemically store/releasestore/release electricityelectricity byby thethe valencevalencechangechange ofof thethe VanadiumVanadium ionsions inin thethe electrolyteelectrolyte thatthat circulatecirculatechangechange ofof thethe VanadiumVanadium ionsions inin thethe electrolyteelectrolyte thatthat circulatecirculatethroughthrough thethe anodeanode andand thethe cathode,cathode, whichwhich areare separatedseparated byby anan ionionexchangeexchange membranemembrane..

Vanadium Flow Battery (VFBVanadium Flow Battery (VFB

exchangeexchange membranemembrane..

Vanadium Flow Battery (VFBVanadium Flow Battery (VFB

Anode:Anode:

VOVO2+2+HH22O O -- ee VOVO22++2H2H

33 22Cathode:Cathode:

VV3+3+ ee VV22

Total reaction:Total reaction:VO2+ + V2+ + 2H+VOVO2+2+ + V+ V3+3+ + H+ H22OO

Electrolytes of Vanadium Flow BatteryElectrolytes of Vanadium Flow Battery

15

Advantages of VFBAdvantages of VFB

Independent system design for Independent system design for

power and capacity power and capacity OutputOutput Power Range: kWPower Range: kW--MW; MW;

Increase Increase powerpower

pp gg ;;

Energy Storage Capacity : kWhEnergy Storage Capacity : kWh--10MWh10MWh

High energy efficiency (>75%)High energy efficiency (>75%) e

El High energy efficiency (>75%)High energy efficiency (>75%)

Long change/discharge lifetimeLong change/discharge lifetime Modu

le

lectrolyt

Deep discharge abilityDeep discharge ability

Low selfLow self--discharge, fast responsedischarge, fast response

te

Low selfLow self discharge, fast responsedischarge, fast response

Environmental friendly Environmental friendly Increase Increase CapacityCapacity

Operation safety Operation safety CapacityCapacity

Key materials and technology of flow battery

ElectrodesElectrodesElectrolytesElectrolytes

System System integrationintegration

MembranesMembranes

The main target is to improve the power density and decrease the The main target is to improve the power density and decrease the

StacksStacks

cost of VFB by exploring high performance materials and cost of VFB by exploring high performance materials and optimizing stack structure (membranes with high selectivity, optimizing stack structure (membranes with high selectivity, stability and conductivity, electrode with high conductivity and stability and conductivity, electrode with high conductivity and activity, electrolytes with high stability and solubility).activity, electrolytes with high stability and solubility).

Challenges of VFB key materialsChallenges of VFB key materialsfor improving performance and cost downfor improving performance and cost downfor improving performance and cost downfor improving performance and cost down

The performance of the materials used determines the performance of the VFBThe performance of the materials used determines the performance of the VFB

VOSOVOSO44 ElectrolyteElectrolyte Ion membraneIon membrane Electrode/Bipolar plateElectrode/Bipolar plate

StabilityStability ActivityActivity StabilityStability

StabilityStability

DurabilityDurability

ActivityActivity

Electrical conductivityElectrical conductivity SolubilitySolubility SelectivitySelectivity

CostCost AntiAnti--oxidationoxidation

CostCost

Single cellSingle cell CellsCells StacksStacks

Challenges of VFB for commercializationChallenges of VFB for commercializationpoor electrolyte stability and less solubility leadpoor electrolyte stability and less solubility lead

to low energy density.to low energy density. Low selectivity to the vanadium ions ofLow selectivity to the vanadium ions of memberanmemberan Low selectivity to the vanadium ions of Low selectivity to the vanadium ions of memberanmemberan

lead to the Unbalance of vanadium ions and lead to the Unbalance of vanadium ions and Water, and the capacity degradation after long Water, and the capacity degradation after long operation time.operation time.pp

Low rated operation current density lead to higherLow rated operation current density lead to highert i l tt i l tmaterial cost.material cost.

High cost of the ion exchange membrane.High cost of the ion exchange membrane.Limited the VFB practicability seriouslyLimited the VFB practicability seriously

ChallengestoVFBindustrializationChallengestoVFBindustrializationothers

stack

BoP & BMS

Cost breakdown with a Cost breakdown with a

system of 1MW/5MWhsystem of 1MW/5MWhelectrolyte yy

Cost Target:Cost Target: 3000RMB/kWh3000RMB/kWhChallengesChallenges

electrolyte

Cost Target: Cost Target: 3000RMB/kWh3000RMB/kWhHigh High perfomanceperfomance, low cost materials, low cost materialsnew stack with high power density new stack with high power density

ChallengesChallenges

Lower power densityLower power density g p yg p yRated current density should be improved Rated current density should be improved from 80mA/cm2 to 200mA/cm2 and even from 80mA/cm2 to 200mA/cm2 and even higherhigher

Lowerpowerdensity,Lowerpowerdensity,

highmaterialcosthighmaterialcost higherhigher Container system designContainer system design

gg

Polarization analysis of VFB

ConcentrationConcentrationEIS measurementEIS measurement

Concentration Concentration polariztionpolariztion

5%5% ElectrodeElectrodeElectrodeElectrodestructurestructure

Electrochemistry Electrochemistry l i til i ti

5%5% ElectrodeElectroderesistanceresistance

Electrode Electrode t i lt i lpolariztionpolariztion

21%21%materialmaterial

OhmicOhmicpolariztionpolariztion

74%74%Raise the Raise the ElectrocatalyticElectrocatalytic

A ti it fA ti it fContact Contact

Modification Modification of bipolar of bipolar

Activity of Activity of electrode materialelectrode material

resistanceresistancepp

plateplate

Membranes: Key materials to push VFB commercializationcommercialization

CF2 CF2 n CFCF2

O CF2-CF-O

CF3

m CF2CF2SO3H

PerfluorosulfonicPerfluorosulfonic acid membranesacid membranes((L ti l t St tL ti l t St t ))

FunctionFunctionIsolate electrolytesIsolate electrolytes DisadvantageDisadvantage

((Larger continuous clusters StructureLarger continuous clusters Structure))

Isolate electrolytesIsolate electrolytes

transport Htransport H++ or SOor SO4422--HighHigh costcost ((600600--800800 $$/m/m22 100100 $$/m/m22 LowLow ionion selectivityselectivity (Vanadium(Vanadium crossovercrossover))

Morphology of Perfluorosulfonic acid membranesC F 2 C F 2 x

C F

O C F 2 C F

C F

z

yC F 2

O (C F 2 ) 2 S O 3 H

CF2 CF2 xCF yCF2

OCF2CF2SO3HC F 3NafionNafion 115 with long side chain 115 with long side chain SSC with short side chain (SolvaySSC with short side chain (Solvay))

NN fifi 115115 SSCSSC M2M2NNafionafion115115 SSCSSC--M2M2

Morphologies of hydrophilic domain recorded by TEM Morphologies of hydrophilic domain recorded by TEM and SAXSand SAXS..

Membranes with short side chain shows smaller and more Membranes with short side chain shows smaller and more discontinuous clusters, expecting higher selectivitydiscontinuous clusters, expecting higher selectivity

MorphologyMorphology ofof PerfluorosulfonicPerfluorosulfonic acidacid membranesmembranes

SSCSSC--M2 exhibited M2 exhibited higher higher coulomb coulomb efficiency and efficiency and similarsimilar voltage voltage efficiencyefficiency and and much slower much slower capacity fadcapacity fadinging than that of NF115. than that of NF115. The results indicate that The results indicate that membrane with short side chains membrane with short side chains is proved to be one of the ideal is proved to be one of the ideal options in fabricating highoptions in fabricating high--

f VFB ith l f VFB ith l performance VFBs with low performance VFBs with low capacity capacity reductionreduction..

ChemSusChemChemSusChem 2013, DOI:10.1002/cssc.2013000142013, DOI:10.1002/cssc.201300014..

NonNon--Fluoride IEMs Developed by DICPFluoride IEMs Developed by DICPp yp y

NafionNafion--115115 DICPCE (%) 95 97.6

The cycle life of DICPThe cycle life of DICP--2 2 membranes was investigated. membranes was investigated. The performance kept stableThe performance kept stable

EE (%) 80 84%

Life (cycles) >13000 >10000

The performance kept stable The performance kept stable after running more than 12 after running more than 12 months. The battery has months. The battery has fi i h d th 10 000fi i h d th 10 000Cost ($/m2) 650 100 finished more than 10,000 finished more than 10,000 cycles up to now.cycles up to now.

Porous membranes as VFB separatorsPorous membranes as VFB separatorsPorous membranes as VFB separators Porous membranes as VFB separators LargermoleculesunabletopassLargermoleculesunabletopass

SmallerSmallerSmallerSmallermolecules/molecules/solventsolventpasspassthroughthrough.

Membrane

Can porous separation membranes be next generation separator for VFB?generation separator for VFB?

Energy & Environmental Science, 2011, 4, 16761679

P b f VFB li tiPorous membranes for VFB application

After optimization, membranes very high ion conductivity and ionl ti it f ll l d d h ll tselectivity were successfully explored and show excellent

performance (Better than Nafion 115) under VFB operatingcondition.Energy & Environmental Science,6 (2013); 776, 4 (2011) 1676; 5 (2012) 6299

The Mass Production of ElectrolyteThe Mass Production of Electrolyte

AA dd lili ithith itit ff 200200MWh/MWh/AA produceproduce lineline withwith capacitycapacity ofof 200200MWh/yearMWh/year waswas

successfullysuccessfully assembledassembled.. TheThe producedproduced electrolyteselectrolytes

showshow veryvery goodgood stabilitystability andand highhigh performanceperformance..

Carbon Plastic Bipolar Plate

1.0 m

Bulk resistanceBulk resistance < 0.17 < 0.17 .cm.cmBending strengthBending strength >28 MPa>28 MPa

Corrosion resistanceCorrosion resistance

Mass production of 22kW Flow Battery Stack Mass production of 22kW Flow Battery Stack

Stack assemble lineStack assemble line

Production capacity 15MW/YearProduction capacity 15MW/Year

352kW VFB module for MW class system 352kW VFB module for MW class system

22kW Stack 22kW Stack 352 kW352 kW VFB system moduleVFB system module

Energy efficiency (EE)Energy efficiency (EE) of stacksof stacks 80%80%

352 kW352 kW subsystemsubsystem (EE)(EE) 75%75%352 kW352 kW subsystemsubsystem (EE) (EE) 75%75%

90%90% Charge 90%Charge 90% discharge conversion timedischarge conversion time

A wind/solar/VFB joint power supplying A wind/solar/VFB joint power supplying j p pp y gj p pp y g

system for system for intelligent residence (2009)(2009)

3.5kW PV3.5kW PV

3.5kW Wind Turbine

5kW/50kWh VFB5kW/50kWh VFB

energy storage Delegation of US DOE visit my home energy storage Delegation of US DOE visit my home

A BIPVA BIPV--VFB DemonstrationVFB Demonstrationii R kR k P C LtdP C Ltd (D 2009)(D 2009)in in RongkeRongke Power Co. Ltd. Power Co. Ltd. (Dec. 2009)(Dec. 2009)

PV: 60 kWPV: 60 kW

VFB: 60 kW / 300 kWhVFB: 60 kW / 300 kWh

SolarSolar--VFBVFB--Diesel Engine Power Supply Diesel Engine Power Supply

System for An Isolated Island System for An Isolated Island

(Sep 2011)

Snake Island

PV controlor Inventor Island load

(Sep. 2011)

PV controlor Inventor Island load

Solar Cell 20kW

Diesel EngineChargerVFB 10kW/200kWh

Distributed Energy StorageDistributed Energy StorageMicroMicro--grid Power Supply Systemgrid Power Supply System

200kW/800kWh 200kW/800kWh

MicroMicro grid Power Supply Systemgrid Power Supply System

VFB for a micro VFB for a micro

grid grid

200kW*4hLi battery

200kW*10ssuper capacitor

200kW*10sFly wheelPV1 PV2 PV3

2.5MW wind turbine 200kW/800KWh VFB

Energy

Load1 load2 load3 load4EV Charging station

gycontroling system

200kW/800kWh VFB for Micro grid200kW/800kWh VFB for Micro grid

Items Parameter

Rated Power 200 kW

Capacity 800 kWh

DC V lt 250 390 VDC Voltage 250-390 V

Rated C t DC 640ACurrent DC 640A

Stack 20kW * 105 serials, 2 parallel, p

Temp. -20 40

Size 12.5m7.2m2.5m

5MW/10MWh VFB for a 50MW Wind Farm

Wind farm 35kV line

(Since Oct. 2012)(Since Oct. 2012)

Wind farm

Wind farm 35kV line

110/220kV grid

Wind farm transformer

Inventor Inventor DC400-620V DC400-620V

15 sets basic systems

352kW VFB subsystem

DemonstrationprojectoftheworldslargestscaleVFB system of 5MW/10MWh in the wind farmVFBsystemof5MW/10MWhinthewindfarm

3939

5MW/10MWh VFB for a 50MW Wind Farm5MW/10MWh VFB for a 50MW Wind Farm

AA 55MW/MW/1010MWhMWh VFBVFB systemsystem waswas successfullysuccessfully installedinstalledAA 55MW/MW/1010MWhMWh VFBVFB systemsystem waswas successfullysuccessfully installedinstalledrecentlyrecently byby RongkeRongke PowerPower andand DalianDalian InstituteInstitute ofof ChemicalChemicalPhysicsPhysics ThisThis isis thethe largestlargest VFBVFB systemsystem upup toto nownow inin thethePhysicsPhysics.. ThisThis isis thethe largestlargest VFBVFB systemsystem upup toto nownow inin thetheworld,world, thethe systemsystem isis combinedcombined withwith aa 5050 MWMW windwind farmfarm totoensureensure thethe smoothsmooth outputoutput ofof thethe windwind powerpower ThisThisensureensure thethe smoothsmooth outputoutput ofof thethe windwind powerpower.. ThisThisdemonstrationdemonstration waswas locatedlocated inin LiaoningLiaoning Province,Province, ChinaChina..

Cost Reduction RoadCost Reduction Roadmmapap

($/kW) ($/kWh)

Costdown map of RKP

300300 280280240240 220220 200200

300

40023002300 21002100

1600160012001200 11001100

2000

3000

Stack cost down Electrolyte cost down 100

20012001200 11001100

0

1000

y0

2011Yr 2012Yr 2013Yr 2014Yr 2015Yr

02011Yr2011Yr2012Yr2012Yr2013Yr2013Yr2014Yr2014Yr2015Yr2015Yr

The cost of 1MW/5MWhThe cost of 1MW/5MWh--class VFB system is expected to be class VFB system is expected to be

cost down cost down to to 400 400 $/kWh $/kWh in the year of 2018in the year of 2018--2020 via 2020 via

i ti f t i l d b tt t h l ii ti f t i l d b tt t h l iinnovation of materials and battery technologies.innovation of materials and battery technologies.

High Operation Current Density High Operation Current Density Decrease the inner resistance of VFBDecrease the inner resistance of VFBIncrease the conductivity of membraneIncrease the conductivity of membrane High performanceHigh performance Improve the Improve the electrocatalyticelectrocatalytic activity of electrodeactivity of electrode

1002CurrentCurrent CECE VEVE EEEE

90

95

2160mA/cm2

80mA/cm2

120mA/cm2

%

Current Current densitydensity

(mA/cm(mA/cm22))

CECE(%)(%)

VEVE(%)(%)

EEEE(%)(%)

80

85200mA/cm2

ffici

ency

%

CE

8080 93.893.8 92.592.5 86.786.7

120120 94.794.7 89.789.7 85.085.0

70

75

E CE VE EE

160160 95.795.7 86.686.6 82.982.9

200200 97 197 1 84 284 2 81 881 8 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 3670Cycle

200200 97.197.1 84.284.2 81.881.8

By employing the new electrode , bipolar plate and By employing the new electrode , bipolar plate and improved the conductivity of membrane ,, VFB single cell can keep the energy VFB single cell can keep the energy efficiency above 80% under the current density of 200 efficiency above 80% under the current density of 200 mAmA/cm/cm22. .

Development of High Power Density Development of High Power Density VFB StacksVFB StacksVFB StacksVFB Stacks

Materials and structural Materials and structural optimizationoptimization

The operating current density The operating current density i d f 80i d f 80 t 160 A/ 2

Current density CE VE EE

optimizationoptimization increased from 80increased from 80 to 160 mA/cm2

y

(mA/cm2) (%) (%) (%)

80 97 4 90 1 87 880 97.4 90.1 87.8

100 98.2 88.0 86.4

120 98.5 85.9 84.6

140 98.7 83.9 82.8

160 98.9 81.9 81.0

Dramatically lower the stack cost can be obtained byDramatically lower the stack cost can be obtained byDramatically lower the stack cost can be obtained by Dramatically lower the stack cost can be obtained by the doubled increased operating current density.the doubled increased operating current density.

CEN&CENELECCEN&CENELEC,,

IECIECTC105TC105

4444

2

2

//

11 2011100120111001--TT--604604

11 2011100120111001 TT 604604

22 2011100120111001--TT--XXXXXX

33 NB/T 42006NB/T 42006--20132013 33 NB/T 42006NB/T 42006--20132013

44 NB/T 42007NB/T 42007--20132013 4545

CEN&CENELEC CEN&CENELEC 533CENELECCENELEC

4646

Flow batteries - Guidance on the specification,

installation and operation

IEC IEC

IEC

IEC/TC105

Study on the Development of International Standards

in the Field of Flow Battery Systems

IEC/TC105

47 4747

AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgmentsAcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments

Many thanks to MOST CAS NSF and DICPMany thanks to MOST CAS NSF and DICPMany thanks to MOST , CAS , NSF and DICP Many thanks to MOST , CAS , NSF and DICP

for the financial supportfor the financial support..pppp

The ministry of Science and The ministry of Science and Chinese Academy of Science (ACS)Chinese Academy of Science (ACS)Technology of PRC (MOST) Technology of PRC (MOST) Chinese Academy of Science (ACS)Chinese Academy of Science (ACS)

D li I tit t f Ch i l Ph iD li I tit t f Ch i l Ph iNational Natural Science National Natural Science Dalian Institute of Chemical PhysicsDalian Institute of Chemical Physics(DICP)(DICP)Foundation of China (NSF)Foundation of China (NSF)

[email protected]@dicp.ac.cn

Airscape of DICP Airscape of DICP

Th k f tt tiTh k f tt tiThank you for your attention.Thank you for your attention.

Airscape of RKP Airscape of RKP

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