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DIFFERENT MODELS OF COLLABORATION BETWEEN NURSING EDUCATION AND SERVICE

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DIFFERENT MODELS OF COLLABORATION BETWEEN NURSING EDUCATION AND SERVICE- By Bivin, J.B., & Reddemma, K. (2010). Department of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore.
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  • Different Models of Collaboration between Nursing Education and Service Different Models of Collaboration between Nursing Education & Service DEPARTMENT OF NURSING Chair Person Presenter Prof. (Dr.) K. Reddemma Bivin, J.B Dean, Behavioral sciences, II MSc. Psychiatric Nursing, NIMHANS, Bengaluru NIMHANS, Bengaluru 1 Page.
  • IndexS. No Content Page No 1 Introduction 1 2 Meaning 1 3 Definition 2 Different Models of Collaboration between Nursing Education & Service 4 Types of collaborations 2 5 Need for collaboration between education and service 3 6 Models of collaboration between education and Service 4-12 6.1. Clinical school of nursing model 6.2. Dedicated Education Unit Clinical Teaching Model 6.3. Research Joint Appointments (Clinical Chair) 6.4. Practice-Research Model (PRM) 6.5. Collaborative Clinical Education Epworth Deakin (CCEED) model 6.6. The Collaborative Learning Unit (British Columbia) Model 6.7. The Collaborative Approach to Nursing Care (CAN- Care) Model 6.8. The Bridge to Practice Model 6.9. Collaboration of Nursing Education and Service in India 7 Conclusion 13 8 Bibliography 14 2 Page.
  • DIFFERENT MODELS OF COLLABORATION BETWEEN NURSING EDUCATION AND SERVICE1. Introduction The nursing profession is faced with increasingly complex health care issues driven bytechnological and medical advancements, an ageing population, increased numbers of people livingwith chronic disease, and spiraling costs. Collaborative partnerships between educational institutionsand service agencies have been viewed as one way to provide research which ensures an evolvinghealth-care system with comprehensive and coordinated services that are evidence-based, cost-effective and improve health-care outcomes1. Collaboration is a substantive idea repeatedly discussed in health care circles. Though thebenefits are well validated, collaboration is seldom practiced. The lack of a shared definition is onebarrier. Additionally, the complexity of collaboration and the skills required to facilitate the process are Different Models of Collaboration between Nursing Education & Serviceformidable. Much of the literature on collaboration describes what it should look like as an outcome,but little is written describing how to approach the developmental process of collaboration. Manyresearchers have validated the benefits of collaboration to include improved patient outcomes,reduced length of stay, cost savings, increased nursing job satisfaction and retention, and improvedteamwork (Abramson & Mizrahi 1996).1The focus on benefits of collaboration could lead one to thinkthat collaboration is a favorite approach to providing patient care, leading organizations, educatingfuture health professionals, and conducting health care research. Contextual elements that influencethe formation of collaboration include time, status, organizational values, collaborating participants,and type of problem.2. Meaning Collaboration is an intricate concept with multiple attributes. Attributes identified by severalnurse authors include sharing of planning, making decisions, solving problems, setting goals,assuming responsibility, working together cooperatively, communicating, and coordinating openly(Baggs & Schmitt, 1988). Related concepts, such as cooperation, joint practice, and collegiality, areoften used as substitutes. The roots of the word collaboration, namely co-, and laborare, combine in Latin to mean worktogether. That means the interaction among two or more individuals, which can encompass a varietyof actions such as communication, information sharing, coordination, cooperation, problem solving,and negotiation. Teamwork and collaboration are often used synonymously. The description of collaboration asa dynamic process resulting from developmental group stages as an outcome, producing a synthesisof different perspectives. The reality is that collaboration evolves in partnerships and in teams. Baggsand Schmitt (1988) reframe the relationship between collaboration and teamwork by definingcollaboration as the most important aspect of team care but certainly not the only dimension. A description of the concept of collaboration is derived by integrating Folletts outcome-oriented perspective (1940) and Grays process-oriented perspective (1989). Both authors strengthenthe definition of collaboration by considering the type of problem, level of interdependence, and type 3of outcomes to seek. According to them: Collaboration is both a process and an outcome in which Page.shared interest or conflict that cannot be addressed by any single individual is addressed by keystakeholders. The collaborative process involves a synthesis of different perspectives to better
  • understand complex problems. A collaborative outcome is the development of integrative solutionsthat go beyond an individual vision to a productive resolution that could not be accomplished by anysingle person or organization. It is critical in collaboration that all existing and potential members of the collaborating groupshare the common vision and purpose. Several catalysts may initiate collaboration a problem, ashared vision, a desired outcome, to name a few. Regardless of what the catalyst may be, it isessential to move from problem driven to vision driven, from muddled roles and responsibilities todefined relationships, and from activity driven to outcomes. Collaboration is an inclusionary processwith continuous engagement that reinforces commitment, recognizing the building of relationships asfundamental to the success of collaborations. An effective collaboration is characterized by buildingand sustaining win-win-win relationships8. Different Models of Collaboration between Nursing Education & Service3. Definition Henneman et al. have suggested that collaboration is a process by which members of variousdisciplines (or agencies) share their expertise. Accomplishing this requires these individualsunderstand and appreciate what it is that they contribute to the whole. "Collaboration is the most formal inter organizationl relationship involving shared authority andresponsibility for planning, implementation, and evaluation of a joint effort (Hord, 1986). Mattessich, Murray and Monsey (2001) define collaboration as ... a mutually beneficial andwell-defined relationship entered into by two or more organizations to achieve common goals8.4. Types of Collaboration Terms, such as interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and interprofessional,which further delineate and describe teams, teamwork, and collaboration, have evolved over time.4.1. Interdisciplinary is the term used to indicate the combining of two or more disciplines,professions, departments, or the like, usually in regard to practice, research, education, and/or theory.4.2. Multidisciplinary refers to independent work and decision making, such as when disciplineswork side-by-side on a problem. The interdisciplinary process, according to Garner (1995) andHoeman (1996), expands the multidisciplinary team process through collaborative communicationrather than shared communication.4.3. Transdisciplinary efforts involve multiple disciplines sharing together their knowledge and skillsacross traditional disciplinary boundaries in accomplishing tasks or goals (Hoeman, 1996).Transdisciplinary efforts reflect a process by which individuals work together to develop a sharedconceptual framework that integrates and extends discipline specific theories, concepts, and methodsto address a common problem.4.4. Interprofessional collaboration has been described as involving interactions of two or moredisciplines involving professionals who work together, with intention, mutual respect, and 4commitments for the sake of a more adequate response to a human problem (Harbaugh, 1994). Page.Interprofessional collaboration goes beyond transdisciplinary to include not just traditional disciplineboundaries but a
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