MEETING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
Dr. Pius Yasebasi Ngwandu
IAEA Scientific ForumVienna, AustriaSeptember 30th - October 2nd 2008
1. INTRODUCTION1.1 The Primary Role of the IAEA To encourage and assist research, development and practical applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes throughout the world. Over the years, however, the Agencys orientation and emphasis on non-proliferation of nuclear arms has led to a worrisome situation, wherein, from being a positive, creative force, the Agency is in danger of being looked upon as a police body that denies the acquisition of nuclear science and technology by the poor nations for peaceful purposes. The IAEA must appreciate its unique position as the only international organization, with the mandate to globally promote the widest possible participation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
1. INTRODUCTION1.2 Commission of Eminent Personsa) Assumes:No nuclear terrorism;No nuclear accidents; No nuclear proliferation;
1. INTRODUCTION1.2 Commission of Eminent Personsb) Recommends:A Safe and Secure Expansion of Nuclear EnergyEnhanced Contribution of Nuclear Applications to Human Well-beingSubstantive and Rapid Progress in Nuclear DisarmamentA stronger IAEAStrong Global Nuclear Partnerships
1. INTRODUCTION1.3 Millennium Development Goals: Addressing Worldwide Poverty Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger;Achieving Universal Primary Education;Promoting Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women;Reducing Child Mortality;Improving Maternal Health;Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases;Ensuring Environmental Sustainability; andDeveloping Global Partnerships for Development.
1. INTRODUCTION 1.4 For the purpose of this paper the MDGs may be grouped into five Clusters of Development Needs:Energy for Sustainable DevelopmentEradicating Hunger and PovertyEnvironmental SustainabilityCombating HIV/AIDS and MALARIA Global Partnerships
1. Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication 2. Eradicating Hunger 3. Environmental Sustainability 4. Combating HIV/AIDS and MALARIA 5. Global Partnership for Development Needs
FIGURE 1: WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY DEMANDSource: International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2007
FIGURE 2: GREEN HOUSE GAS EMMISSIONSGreen House Gas Emissions from Different Electricity Generation ChainsSource: IAEA Expert Meeting 2005
2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER2.1 Food Production Treatment and PreservationGoal No.1 of the MDG addresses itself to eradication of Poverty and Hunger. Nuclear Energy and Technologies can be used in removing hunger through:Improving the efficiency and sustainability of land and water management; Breeding new crops with special qualitiesAdaptation to marginal environments; Improving animal production and health; Controlling insects that are major pests of plants and livestock;
2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER2.1 Food Production Treatment and Preservation Using Ionizing radiation as an alternative to chemicals in the treatment and preservation of foods; Agricultural Tracers and Plant Mutation to optimize the use of fertilizers and weed killing chemicals; and Facilitating international trade.
2. ERADICATING POVERTY AND HUNGER2.2 Livestock Development and Insect Pests Control
Insects destroy about 10% of the worlds crops and infect livestock with debilitating diseases.Successful application of the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) in Zanzibar Tanzania.Supporting the initiative of the African Union (AU) to carry out and co-ordinate the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC).Replication of SIT in Malaria control and eradication campaigns.R&D should be carried out to assess the viability of the technique in dealing with other pest insects such as locusts, mosquitoes, etc.
2. ERADICATING HUNGER AND POVERTY2.3 Livestock Development and Insect Pests ControlPoor quality livestock(cattle) in Africa caused by diseases transmitted by vectors such as tsetse flies.Control/Removal of such pests could lead to improved quality livestock, higher productivity and added national incomesNational Master Plans and Budgets in affected regions should reflect seriousness in allocating enough funds to step up efforts in the control and eradication of epizootics through the SIT.
2.ERADICATING HUNGER AND POVERTY2.3 Livestock Development and Insect Pests ControlSupport the objectives of the Pan-African Programme for the Control and Eradication of major epizootics (PACE).Use of Isotopic methods to monitor reproductive status, leading to better breeding management.Develop regional capability for production and distribution of critical diagnostic and treatment kits.
3. COMBATING HIV/AIDS AND MALARIA3.1Reversing The Spread of HIV/AIDSMore than 40 million people live with HIV/AIDS worldwideThe use of stable isotope techniques, can assist in the development and evaluation of nutritional interventions and their impact on HIV/AIDS patients. Isotopes used for development of new vaccines and diagnostic reagentsAn effective vaccine against HIV offers the best long-term approach to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic.Unfortunately, the development of an effective vaccine is complicated by the large differences between strains.Need for closer collaboration between traditional medicine and modern medicine.
3. COMBATING HIV/AIDS AND MALARIA3.2 Intensifying The Fight Against MalariaMalaria affects 300-500 million people a year worldwideMalaria causes about 2million deaths per year world wide 90% occur in Sub Saharan Africa90% are children under fiveHeavy Economic impact on Poor EconomiesNuclear Techniques and Strategies to Control MalariaMonitoring drug resistanceReduction of Mosquito Populations by the SIT methodProduction of anti Malaria Vaccine and Radiopharmaceutical drugs
4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY4.1 Global Environmental IssuesTo integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources;To reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss;To halve, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015; and To have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020.
4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY4.2 Water Resources and Ecosystem Sustainability 4.2.1 Water Resources ManagementTransboundary Water Resources Management.Need for Regional and Basin wise co-operation in Shared Water Resources. Contribution of isotope hydrology techniques in addressing practical problems related to water resource management in shared aquifers.
4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY4.2WaterResources and Ecosystem Sustainability 4.2.2 Isotopic HydrologyAssessment of Groundwater Resources using isotopes to determine aquifer dynamics and water resources management;The IAEA and NBI project to integrate the Nile River Basin groundwater and surface water management for Sustainable development and equitable use Nubian Sandstone Aquifer; North Western Sahara Aquifer. Tanzanias Integrated Ground Water and Surface Water Management Project
4. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY4.2.3 Environmental Monitoring All substances that exist are likely to have radioactive atoms in them occurring naturally. The labeling property of radioisotopes allows them to be used in a wide range of environmental assessment techniques.4.2.4 Geology and Element IdentificationRadioactivity is used to identify the location of deposits of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The intensity of detected radiation also is an indication of the amount of uranium that may be located there.
5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY5.1 Non-destructive testingMaintenance is a vital part of industry. The checking for cracks can be done using the radiation emitted by radioisotopes. Using radioisotopes to check for cracks can be accomplished with a technique called gamma radiography.
5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY5.2 Measurements and Industrial AnalysisRadioisotopes are commonly used for measuring viscosity, density and thickness in conditions where other methods would be difficult or impossible to apply. Since radiation does not require direct contact (unlike, for example, using a scale or tape-measure) it is used where high heat or corrosive chemicals may exist.
5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY5.3 Other UsesDetermining the nature and extent of termite infestation in buildings;Measurement of Water age;Measuring environmental impact of mining;Sterilization;Soil erosion monitoring;Monitoring and measuring coastal erosion;
5. SOME INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY5.3 Other UsesChecking of aircraft welding faults;Sewage and sources of water pollution; Monitoring of sand movements in ocean floors and river beds; Blast furnace efficiency; and Sand age measurement.
6. DEVELOPING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS 6.1 Multinational Fuel Banks and Nuclear Waste disposal SitesMultinational Fuel Banks IAEAs Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycle Project(INPRO)Multinational Disposal Sites (MDS)Multilateral Nuclear Trade Agreements
6. DEVELOPING GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS 6.2 Multinational Nuclear Reactors and Research Institutes: Multilateral Joint Projects/VenturesMultinational Nuclear Power Plants/ Reactors/Laboratorie
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