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Dr. Rachel Sarah O’Toole University of California, Irvine History Department

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  • Dr. Rachel Sarah OToole

    University of California, Irvine

    History Department

  • California Content Standards7.11 Students analyze political and economic changes in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).7.11.2 Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continents.AP World Period 4: Global Interactions, c. 1450 to c. 1750 D. The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples.

  • Atlantic World

  • Got Citizenship?Slavery & Freedom in the (Latin) Americas

  • Transatlantic Slave Tradehttp://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessment/intro-maps/01.jsp



  • Reading Literacy StandardsKey Details and Ideas:1. Read closely to determine what the text says and to make logical inference from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.2. Determine central idea or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

  • First book of the documents, letters, provisions, and royal orders, that in different times were dispatched for the government of the West Indies [1622]

    Twelfth law, that the Indians be reduced to political life, and congregated towns

    ....our subjects be instructed in the things of our holy faith, Christian policing, they should multiply, and be maintained in justice, forgetting the errors of their ancient rites, and ceremonies, and communicate better one with others, that one knows, that they do not lack skill, and reason for this......that the said Indians congregate themselves and reduce themselves to towns, and not live scattered about, and dispersed throughout the mountains and woods, living like beasts, and adoring their idols....

  • Cavazzis Dom Garcia (1641-1661), King of Kongo

  • Negros bozales de Guinea (Viceroy Amat, 1761-1776) = a casta painting

  • Funeral of a Mozambique Woman (cofradia or religious brotherhood) (Debret, Brazil, 1834)

  • San Martin de Porres (donado)

  • Reading Literacy StandardsIntegration of knowledge and ideas9. Analyze how two or more text address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors takes.

  • (1599) by Andres Sanchez Galque "Los Mulatos de Esmeraldas

  • ADL. Protocolos. Cortijo Quero. Leg. 124, #80 "Carta de libertad" (1714), f. 168v."...this letter of freedom and liberty see that I the Major Sergeant don Valentin del Risco y Montejo "vecino" of Trujillo...swear that I give a freedom and liberty letter to my "negra" my slave named Cathalina del Risco "criolla" of Panama who is 36 years old and among the rest of the slaves of my estate Chiquitoy who I bought with the said estate from Captain don Valentin del Risco y Valverde my father....450 pesos has been given and paid to me by the hand of a person who wished to do this good deed..."

  • Reading Literacy StandardsCraft and Structure:6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

  • ADL. Protocolos. Cortijo Quero. Leg. 124, #81. Carta de deudo. (1714), ff. 170v, 171....this letter of debt and obligation see that I Cathalina del Risco free "morena" in virture of the letter of freedom and liberty that yesterday the 14th of this month and before the present notary [authorized] in my favor and for 450 pesos and the rest of the costs of it gave and swore by public record the Major Sargent don Valentin del Risco y Montejo that I ....owe and am obligated to pay...don Thomas de Valverde y Escobar "vecino" of Trujillo...470 pesos that he gave and lent to me...to help me with my freedom....and I paid to my owner....with the condition that until I entirely pay the debt I cannot be absent from this jurisdiction...Trujillo 15 April 1714

  • ADL. Protocolos. Cortijo Quero. Leg. 103, #154 "Carta de libertad" (1687), f. 268....letter of freedom... see that I, Luis Pestani "vecino" of Trujillo say that I have a slave "negra" named Francisca Solano, "criolla" of the city of Sana who must be more than 40 years old and who I purchased in Sana from Lic. Francisco Gallando, clerica, notarized on the 26 of October of 1666 before Simon Suares notary...the said "negra" for having served me with much love care and will for many years....I give her freedom and because regardless of which she will continue to serve me with the most special loyalty and pleasing courtesy...regardless if I am well or sick...helping me with my maintenance...I swear that I free the said "negra" Franciscao Solano...Trujillo 17 june 1687

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