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ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ...

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF ZOOLOGY AND HYDROECOLOGY INSTITUTE OF HYDROECOLOGY AND ICHTHYOLOGY GEVORGYAN GOR ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET RIVERS (ARMENIA) BY THE HYDROCHEMICAL AND HYDROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
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Page 1: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIASCIENTIFIC CENTER OF ZOOLOGY AND HYDROECOLOGY

INSTITUTE OF HYDROECOLOGY AND ICHTHYOLOGY

GEVORGYAN GOR

ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET RIVERS (ARMENIA) BY THE HYDROCHEMICAL AND

HYDROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

Page 2: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Geographical map of the Republic of Armenia

Page 3: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

GOAL AND ISSUES OF STUDY

The aim of the present work was to study and evaluate thecurrent ecological situation of the Voghchi and Meghriget riversand to reveal the main sources of the pollution of the rivers.

According to the aforementioned goal, the following issueswere posed:

• To carry out the monitoring studies of some physicochemical andhydrobiological parameters of the Voghchi and Meghrigetrivers.

• To reveal the main sources of the pollution of thehydroecosystems.

• To evaluate the ecological situation of the rivers according to thestudied water quality parameters.

Page 4: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Schematic map of the selected sampling sites in thethe Voghchi and Meghriget rivers

- Residential area- Sampling site

Selected sampling sites in the Voghchi and Meghrigetrivers

1. Voghchi – 1.7 km before Qajaran town2. Voghchi – 1.7 km after Qajaran town3. Voghchi – 0.8 km before Kapan town4. Voghchi – 6.8 km after Kapan town

1. Meghriget - 0.5 km before Meghri town2. Meghriget – river mouth

OBJECT OF SYUDY

Page 5: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

STUDY METHODS

• Temeperature, pH, dissolved oxygen content and oxygen saturationwere determined by the WTW multi-parameter field meter.

• As a determination index of organic matter content in water, thevalues of permanganate oxidation index measured by the Kubelmethod were used.

• The quantitative analysis of bacterioplankton were carried out bythe “RIDA COUNT” series ready-made culture chromogenicmedium sheets.

Page 6: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

pH values in the Voghchi river waters

The classification of the waters of the rivers according to the pH value

Meghriget – water with neutral, weak alkaline and alkaline reactions

Voghchi – water with neutral, weak alkaline and alkaline reactions

Season Sampling site1 2 3 4

2008Spring 8.12 7.98 8.17 8.26

Summer 8.01 8.39 8.43 8.01Fall 7.15 8.76 8.5 8.08

Winter 7.35 8 7.91 8.332009

Spring 8.31 8.23 8.26 8.02Summer 7.92 8.02 7.74 7.8

Fall 7.04 8.04 8.1 7.97Winter 8.18 7.89 8.55 8.27

Season Sampling site1 2

2008Spring 7.92 8.08

Summer 7.90 8.34Fall 7.73 8.12

Winter 7.69 8.182009

Spring 7.98 8.33Summer 7.58 7.48

Fall 7.21 8.81Winter 8.08 8.20

NORM pH = 6.5-8.5

pH values in the Meghriget river waters

Page 7: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

7.7

7.8

7.9

8.0

8.1

8.2

8.3

Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ

PH2008թ.

Spring Summer Fall Winter

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.0

8.2

8.4

Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ

PH

2008թ.

Seasonal dynamics of pH average seasonal values in the Voghchi river waters

Spring Summer Fall Winter

Seasonal dynamics of pH average seasonal values in the Meghriget river waters

Page 8: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

0

5

10

15

Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ

2008թ. 2009թ.

Spring

Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content average seasonal values in the Meghriget river waters

Summer Fall Winter

0

5

10

15

Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ

2008թ. 2009թ.

Spring Summer Fall Winter

Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content average seasonal values in the Voghchi river waters

Page 9: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Oxygen saturation in the Voghchi river waters (%)Oxygen saturation in the Meghriget river

waters (%)

Season Sampling site1 2 3 4

2008Spring 76.0 80.0 82.0 94.0

Summer 77.7 88.8 97.6 85.0Fall 134.5 120.1 120.6 108.3

Winter 104.1 84.5 96.3 116.12009 թ.

Spring 97.4 100.6 98.7 118.7Summer 80.4 79.4 81.0 73.9

Fall 92.4 89.6 96.3 87.0Winter 85.4 71.3 91.8 93.4

SeasonSampling site

1 22008

Spring 86.0 86.0Summer 87.4 106.6

Fall 108.7 107.1Winter 91.6 92.7

2009Spring 107.1 108.2

Summer 86.2 95.7Fall 86.7 99.7

Winter 76.9 86.7

Page 10: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Dynamics of the average annual values of oxygen content and temperature in the Voghchi river watersaccording to flow

Dynamics of the average annual values of oxygen content and temperature in the Meghriget river watersaccording to flow

5.06.07.08.09.010.011.0

12.013.014.015.0

1 2 3 4

Sampling sites

2008թ. (մգ/լ)2009թ. (մգ/լ)2008թ. ( C)

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

15.0

1 2

Sampling sites

2008թ. (մգ/լ)

2009թ. (մգ/լ)2008թ. ( C)

(mg/l)

(mg/l)

(mg/l)

(mg/l)

Page 11: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Dynamics of the average annual values of oxygen content and organic matter content in the Voghchiriver waters according to flow

Dynamics of the average annual values of oxygen content and organic matter content in the Meghrigetriver waters according to flow

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

1 2 3 4

Sampling sites

2008թ. (O2)2009թ. (O2)2008թ. (մգO/լ)2009թ. (մգO/լ)

(O2

)

(O2

)

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

1 2

Sampling sites

2008թ. (O2)2009թ. (O2)2008թ. (մգO/լ)2009թ. (մգO/լ)

(O2

)

(O2

)

(mgO/l)

(mgO/l)

(mgO/l)

(mgO/l)

Page 12: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Maximum permissible concentrationMPC = 2 - 5մգO/լ

SeasonSampling site

1 2 3 42008

Spring 0.19 0.93 1.30 2.03Summer 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.49

Fall 0.02 6.71 1.07 2.05Winter 2.59 8.96 0.59 0.13

2009Spring 1.74 1.22 0.93 1.30

Summer 0.37 0.37 0.22 0.74Fall 1.41 1.48 0.37 1.86

Winter 0.13 3.51 0.2 0.06

SeasonSampling site

1 22008

Spring 1.15 1.44Summer 0.34 0.56

Fall 1.07 0.77Winter 3.97 0.59

2009Spring 1.44 1.88

Summer 0.22 0.37Fall 0.44 0.22

Winter 2.65 0.34

Permanganate oxidation values in the Voghchi river waters

Permanganate oxidation values in the Meghriget river waters

Page 13: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Dynamics of the average annual values of permanganate oxidation index according to the Voghchi riverflow (mgO/l)

Dynamics of the average annual values of permanganate oxidation index according to the Meghrigetriver flow (mgO/l)

0

0.75

1.5

2.25

3

3.75

1 2 3 4

0.75

4.2

0.79

1.17

0.91

1.65

0.43

0.99

Sampling sites

2008թ.

00.250.50.75

11.251.51.75

1 2

1.63

0.84

1.19

0.7

Sampling sites

2008թ.

Page 14: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Classification of the waters of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers according to permanganate oxidation values

1. Voghchi river (1.7 km before Qajaran town) - very pure – moderate polluted

2. Voghchi river (1.7 km after Qajaran town) - very pure – dirty

3. Voghchi river (0.8 km before Kapan town) - very pure

4. Voghchi river (6.8 km after Kapan town) - very pure - pure

1. Meghriget river (0.5 km before Meghri town) - very pure - polluted

2. Meghriget river (delta, after Meghri town) - very pure - pure

Page 15: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

1 2 3 4

93,500

168,

750

187,

500

600,000

80,500

222,500

156,250

6,000,000

Cel

l/m

l

Sampling sites

2008թ.

1 2

875000

750000

650000

550000

Cel

l/m

l

Sampling sites

2008թ.

Bacteria average annual quantity in the Voghchi river waters according to flow

Bacteria average annual quantity in the Meghriget river waters according to flow

Page 16: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

Classification of the waters of the Voghchi and Meghriget rivers according to the total number of bacteria

1. Voghchi river (1.7 km before Qajaran town) - very pure2. Voghchi river (1.7 km after Qajaran town) - very pure3. Voghchi river (0.8 km before Kapan town) - very pure4. Voghchi river (6.8 km after Kapan town) - very pure - dirty

1. Meghriget river (0.5 km before Meghri town) - very pure – moderate polluted2. Meghriget river (delta, after Meghri town) - very pure – moderate polluted

Evaluation of the situation of the hydroecosystems according to the ecological modification scale

Voghchi and Meghriget rivers - background situation - hydroecosystems werecapable of self-recovery without significant changes in species compositions

Page 17: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

CONCLUSIONS

1. pH values and dissolved oxygen content varied within the ranges which arefavorable for the growth of the most hydrobionts.

2. According to the permanganate oxidation values, the water quality of the Voghchiriver ranged from very pure to dirty, the water quality of the Meghriget riverranged from very pure to polluted.

3. The high contents of organic matters in the Voghchi river waters were mainlyconditioned by industrial and domestic wastewaters and in the Meghriget riverwaters were mainly conditioned by agricultural wastewaters.

4. According to the total number of bacteria, the pollution level of the Voghchi riverwaters ranged from very pure to dirty and the Meghriget river waters ranged fromvery pure to moderate polluted.

5. The evaluation of the situaton of ecosystems, according to the ecologicalmodification scale (according to the bakterioplankton growth parameters),revealed that the hydroecosystems were in the background situation which meansthe ecosystems were capable of self-recovery without significant changes inspecies compositions.

Page 18: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

SUGGESTIONS

To rebuild the existing biological water cleaning stationsand build new stations.

To implement the recovery of sewerage systems andtechnical re-equipment, staff trainings.

To build manure collection systems.

Page 19: ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE VOGHCHI AND MEGHRIGET …s Presenta… · Գարուն Ամառ Աշուն Ձմեռ 2008թ. 2009թ. Spring Seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen content

THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION


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