Name: ________________________________________________________________________________ Ecology Part 2 ~ NJBCT ~ End of Year Populations, Biodiversity, and Conservation Date Classwork Homework Thursday 5/8 Notes Chapter 4 (Population Ecology) Read and answer Questions to Ch. 4.1 Friday 5/9 Finish Notes Chapter 4 (Population Ecology) Read and answer Questions to Ch. 4.2 Monday 5/12 Notes Chapter 5 (Biodiversity and Conservation) Handout NJBCT Study Guide Read and answer Questions to Ch. 5.1 and 5.2 Tuesday 5/13 Finish Notes Chapter 5 (Biodiversity and Conservation) Read and answer Questions to Ch. 5.3 Wednesday 5/14 Practice NJBCT Work on NJBCT Study Guide Thursday 5/15 Go over Practice NJBCT Questions on NJBCT Study Guide Work on NJBCT Study Guide Friday 5/16 In-class time to work on NJBCT Study Guide Work on NJBCT Study Guide Monday 5/19 Go over NJBCT Study Guide Study for NJBCT Tuesday 5/20 NJBCT Day 1 Cane Toad Video Carbon Footprint Assignment in Packet Wednesday 5/21 NJBCT Day 2 Cane Toad Video Pass out Study Guide Ecology Part II Readings: Shifting Baselines and Predators as Key Players - Reading and Questions Thursday 5/22 Prom – ½ Day Finish Cane Toad Video and go over questions Start Lessons of Kaibab Activity Enjoy Prom! Friday 5/23 Finish Lessons of Kaibab Activity Random Sampling Activity Study for test Tuesday 5/27 Finish Friday’s Activities, if needed Review Day – go over Study Guide questions Packet due tomorrow Wednesday 5/28 Test Thursday 5/29 Introduce and Work on Final Projects Final Projects due Wednesday 6/4/14 Friday 5/30 Work on Final Projects Pass out Final Exam Study Guide Final Projects due Wednesday 6/4/14 Monday 6/2 - Tuesday 6/3 Owl Pellet Dissection, Day 1 and Day 2 Work on Final Projects Work on Final Exam Study Guide Wednesday 6/4 – Friday 6/6 Final Project Presentations Friday – if time, review for final exam Study for Final Exam Rubric: Grade Possible Points Your Points Ch 4-5 Notes 40 Reading Questions 50 Cane Toa Video Guide 20 Carbon Footprint 20 Predators as Key Players 20 Shifting Baselines 20 Lessons of the Kaibab 20 Grade:
Cane Toad Video Guide Be sure you have the following information in your video notes (if not, add it):
1. What organism attacked the sugar cane crop in Australia in the 1930’s? _________________________
2. The cane toads were brought from ______________________________________________________.
3. How many toads were originally brought to Australia? ________________________________________
4. Into which river were the first toads released? ______________________________________________
5. Considering a map of Australia, where were the first toads released? ____________________________
6. What is amplexus? ___________________________________________________________________
7. How many eggs does a female cane toad produce? _________________________________________
8. How many eggs per frog need to survive to adulthood in order to maintain a stable population? ______
9. In 1945, what finally rid the region of the sugar cane beetle grub? ______________________________
10. Where are the cane toad’s venom glands? ________________________________________________
11. What type of molecule is the cane toad venom? ____________________________________________
12. What part of the human body does cane toad venom affect? __________________________________
13. How did some crazy humans use the cane toad venom in dried form? ___________________________
14. Why did some cane toads become cannibalistic? ___________________________________________
15. Explain this term: Bufo marinus : ________________________________________________________
16. Cane toads are native to _______________________________ and __________________________.
17. In their native land, cane toads (like many populations) are kept in check by two things… what are they?
18. Give two other impressions you had from the video and/or what lesson is learned from this video:
Carbon Footprint Activity Go to: http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/ Calculate your carbon footprint. My Carbon Footprint MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE UNITS US Person Average Person MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE UNITS Calculate your family’s carbon footprint. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE UNITS What can you do to reduce your carbon footprint? _______________________________________________________________________________________
Predators as Key Players 1. Where is Mike Heithaus studying sharks? 2. What is a dugong? 3. Explain what Mike Heithaus wants to learn? 4. What is an apex predator? Give an example? 5. What is a keystone predator? Give an example 6. What happens in you remove a keystone species from the population? Give an example. 7. What would happen if you lost the sea grasses in Shark Bay? 8. How did they look at who lives in the banks? 9. Why didn’t other dolphins feed in the best feeding areas? 10. Explain the difference between the two sea grasses?
Shifting Baselines Reading 1. What is a shifting baseline? Give an example. 2. What happened to salmon between present day, the 1930’s and the 1800’s? 3. What part of California’s Marine Protection act is Controversial? What’s your opinion? 4. Give two examples from the reading that show how the ocean is in decline?
Lessons of the Kaibab
Introduction: The environment may be altered by forces within the biotic community, as well as by relationships between organisms and the physical environment. The carrying capacity of an ecosystem is the maximum number of organisms that an area can support on a sustained basis. The density of a population may produce such profound changes in the environment that the environment becomes unsuitable for the survival of that species. For instance, overgrazing of land may make the land unable to support the grazing of animals that lived there. Objectives:
• Graph data on the Kaibab deer population of Arizona from 1905 to 1939 • Determine factors responsible for the changing populations • Determine the carrying capacity of the Kaibab Plateau
Background: Before 1905, the deer on the Kaibab Plateau were estimated to number about 4000. The average carrying capacity of the range was then estimated to be about 30,000 deer. On November 28th, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon National Game Preserve to protect the "finest deer herd in America." Unfortunately, by this time the Kaibab forest area had already been overgrazed by sheep, cattle, and horses. Most of the tall grasses had been eliminated. The first step to protect the deer was to ban all hunting. In addition, in 1907, The Forest Service tried to exterminate the predators of the deer. Between 1907 and 1939, 816 mountain lions, 20 wolves, 7388 coyotes and more than 500 bobcats were killed. Signs that the deer population was out of control began to appear as early as 1920 - the range was beginning to deteriorate rapidly. The Forest Service reduced the number of livestock grazing permits. By 1923, the deer were reported to be on the verge of starvation and the range conditions were described as "deplorable." The Kaibab Deer Investigating Committee recommended that all livestock not owned by local residents be removed immediately from the range and that the number of deer be cut in half as quickly as possible. Hunting was reopened, and during the fall of 1924, 675 deer were killed by hunters. However, these deer represented only one-tenth the number of deer that had been born that spring. Over the next two winters, it is estimated that 60,000 deer starved to death. Today, the Arizona Game Commission carefully manages the Kaibab area with regulations geared to specific local needs. Hunting permits are issued to keep the deer in balance with their range. Predators are protected to help keep herds in balance with food supplies. Tragic winter losses can be checked by keeping the number of deer near the carrying capacity of the range.
Data: 1. Graph the deer population data. Place time on the X axis and "number of deer" on the Y axis
DATA TABLE 1905-1939
Year Population Year Population Year Population
1905 4,000 1925 60,000 1930 25,000
1910 9,000 1926 40,000 1931 20,000
1915 25,000 1927 37,000 1935 18,000
1920 65,000 1928 35,000 1939 10,000
1924 100,000 1929 30,000
Analysis: 1. During 1906 and 1907, what two methods did the Forest Service use to protect the Kaibab deer?
2. Were these methods successful? Use the data from your graph to support your answer.
3. Why do you suppose the population of deer declined in 1925, although the eliminated of predators occurred?
4. Why do you think the deer population size in 1900 was 4,000 when it is estimated that the plateau has a carrying capacity of 30,000?
5. Why did the deer population decline after 1924?
6. Based on these lessons, suggest what YOU would have done in the following years to manage deer herds.
7. It is a criticism of many population ecologists that the pattern of population increase and subsequent crash of the deer population would have occurred even if the bounty had not been placed on the predators. Do you agree or disagree with this statement. Explain your reasoning.
8. What future management plans would you suggest for the Kaibab deer herd?
Random Sampling Activity
Scientists cannot possibly count every organism in a population. One way to estimate the size of a population is to collect data by taking random samples. If you survey every person or a whole set of units in a population you are taking a census. However, this method is often impracticable; as it’s often very costly in terms of time and money. For example, a survey that asks complicated questions may need to use trained interviewers to ensure questions are understood. This may be too expensive if every person in the population is to be included. Sometimes taking a census can be impossible. For example, a car manufacturer might want to test the strength of cars being produced. Obviously, each car could not be crash tested to determine its strength! To overcome these problems, samples are taken from populations, and estimates made about the total population based on information derived from the sample. A sample must be large enough to give a good representation of the population, but small enough to be manageable. Data obtained by random sampling can be compared to data obtained by actual counts. By comparing data from random sampling to the actual count, you can compute the percentage error to determine the accuracy of the random sampling. Objective
The size of a population can be determined using the random sampling method.
1. Tear a sheet of paper into 20 slips, each approximately 4cm x 4 cm.
2. Number 10 of the slips from 1 to 10 and put them in an envelope.
3. Label the remaining 10 slips from A through J and put them in a second envelope.
4. Use the grid below for you random and actual counts. The grid represents a meadow measuring 10 meters on each side. Each grid segment is 1m x 1m. Each black circle represents one sunflower plant.
5. Randomly remove one slip from each envelope. Write down the number-letter combination and find the grid segment that matches the combination. Count the number of sunflower plants in that grid segment. Record this number on Data table 1. Return each slip to its appropriate envelop.
6. Repeat step 5 until you have data for 10 different grid segments (and the table is filled out). These 10 grid segments represent a sample. Gathering data from a randomly selected sample of a larger area is called sampling.
7. Find the total number of sunflower plants for the 10 segment sample. This is an estimation based on a formula. Add all the grid segment sunflowers together and divide by ten to get an AVERAGE number of sunflower plants per grid segment. Record this number in the table. Multiple the average number of sunflower plants by 100 (this is the total number of grid segments) to find the total number of plants in the meadow based on your sample. Record this number in Data Table 1.
8. Now count all the sunflower plants actually shown in the meadow. Record this number in Data Table 2. Divide this figure by 100 to calculate the average number of sunflower plants per each grid.
Random Sampling Data Grid Segment
Total # of Sunflowers:
Average Per Grid: (divide by 10)
Total # of plants in meadow: multiply average by 100
Total number of Sunflowers
(count by hand)
Average number of Sunflowers
(divide total by 100) Per grid
1. Compare the total number you got for sunflowers from the SAMPLING to the ACTUAL count. How close are they?
2. Why was the paper-slip method used to select the grid segments?
3. Why do biologists use Sampling? Why can’t they just go into the forest and count all the sunflower plants?
4. Population Sampling is usually more effective when the population has an even dispersion pattern. Clumped dispersion patterns are the least effective. Explain why this would be the case.
5. Describe how you would use Sampling to determine the population of dandelions in your yard.
6. In a forest that measures 5 miles by 5 miles, a sample was taken to count the number of silver maple trees in the forest. The number of trees counted in the grid is shown below. The grids where the survey was taken were chosen randomly. Determine how many silver maple trees are in this forest using the random sampling technique. Show your work!