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Economic Geography Urban and Rural Geography Political Geography.

Date post: 29-Dec-2015
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Human Systems Economic Geography Urban and Rural Geography Political Geography

Human Systems

Human SystemsEconomic GeographyUrban and Rural GeographyPolitical GeographyEconomic Activities

Four TypesPrimary ActivitiesUse natural resources directly (at site)Ex: wheat farming, ironSecondary ActivitiesUse raw materials to manufacture somethingClose to resourceEx: manufacturing steelTertiary Activitiesprovide services to people and businesses (near customer)Ex: Car Dealer, BakeriesQuaternary ActivitiesProcess and distribute information (anywhere)Ex: research, engineering

Economic Systems3 types of economic systemsSubsistence EconomyMarket EconomyCommand Economy

Subsistence EconomyPeople make goods for themselves and familyLittle surplus/exchange = limited marketsFound in poor countriesEx: Africa, S.E. Asia

Market Economy

People Freely Choose what to buy and sellFree enterprise = competitionCapitalismFound in rich countriesEx: USA, EuropeCommand EconomyGovernment makes all major economic decisionsCommunism = system in which government owns almost all means of productionEx: Cuba, North Korea, China

Economic Patters, Resources, and TechnologyThe creation and distribution of resources affect the locations of economic activitiesThe need for a resource draws business and workers where it is foundBusiness must find ways to ship productsEX: Gold Rush of CA. San Francisco growsChanges in technology, transportation, and communication also affect location and patterns of economic activitiesRefrigerated box cars, increase marketInternetLevel of DevelopmentDevelopment refers to steady improvements in a countrys economy in peoples quality of life.Economic progress varies greatly among different countries and within countries.We use a variety of tools and statistics to figure out level of development

Dubai 1990 and 2009Measures of Development

Gross National Product (GNP)Total value of goods and services a country produces in a yearIncludes all foreign owned industryGross Domestic Product (GDP)All goods and services produced within a countryIndustrializationProcess by which manufacturing based on machine power becomes widespread in an areaOther measuresTelephone use, internet access, energy use, and transportationStandard of LivingLevel of development is directly related to standard of livingMeasured by factors such as income levels, education, literacy rate, food consumption, health care, technology level, and life expectancyLiteracy rate % of people who can read and write.

Greg Mortenson in AfghanistanDeveloped vs. Developing

Developed: rich countries with high levels of industrialization and high standard of livingLess than 25% of worlds population live in developed countriesUSA, Europe, JapanDeveloping: less productive economically, low standard of livingAfrica, Asia, Central & South America

Developing Nations

Developed Nations

Between the twoMiddle-Income Countries: have features of both developed and developing. Cities are modern, rural areas very poor.Ex: Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, Argentina

Middle Income- Struggle with Poverty

GDP per capita is a good indicator for level of development. It is the total GDP divided by total population

Characteristics of DevelopmentInfrastructure: a system of roads, ports, and other facilities needed by a modern economy.Developed: low birth rates, low death rates, high literacy rates, high per capita GDPDeveloping are going to be opposite

Urban GeographyFirst cities appeared in SW Asia more than 5,000 years agoMade possible through domestication, sustain life off farmUrbanization: growth of people living in citiesCultural diffusion increases75% of developed world lives in citiesCities growing larger and faster

Urban Geography

Reasons cities growNear key resourcesFresh waterMineralsoilAlong transportation/trade routesRivers & portsEasily defendable sitesHilltops, islandsJerusalem, Paris (Seine)

Rural GeographyRural areas are found outside of cities, agriculture is the key economic activitySubsistence agriculture: most practiced form of agriculture in the world. Food produced by a family for its own needs. Anything extra is used to barter or sell for other needed goods.Shifting agriculture clear trees and brush for farming, slash and burn farmingPastoralism herding animals, can represent wealth and prestige.Rural GeographyMarket oriented AgricultureCommercial agricultureFound in developed countriesVery productiveAgribusiness: operation of specialized commercial farms for more efficiency and profits

Political Geography195 countries in the world each with its own independent government and political systemCountries interact with each other in peace, this is called diplomacy. They also interact through trade agreements and international organizations.United Nations and World Trade OrganizationExample of international organization that helps countries interactUnited NationsPolitical and military cooperation are developed in the United Nations (UN)Nearly all countries are membersMain goal is to settle disputes between countries and prevent warsSolve global problems such as disease, hunger, and illiteracy

Cultural Beliefs and GovernmentCan affect how governments are set up and operate.Religious holidaysInfluence decisions and policyIsrael: Religion drives policyIran

Geographic BoundariesThree types of boundaries separate countries from each otherNatural boundariesCultural boundariesGeometric boundaries

Natural Boundaries

Mountains are good natural boundariesDifficult to cross and are permanent markersRivers can be troublesome boundariesMany rivers are shared transportation routesThey moveOther examples: deserts, lakes, and oceans

Cultural BoundariesThese are borders that are based on cultural traits, such as religion or languageReligion lines: India and Pakistan. Also IrelandLanguage lines: Portugal and Spain

Every day, a flag-lowering ceremony takes place at Wagah Border, which connects India and Pakistan Geometric Boundaries

Follow regular, geometric patterns, usually straight lines without regard to environmental or cultural patterns.Usually follow latitude and longitude lines45th parallel between USA and CanadaCan cause issues and conflictAfrica colonial footprintTypes of GovernmentsTotalitarianOne person, or a select few decide what is best for everyoneMonarchynationalismDemocraticAll citizens have a voice and decide who will govern