Economic opportunities of wetland rewetting and paludiculture Hans Joosten
Uni-Greifswald: Peatland Studies & Palaeo-ecologyInternational Mire Conservation GroupBelarus UNFCCC delegation
Reasons for rewettingFor the climateAgainst fire..Because of pumping costsFor social reasonsFascist demonstration in Amklam 31 July 2010
Rewetting of peatland is good for the climateMore climatic profit can even be made by using rewetted peatlands for biomass cultivationTo replace fossil fuels and fossil raw materials 500,000 km2 of degraded peatlands
PaludicultureDrainage of peatlands for conventional agriculture, forestry and peat extraction is responsible for 2 Gtons of CO2 emissions.Drained peatlands are increasingly used for the production of biofuels. This generally leads to (much) larger CO2-emissions from oxidizing peat soil than can be saved by replacing fossil fuels.
mais on destroyed peatland for biogasGermany
although biofuels from drained peatland produce 3 9 times more CO2 than burning coal
Paludiculture is agriculture on wet/rewetted peatlandsRoswarowo, Poland
PaludiculturePaludiculture is an innovative alternative to conventional drainage-based peatland agri- and silviculture Ideally the peatlands should be so wet that peat is conserved and peat accumulation is re-installed. Paludiculture uses that part of net primary production that is not necessary for peat formation (80-90% of NPP).
PaludicultureIn the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones, peat is generally formed by roots and rhizomes.Aboveground parts can be harvested without harming peat formation.
Biomass from wet peatlands in temperate Europe. Q* = quality demand : ++ = high. + = medium, 0 = low).
PaludiculturePaludicultures on rewetted drained peatlands contribute to climate change mitigation in two ways:by reducing GHG emissions from drained peatland soilsby replacing fossil resources by renewable biomass alternatives.
Example: common reedRewetting results in a GHG emission reduction of 15 t CO2-eqha-1a-1. The reed of 1 hectare can replace fossil fuels in a cogeneration plant that would otherwise emit 15 t CO2. Emissions from handling amount to 2 t CO2-eq ha-1.Using reed from paludiculture would thus avoid emissions of almost 30 t CO2-eqha-1a-1
Planting reed on drained peatland before rewetting
Reed cultivation on rewetted fens
Reed cultivation: Biomass nd peat accumulation
Roof reed: quality product
Reed (Phragmites australis) Productivity: 3 25 t DM/ha*aHarvest cycle: 1 - 2 yrPeat accumulation: ++/0
Alder cultivation on rewetted fens
Alder cultivation: biomass nd peat accumulation
Alder (Alnus glutinosa) Productivity: 3 10 t DM/ha*aHarvest cycle: 60-70 yrPeat accumulation: +/0
Harvesting of wet peatland biomasse in Poland
Briquetting of peatlandbiomasse in Poland
Nov 2004Mai 2004Aug 2006Aug 2005Peatmoss cultivation as peat alternative in horticulture
Peatmoss farming: avoids up to 50 ton CO2 ha-1 a-1: 20 by rewetting drained bogland + 25 by replacing fossil peat + 5 by avoiding international transport
Kalimantan: Jelutung on rewetted peat swampKalimantan
perspectives for purun
Most paludicultures can compete with normal drainage based agriculture. Substantial market distortion because of agricultural subventions (EU: paludiculture is no agriculture).Paludicultures do not compete with food production.Paludiculture is a cheap and effective way to reduce emissions
Paludiculture = paludi-future!!