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  • By Mithu AlurBy Mithu Alur

    Education of Education of Children and Young AdultsChildren and Young Adults

    People With Disabilities in India; Status, Challenges, and Prospects World Bank, New Delhi, November 2007

  • Content Content Part 1 begins by focusing firstly on the larger challenges concerning policy that we face, the institutional and existing structural barriers causing exclusionPart 2 moves onto the specific challenges concerning the programmes in of SSA, ECD, Teacher training, RCIPart 3 shares with you a Model that we have been able to work out in Mumbai Part 4 concludes with a few Key Recommendations

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    The Ministries as Barriers to Inclusion: Structural Fragmentation

    A well-known policy analyst suggests that policy is about what governments choose to do and what they choose not to do. Policy can also be failure

    to act or a deliberate decision not to act.

  • Children should not be segregatedChildren should not be segregated

    * 1944, 1948 Sargent Reports

    Institutionalized Barriers

  • Education of Children with Special Needs Education of Children with Special Needs moved from Ministry of Education to Ministry moved from Ministry of Education to Ministry of Welfareof Welfare

    * 1960

    Institutionalized Barriers

  • Need for re-vamping elementary education

    * 1964 Kothari Commission

    * 1986 Education Policy Review

    Institutionalized Barriers

  • The Ministry of Human Resource

    Development

    The Ministry of Human Resource

    Development

    NCERTNCERT

    NIEPANIEPA

    NIPCCDNIPCCD

    NCTENCTE

    DPEPDPEP

    ICDSICDS

    NationalNational

    Ministry of Human Resource DevelopmentMinistry of Human Resource Development

    IEDCIEDC**

    * * A policy of integrationA policy of integration

  • The Ministry of Social Justice and

    Empowerment

    The Ministry of Social Justice and

    Empowerment

    Street ChildrenStreet

    Children

    Scheduled Caste

    Scheduled CasteDisplaced Citizens

    Displaced Citizens

    Scheduled Tribe

    Scheduled Tribe

    Ministry of Social Justice and EmpowermentMinistry of Social Justice and Empowerment

    DisabledDisabled**

    * * A policy of assistance to voluntary A policy of assistance to voluntary organisationsorganisations

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    Lack of a Conceptual Framework: Policy Ambiguity

    The objectives of the Ministry of Welfare became to 'rehabilitate' rather than to 'educate'. This resulted in the absence of setting up the

    mechanism for implementation as there was no policy to educate.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    Dichotomy between policy and practice

    Today we find that although the Government continues its policy of integration on a parallel

    level, it has continued its segregationist policy of promoting the idea of special schools through the Ministrys Assistance to voluntary organisations

    schemes. This causes a dualism, a fragmentation a lack of cohesion an insitutionalised barrier

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    Teacher Training as a barrier: The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)-A

    Fractured Mandate

    The Social Justice Ministry also deals with teacher training through the mechanism of RCI. This is quite absurd. How

    can this be done when they do not have education on their agenda?

    The RCI, is responsible for special needs teacher training and the MHRD is responsible for general teacher training.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    Teacher Training as a barrier: The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)-A

    Fractured Mandate

    There is a structural fragmentation between the roles of MHRD and MOSJE which contributes to a lack of

    coherence and uniformity in the teacher training regime for inclusive education.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    Teacher Training as a barrier: The Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)-A

    Fractured Mandate

    The RCI is creating a cadre of people who are creating institutional barriers. Some amount of specialisation is

    required but the technical mystification being perpetuated is detrimental

    General teachers cannot just say we are not trained to deal with the education of disabled children

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    NGOS as Barriers to inclusive education

    a) Not a State Responsibility, an NGO Dependencyb) Special Education dominated by technique and mystique.c) Micro not macro contribution

    The voluntary sector has no doubt played a very active and vigorous role in introducing new concepts of education and services, but without continuous funding and good infrastructural support it has been grounded on a micro level.

    d) A lack of political lobby

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Institutionalized Barriers

    The Politics of Policy-makinga) Silence on the subject by international agencies and policy

    makers

    b) Conflict of Resources

    c) Exclusion on a Macro-scale

    The findings show that without a clear-cut policy directive from the top, a massive exclusion has been happening on the ground level. Disability issues are buried deep within the debris of a kind of institutionalized discrimination indicating a systemic failure.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Key Policy and System Requirements

    An Inclusive Definition is needed

    How does all this have a wider impact a ripple affect?

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Key Policy and System Requirements

    Take for example Jan ShikshanSansthan (JSS): disadvantaged groups of urban/rural

    population particularly neo-literates, semi-literates, SCs, STs, women and slum dwellers, migrants workers etc.

    People with disabilities are left out. They are not mentioned.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Moving from Policy to Practice

    Legislation The State shall promote, with special care, the

    education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular of the Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation

    THE DISABLED AS A GROUP WITHIN THE WEAKER SECTIONS ARE NOT MENTIONED AND HAVE CONSEQUENTLY BEEN LEFT OUT

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Key Policy and System Requirements

    Definition of any Target Group must have clarity and must ensure the group is included.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Key Policy and System Requirements

    To prevent exclusion from programmes and budgetary allocation, there should be a positive discrimination clause inserted which specifies including the disabled in all the schemes as well cross-referencing and cutting across all sectors would be needed in all documentation. This kind of cross-referencing would include and protect all groups of disadvantaged people in the country being run by the Government.

    Development of Education of SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, Girls and the Disabled and other Disadvantaged Groups

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    The 93rd Amendment of the Education Bill

    A positive statement has been made and the Amendment Clause states that 'all' means all children with disabilities as well.

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Part 2: Moving from Policy to Practice

    Institutional Barriers in the Programmes: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Enrolment and Attendance

    38 percent of CWD aged 6-13 are out of schools. Almost three quarters of children with severe disabilities (75%) are illiterate and do not attend school. Close to one third of children with mild disabilities (30%) are not in school.

    (Source: All India survey of out-of-school children in the 6-13 years age group commissioned by Ed . Cil. to Social and Rural Research Institute (A

    Specialist unit of IMRB International) in 2005)

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Illiteracy and primary attainment rates for all PWD, 2002

    Figure 4.1

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Severe Moderate Mild

    % o

    f dis

    abili

    ty c

    ateg

    ory,

    all

    ages

    IlliteratePrimary or less

    Source: NSS, 58th round

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    School attendance for PWD, 5-20, by age and area

    Figure 4.3

    0.0%

    10.0%

    20.0%

    30.0%

    40.0%

    50.0%

    60.0%

    70.0%

    80.0%

    5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

    Urban

    Rural

    Source: NSS, 58th round

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Spending share on inclusive education in SSA is low,

    at only 1 percent nationally.

    Source: NSS, 58th round

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    SSA expenditure execution on inclusive education is poor, nationally and in the

    poorest states

    Source: NSS, 58th round

  • The SpasticsSociety

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    Physical accessibility of schools

    The bulk of SSA schools are not accessible for CWD nearly all in some s