And Their Theories
Child Development Theory• Explains how
children develop:– Morally, socially,
cognitively, physically, emotionally
• And provides ways to apply this theory to practice
Erikson – 8 Stages of Man
InfantTrust vs Mistrust
ToddlerAutonomy vs Shame and Doubt
PreschoolerInitiative vs Guilt
School-Age ChildIndustry vs Inferiority
AdolescentIdentity vs Role Confusion
Young AdultIntimacy vs Isolation
Middle-Age AdultGenerativity vs Stagnation
Older AdultIntegrity vs Despair
Dealing with each crisis in a positive way results in normal development.
Parents & Caregivers must be sensitive to each child’s needs at each stage.
Individuals pass through different crisis at different ages.
Personality develops through a series of stages.
Emotional experiences in childhood profoundly effect adulthood.
Kohlberg, LawrenceLevel I Pre-conventional Morality
Stage 1 Punishment orientation - Rules are obeyed to avoid punishmentStage 2 Instrumental orientation or personal gain - Rules are obeyed for personal gain
Level II Conventional MoralityStage 3 “Good Boy” or “Good Girl” orientation - Rules are obeyed for approvalStage 4 Maintenance of the social order – Rules are obeyed to maintain the social order
Level III Post-conventional MoralityStage 5 Morality of contract and individual rights – Rules are obeyed if they are impartial; democratic rules are challenged if they infringe on the rights of othersStage 6 Morality of conscience – The individual establishes his or her own rules in accordance with a personal set of ethical principals
Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs
Humans naturally strive to satisfy needs. There are 5 levels of needs. Each must be satisfied before moving on to the next.
Piaget, JeanPiaget’s developmental stages of a child:0-2 years sensorimotor – motor development3 -7 years pre-operation – intuitive4-11 years concrete operational – logical, no
abstractions12-15 years formal operations – abstract
Children should be given learning tasks suitable for their age of thinking.
Piaget – Genetic Epistemology
Skinner – Learned Conditioning (Behaviorism)
Learning results in changes in behavior. • If an action repeatedly
brings a positive result, it will be repeated.
• If an action repeatedly brings a negative result, it will stop.
• Rewards & punishments may be used to influence behavior.
Montessori – Maria Montessori
Children learn by using their senses.
They learn best when pursuing their own interests.
Children need to touch and manipulate.
Children master various skills in order; Gesell determined the typical order.
Children learn by modeling.
Environment shapes behavior AND behavior affects environment.
Parents & Caregivers must provide good examples.
Parents and Caregivers are role models for moral development.
Children learn by example.
Vygotsky - ZPDBiological development
and cultural experience influence a child’s ability to think and learn.
Social contact is essential for intellectual development.