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Educational Theorists

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Educational Theorists. And Their Theories. Child Development Theory. Explains how children develop: Morally, socially, cognitively, physically, emotionally And provides ways to apply this theory to practice. Erikson – 8 Stages of Man. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Educational Theorists And Their Theories
Page 1: Educational Theorists

Educational Theorists

And Their Theories

Page 2: Educational Theorists

Child Development Theory• Explains how

children develop:– Morally, socially,

cognitively, physically, emotionally

• And provides ways to apply this theory to practice

Page 3: Educational Theorists

Erikson – 8 Stages of Man

InfantTrust vs Mistrust

ToddlerAutonomy vs Shame and Doubt

PreschoolerInitiative vs Guilt

School-Age ChildIndustry vs Inferiority

AdolescentIdentity vs Role Confusion

Young AdultIntimacy vs Isolation

Middle-Age AdultGenerativity vs Stagnation

Older AdultIntegrity vs Despair

Dealing with each crisis in a positive way results in normal development.

Parents & Caregivers must be sensitive to each child’s needs at each stage.

Individuals pass through different crisis at different ages.

Page 4: Educational Theorists

Freud, Sigmund

Personality develops through a series of stages.

Emotional experiences in childhood profoundly effect adulthood.

Page 5: Educational Theorists

Kohlberg, LawrenceLevel I Pre-conventional Morality

Stage 1 Punishment orientation - Rules are obeyed to avoid punishmentStage 2 Instrumental orientation or personal gain - Rules are obeyed for personal gain

Level II Conventional MoralityStage 3 “Good Boy” or “Good Girl” orientation - Rules are obeyed for approvalStage 4 Maintenance of the social order – Rules are obeyed to maintain the social order

Level III Post-conventional MoralityStage 5 Morality of contract and individual rights – Rules are obeyed if they are impartial; democratic rules are challenged if they infringe on the rights of othersStage 6 Morality of conscience – The individual establishes his or her own rules in accordance with a personal set of ethical principals

Page 6: Educational Theorists

Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs

Humans naturally strive to satisfy needs. There are 5 levels of needs. Each must be satisfied before moving on to the next.

Page 7: Educational Theorists

Piaget, JeanPiaget’s developmental stages of a child:0-2 years sensorimotor – motor development3 -7 years pre-operation – intuitive4-11 years concrete operational – logical, no

abstractions12-15 years formal operations – abstract


Children should be given learning tasks suitable for their age of thinking.

Page 8: Educational Theorists

Piaget – Genetic Epistemology

Page 9: Educational Theorists

Skinner – Learned Conditioning (Behaviorism)

Learning results in changes in behavior. • If an action repeatedly

brings a positive result, it will be repeated.

• If an action repeatedly brings a negative result, it will stop.

• Rewards & punishments may be used to influence behavior.

Page 10: Educational Theorists

Montessori – Maria Montessori

Children learn by using their senses.

They learn best when pursuing their own interests.

Children need to touch and manipulate.

Page 11: Educational Theorists

Gesell, Arnold

Children master various skills in order; Gesell determined the typical order.

Page 12: Educational Theorists

Bandura, Albert

Children learn by modeling.

Environment shapes behavior AND behavior affects environment.

Parents & Caregivers must provide good examples.

Page 13: Educational Theorists

Coles, Robert

Parents and Caregivers are role models for moral development.

Children learn by example.

Page 14: Educational Theorists

Vygotsky - ZPDBiological development

and cultural experience influence a child’s ability to think and learn.

Social contact is essential for intellectual development.