Home > Documents > Electric Tricycle

Electric Tricycle

Date post: 03-Jun-2018
Category:
Author: jack-azad
View: 240 times
Download: 0 times
Share this document with a friend
Embed Size (px)
of 27 /27
8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/electric-tricycle 1/27 http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/ Food Living Outside Play Technology Workshop Electric Tricycle by ben_k on March 28, 2013 Table of Contents Electric Tricycle  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intro: Electric Tricycle  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 1: Why Did I Build This?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 2: An Overview of the Tricycle  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 3: Preparing the Fork  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 4: Building the Frame: Steel Bits  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 5: Machining a Stem  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 6: Modifying the Internal Gear Hub  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step 7: Building the Differential  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Step 8: Building the Frame: Pivoting Mechanism  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Step 9: Building the Frame: Making Lots of Aluminum Plates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Step 10: Wheels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Step 11: Seat  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Step 12: Brakes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Step 13: The Rest of the Mechanical Things  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Step 14: Building a Battery Pack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Step 15: Electrical Systems.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Step 16: Videos, Conclusion, Linkdump  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Related Instructables  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Advertisements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Transcript
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    1/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Food Living Outside Play Technology Workshop

    Electric Tricycleby ben_kon March 28, 2013

    Table of Contents

    Electric Tricycle ...............................................................................................................

    Intro: Electric Tricycle .......................................................................................................

    Step 1: Why Did I Build This? .................................................................................................

    Step 2: An Overview of the Tricycle .............................................................................................

    Step 3: Preparing the Fork ....................................................................................................

    Step 4: Building the Frame: Steel Bits ...........................................................................................

    Step 5: Machining a Stem ....................................................................................................

    Step 6: Modifying the Internal Gear Hub .........................................................................................

    Step 7: Building the Differential ................................................................................................ 1

    Step 8: Building the Frame: Pivoting Mechanism ................................................................................... 1

    Step 9: Building the Frame: Making Lots of Aluminum Plates .......................................................................... 1

    Step 10: Wheels ........................................................................................................... 1

    Step 11: Seat ............................................................................................................. 1

    Step 12: Brakes ........................................................................................................... 2

    Step 13: The Rest of the Mechanical Things ...................................................................................... 2

    Step 14: Building a Battery Pack ............................................................................................... 2

    Step 15: Electrical Systems. .................................................................................................. 2

    Step 16: Videos, Conclusion, Linkdump .......................................................................................... 2

    Related Instructables ........................................................................................................ 2

    Advertisements ............................................................................................................... 2

    http://www.instructables.com/member/ben_k/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=titlehttp://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-workshop/http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-technology/http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-play/http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-outside/http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-living/http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/category-food/
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    2/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Intro: Electric TricycleThis project was my first big project at MITERS, the MIT Electronics Research Society, where, for the first time, I have access to real machine tools. Over the course this project, I learned how design parts and assemblies in Solidworks, and I got fairly proficient at using a manual mill and lathe.

    Submitted by MITERS for the Instructables Sponsorship Program

    Image Notes1. This is about the farthest I got CADing.

    http://miters.mit.edu/
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    3/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. ...zoom...

    Step 1:Why Did I Build This?There are a lot of answers to that question. If you plan on building some sort of silly electric vehicle, or anything else for that matter, any or all of them may apply.

    Because Building Things!Building things for the sake of building things is a perfectly valid reason to start a project. I have built plenty of things that I have raused afterwards. Lots of people have asked me if I built this for a classThe process of designing and building things is often at least as rewarding as actually usthe things you build. Take my Nyan Hatproject, for example. 2 weeks of building, and I've used it in total for an hour tops.Learning new skills.Before this project, I had hardly used any CAD software beyond Google Sketchup. Now I am fairly comfortable modeling parts andassemblies in SolidWorks, and Autodesk Inventor to a lesser extent. I also got a lot better at machining things. The frequency at which I made terrible noises othe mill and lathe decreased significantly over the course of this project.End product.Before building this, I had some experience riding some other small go-kart l ike electric vehicles, Chibikartand Tinykart. These vehicles were

    incredibly fun to ride, and I wanted to build something with similarly good handling and performance. At the world Maker Faire in New York, I took my scooterothe Power Racing Seriestrack, and unsurprisingly found that i t doesn't corner very well.Because I thought the idea was pretty funny.I really liked the idea of a vehicle in the form of a toddler's tricycle with an excessively large motor anddangerously fast top speed. Nyan Hat again is another great example of something built mostly because I thought it would be funny.Because I acquireda very large electric motor. I didn't design the tricycle because I got the motor, but I did build it when I did because I got the motor. I havstarted plenty of projects simply because I wanted to put to use some really cool part I found.

    Step 2:An Overview of the TricycleThe tricycle has a fairly complicated powertrain arrangement compared to most small electric vehicles. Before getting into the details of how to actually build anything,here is a brief overview of how the tricycle's various parts work together.

    Since by far the most common question I have gotten about the tricycle is "How long does the battery last?", or some variation thereof, I will start with the battery. Thebattery pack is a 39.6 Volt 7.5 Amp hour pack assembled from 36 A123 Systems 26650 cells in a 12S3P arrangement (groups of 3 cells in parallel, 12 groups in seriesThat's about 300 Watt hours of energy. Given the characteristicsof these cells, this battery pack can deliver 14256 Watts peak, and 8316 Watts continuously (That's 1and 11.15 horsepower respectively).

    The battery pack feeds a Kelly KBS48121controller. Since this controller is limited to 120 Amps peak, and 50 continuous, it is by far the tricycle's performance limitingfactor. However, it is very small and has been reliable so far, despite powering a motor much too large for it. The current output (torque control) of the motor controller controlled by a twist-grip throttle located on the handlebars

    The motor controller turns a Turnigy C80100-130brushless DC motor. This is RC aircraft motor, rated for 6,000 Watts peak. Imagining the kind of RC airplane this isdesigned to be used in is kind of terrifying.

    Here's where things start getting interesting. Via a chain drive reduction, the motor drives an eight-speed Shimano internal gear hub. Most electric vehicles, commercones such as those from Tesla included, only have one speed. To get the most out of a motor like this though, it really makes sense to have multiple gears. Just like ainternal combustion engine, electric motors have rotational speeds for optimal power or efficiency. By using a gearbox, the motor can be kept near these speeds for awide range of vehicle speeds. This is illustrated in the torque vs rpm and power vs rpm curves shown in the pictures. The gearbox is shifted using a mountain bike styl

    http://www.shimano.com/publish/content/global_cycle/en/us/index/products/0/nexus/product.-code-SG-8R36.-type-..htmlhttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Ej4wp1VUuLE/UQF4ys1dbAI/AAAAAAAACs8/tz5-Puor1Sc/s1600/20130123_010649.jpghttp://kellycontroller.com/kbs4812150a24-48v-mini-brushless-dc-controller-p-528.htmlhttp://www.batteryspace.com/prod-specs/6610.pdfhttp://build-its-inprogress.blogspot.com/2012/11/soon-to-be-named-three-wheeled-electric.htmlhttp://build-its.blogspot.com/2012/10/nyan-hat.htmlhttp://www.powerracingseries.org/http://www.instructables.com/id/All-Terrain-Electric-Scooter/http://scolton.blogspot.com/p/cap-kart.html#tinykarthttp://www.instructables.com/id/Chibikart-Rapid-Prototyping-a-Subminiature-Electr/http://build-its.blogspot.com/2012/10/nyan-hat.html
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    4/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    trigger shifter mounted on the handlebars

    Via another chain reduction, the output of the gearbox turns a custom spur gear differential, which splits the torque from the motor to the two back wheels.

    Each of the back wheels is equipped with a set of disk brakes, which are actuated with a double-pull brake lever on the handlebars.

    Steering is accomplished very similarly to a bicycle or motorcycle. In addition to the handlebars turning the front wheel, the front half of the trike's frame also tilts side tside. The tilting motion allows for fast, stable turns, which would not be possible if the frame were rigid.

    Image Notes1. Wheel2. Disk Brake3. Battery under here4. Differential5. Gearbox6. Wheel7. disk brake

    8. Motor

    Image Notes1. Assuming your motor controller can provide all of your motor's stall current,your torque vs rpm curves look like this. Each different curve represents thetorque at the wheel vs wheel rpm for a different gear.2. Dashed vertical lines indicate the optimal points to shift gears3. Torque4. RPM

    Image Notes1. Power2. RPM

    Image Notes1. My controller can't supply all of my motor's stal current. This is what themotor curves look like with current limited to 1/2 stall current2. Once again, you shift at the spots the curves cross. This is where youactually get higher torque at the wheel in a taller gear than a lower gear.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    5/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. Notice with only 1/2 stall current available, you still get the same peak power.For permanent magnet motors, peak power occurs at 1/2 stall torque and 1/2 no-load RPM. Since torque is proportional to current, this is also at the 1/2 stallcurrent point.

    Image Notes1. This is what things look like when limited to 1/3 stall current

    Image Notes1. Power curves at 1/3 stall current

    Step 3:Preparing the ForkThe first part of the frame I worked on was the fork. I started out with an old mountain bike fork, and removed the original suspension assembly. Removing thesuspension left two short steel tubes as the fork legs, with ugly threaded holes left over where they joined the aluminum fork crown. To cover these holes, I turned som

    aluminum plugs that press fit into the holes.

    So that the fork could actually hold the front wheel, I had to weld on tabs to hold the wheel. I roughly cut out the tabs from some steel stock on a bandsaw, and used ato clean up the cuts. To hold the tabs at the correct spacing while I welded, I fixed them together with a threaded rod. I then MIG welded the tabs to the fork legs.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    6/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. Eww...

    Image Notes1. Much better

    Image Notes1. This rod holds the tabs to the correct spacing

    Image Notes1. Tack welded in place

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    7/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 4:Building the Frame: Steel BitsThe front half of the tricycle's frame was constructed from welded steel tubing. Originally, I was planning on buying some steel tubing and bending it to the correctcurvature for the frame, but I happened to find a tube of almost exactly the same curve radius as I designed into my CAD model in a corner at MITERS. The head tubewas also made from some scrap steel tubing. The inside was bored out to the correct diameter to press in a bicycle headset. To join the two tubes, I first mitered the eof the curved steel tube using a hole saw. I then MIG welded the two tubes together.

    The front half of the tricycle's frame is able to tilt relative to the back half, so that the rider can lean into turns. This allows for much tighter cornering than would bepossible with a rigid framed tr icycle. To make the pivot, I attached a precision ground 3/4" thick steel rod to the back end of the curved steel tube. This rod is inserted isome bronze bushings in the back half of the frame, allowing it to rotate. To hold the steel rod, I made a steel plug and welded it into the end of the curved tube. The phas a 3/4" hole drilled through it for the rod, and two set screws that can be tightened into the rod, holding it in place.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    8/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. The set screw here, and one on the opposite side hold the rod in place2. This end fits inside the tubing

    Image Notes1. This end interfaces with the bushings

    Step 5:Machining a Stem

    The stem is the piece that holds the handlebars to the fork's steerer. These can be purchased from any bike shop, but I chose to machine my own from a billet ofaluminum. I started out by facing all four sides, to get everything square and smooth. I clamped the block to a rotary table on the mill, and machined a circular lip into tthe base. This lip holds the headset bearings in place. While on the rotary table, I also machined a nice curve into the stem's faceplate.

    The stem holds onto the steerer and handlebars by clamping onto them. To make the clamps, I first bored holes to the correct diameters for the handlebars and steeremade these holes by first drilling pilot holes with a drill bit, and then using a boring head to precisely finish the holes. I drilled and tapped holes for the clamping bolts, athen cut slots into the stem on a bandsaw. When the bolts are t ightened, the slots allow the size of the holes to decrease, causing them to clamp down on the steerer handlebars.

    To remove sharp edges, I sanded all the corners and edges with a belt sander. The sufraces were then brushed with sandpaper by hand, so that they looked nice.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    9/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. I put some scrap aluminum underneath, so I wouldn't mill into the table.

    Step 6:Modifying the Internal Gear HubThe since the gearbox I used was deigned to be laced into a bicycle wheel, I had to make some modifications to it to prepare it for electric vehicle use. First, I used #3chain in the trike's drivechain, rather than bicycle chain, so I had to modify my #35 chain sprocket to interface with the hub. The hub's input gear uses three roundedsplines to transmit torque to the gearbox. To approximate these splines, I first bored out the center of my gear to the same minor diameter as the bicycle gear that cam

    with the hub. Then, using an indexing head, I milled the hole wider everywhere except where the three splines were. This created an approximately trapezoidal shapethat fit into the three grooves on the hub.

    The next part to be modified was the hub's output. Since the hub normally goes at the center of a bike wheel, the hub's output is the entire outer casing of the gearboxwanted the hub to spin a small sprocket, so I had to make an adapter plate to which I could bol the sprocket. Since I didn't have any aluminum round large enough, Iturned the adapter from a combination of 1/2" aluminum plate and 2.5" round, and bolted the two parts together. The adapter attaches to the gearbox by bolting througthe spoke holes with 4-40 screws.

    The new output sprocket was attached to the adapter by drilling six holes in it with an indexing head. Because for both the input and output sprockets I chose teethnumbers that were multiples of three, I was easily able to center them in the lathe and indexing head.

    Image Notes

    1. Drilling holes with the indexing head

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    10/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    11/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 7:Building the DifferentialAdding a differential to the drivetrain was more of an exercise in building something awesome and machining it to spec than a useful addition to the drivetrain. So, befI go through how I built it, I'm going to go through a number of cheaper and easier alternatives.

    1-wheel drive. This is by far the simplest option. You may get a bit of torque steering when you open the throttle.1.Live axle. Most go-karts have live axles. This option will probably reduce your turning radius a bit on high-traction surfaces2.Buy a differential. A company called SAMAGAGA makes differentialsfor pedal powered tricycles. They don't have a retailer in the US, but if you contact them3.they'll sell you a differential for around $70 plus shipping.Build a different kind of differential. I recently discovered a source of cheap helical bevel gears, and designed a conventional differential using them. It is made4.fewer parts, is easier to machine, and is cheaper to build.

    Assuming you have ignored the previous suggestions, here is how to build a small spur gear differential. First, I recommend you read Charles's spur gear differentialbuild, which I based mine off of.

    Parts:

    12 tooth 20 Pitch 20 degree pressure angle spur gear rod, 1'2x 20 tooth 20 pitch 20 degree spur gear, 1/2" bore5/16" precision steel rod8x 5/16" I.D. 3/8" O.D. 3/4" long bronze bushings1/2" steel keyway shaft2.5" diameter, ~4" long round aluminum stock12x 3/4" 10-32 socket cap screws1/8" keyway stock4x 1/2 x 1 1/8 x 5/16 inch shielded bearings

    All the above parts were sourced from McMaster, except for the bearings, which were from VXB Bearings, the aluminum stock, which I scavenged, and the 1/2" driveshaft, which came from Surplus Center.

    The first step was to cut the spur gear rod to length. Rough cuts were made using a horizontal bandsaw, and the ends of the gears were faced to size on a mill. Next,gears were bored out, and pressed with bronze bushings. Fortunately, the gears have 12 teeth, meaning they are easy to center in a 3 jaw chuck on a lathe.

    The differential's endcaps were turned on a lathe. The six counterbored holes were made on a milling machine. In order to center the part on the mill, I held the endcain an indexing head. Although I dri lled the holes in X-Y coordinates, using the indexing head made it very easy to zero the axes of the mill. Before drilling these holes,make sure that the mill is straight! I didn't do this, and as a result, all the holes were drilled at a very slight angle. As a result, I had to fiddle with assembling the differenfor hours to get it to work smoothly.

    The differential is spanned by six precision steel rods. These rods both hold everything together, and serve as the axles for the four spur gears. To make sure these rowere all exactly the same length, I faced their ends simultaneously on the mill. To do this, I drilled six holes through some square aluminum stock, and cut a slot into ehole. When the rods are inserted into the holes in the stock, and the stock is clamped by its ends, the slots compress and hold all six rods simultaneously. The ends ofthe rods were bored out and tapped to 10-32.

    The 20 tooth output gears I got from McMaster came without a keyway in them. Since I did not have a 1/8" broach to make a keyway, I ground my own single-pointbroach out of a tool steel blank from the lathe. Using the mill, I repeatedly pressed the broach down through the gear's bore, slowly progressing the mill bed each pass

    The differential is fairly straight forward to assemble - the rods are inserted into their respective counterbored holes in one end cap, the gears and spacers are placed their shafts, the axles and output gears are inserted, and the second endcap is placed on. To keep the differential true, I had to sequentially tighten the bolts around thperimeter - this means incrementally tightening opposite pairs of screws, so that the endcap isn't pulled to an angle. The drive gear is held in place by the same bolts thold the differential together.

    Image Notes1. Raytraced in Autodesk Inventor

    Image Notes1. Spur gear rod2. Output gear

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indexing_headhttp://www.surpluscenter.com/http://www.surpluscenter.com/http://www.mcmaster.com/http://www.etotheipiplusone.net/?p=224http://www.etotheipiplusone.net/?p=224http://www.instructables.com/member/teamtestbot/http://build-its-inprogress.blogspot.com/2013/03/another-differential.htmlhttp://www.samagaga.com/Product.aspx?ProductID=DG7201
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    12/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. Each gear has a pair of bronze bushings pressed into it

    Image Notes1. This is the basic gear configuration inside the differential

    Image Notes1. I faced the aluminum round on the mill before turning the endcaps.

    Image Notes1. If you print out engineering drawings, you don't have to constantly refer back toyour computer

    Image Notes1. Endcap with bearings pressed in

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    13/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. This aluminum fixture holds all the rods together for facing

    Image Notes1. It also stops the vice from grunging up the nice smooth shafts

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    14/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. I added aluminum spacers later to axially constrain the gears

    Image Notes1. So much shiny

    Step 8:Building the Frame: Pivoting MechanismThe front half of the frame pivots around a steel rod inserted through two bushing blocks in the back half of the frame. These blocks were milled from solid aluminumstock. The centers were bored out and pressed with 3/4" I.D. bronze bushings. The bases of the blocks were drilled and tapped for 1/4-20 screws.

    The base upon which the entire back half of the trike was built is a 5/16" thick aluminum plate. The bushing blocks were attached to it with countersunk flat head 1/4-2screws. To stop the steel rod from sliding out of the bushings, I inserted a clamping shaft collar onto the shaft, between the two bushings.

    To stop the front half of the tricycle from falling over when it was not moving, I added a pair of air springs to provide a little bit of resistance. The springs were held to thbase plate by bolts tapped into the edges of the plate, and to the steel frame by a tapped steel tab welded on.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    15/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes

    1. Air Spring2. Shaft collar

    Step 9:Building the Frame: Making Lots of Aluminum PlatesThe back half of the frame, which houses all the the interesting bits, was made from seven aluminum plates, fastened to each other by bolts threaded into their edges

    If you have access to an abrasive water jet cutter or high power laser cutter, this is the time to use it. I did not, so I made these parts manually. I started out with a lengof 1/4" thick by 6" wide aluminum plate. I cut some segments of i t roughly to length on a bandsaw, and then faced the edges on a mill. Also on the mill, I drilled holes aslots in the appropriate spots to hold the motor, driveshaft bearings, and gearbox. Once the plates were appropriately drilled, I cut them into paralelogram shapes on thbandsaw/mill.

    The four vertical plates are held in place by bolts threaded into their top and bottom edges. So that these four plates would be perfectly aligned I drilled all these edge-holes simultaneously on the mill. So the screws wouldn't protrude, I used flat head socket cap screws, all stainless steel. As a result, the holes in top and bottom platewere all contersunk.

    The frame's top plate was made in two pieces. The battery pack is stored in the leftmost section of the f rame, so I wanted the cover to the battery compartment to beeasily removable Since I could not edge tap both plates, I made a bar wi th holes tapped through it on two faces, that the second top plate bolts into.

    The last major frame piece is the bearing blocks, which take most of the load from the two rear wheels. Each bearing block consists of a simple block of aluminum stowith a pair of bearings pressed into it. The bearing blocks are held in place both by large 1/4-20 screws from underneath, and from the side by 8-32 screws.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    16/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. Bearing2. Motor

    3. gearbox4. gearbox5. bearing

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    17/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    18/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes

    1. Bearing block

    Image Notes1. This tapped bar holds the right half of the top plate

    Image Notes1. The assembled frame

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    19/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 10:WheelsFor the back wheels, I started out with these scooter wheels from Monster Scooter Parts. The front wheel is one of these.The back wheels required significant modification to work. They are meant to ride on bearings on a fixed axle, rather than a live axle like my trike uses, so the first thindid was remove the original bearings. I had no need for the stock band brakes or drive sprockets either, so I removed those as well. To interface the wheels with my 1driveshafts, I needed to make some hubs to attach to the wheels. I planned on making my own, but I found some hubs that were almost exactly what I needed left ovefrom SEGFAULT. In order to attach the hubs, I first had to machine off the part off the original hub that held the drive sprocket. To attach the disk brakes to the hubs, made some adapter plates out of some scrap 1/4" aluminum plate.

    Image Notes1. I had to use these bolts instead of socket cap ones, because the socket capsprotruded too far.

    Step 11:SeatTo make a seat, I started out with the plastic sub-frame of an old bicycle seat. The plastic frame bolts to two metal rails, that in a bicycle would be clamped b the seatpI welded the rais to the tricycle frame,supported by some more steel tubing and box extrusion.

    To make the surface of the seat, I molded over the plastic frame with fiberglass cloth wetted out in epoxy. All I had was 24 hour epoxy, so to cure it faster, I put the sea

    a toaster oven at low temperature (200 f). This decreased the epoxy's curing time to about an hour from 24. Unfortunately, I started out with a different variety of epoxywhich reacted poorly to the high temperature curing. It foamed up and turned orange, I painted over the seat in black to cover up the nasty epoxy color. I rregularities wfixed by sanding and filling voids with thickened epoxy.

    The seat is not very comfortable for just sitting in, but once you put your feet on the foot pegs and get moving, you get pushed towards the back half of the seat.

    http://www.etotheipiplusone.net/?page_id=566http://www.monsterscooterparts.com/12x2frwhco.htmlhttp://www.monsterscooterparts.com/rear-wheel-assembly-razor-e200-v36.html
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    20/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes

    1. The seat, immediately post curing

    Image Notes

    1. I epoxied the fiberglass top to the plastic frame, also mounting bolts into theframe.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    21/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 12:BrakesThe tricycle has a pair of disk brakes, one for each back wheel, to stop it. I used these brake disks, and these calipers (rightand left) from Monster Scooter Parts, sinthey were much cheaper than using mountain bike disk brakes. Because they are relatively low quality brakes, they take a lot of adjustment to get working well, but onthey are properly adjusted, they can bring you to a stop very quickly, and are easily powerful enough to lock up the back wheels at speed.

    The brake calipers were mounted through the corners of the bearing blocks as well as one of the vertical aluminum plates. To space them correctly, I machined analuminum spacer for the bolt passing through the plate. Fortunately, the brakes are very adjustable and also floating on their mounts, so you do not have to position thextremely precisely.

    The brakes are actuated by a double pull brake lever on the handlebars. I used this model. Since both brakes are actuated by one lever, even more adjustment isneeded for the two wheels to brake evenly.

    Image Notes1. Spacer

    Image Notes1. I had to cut out a little notch to get the bolt head to fit

    Image Notes1. The brakes are easiest to adjust wi thout the tires on

    Step 13:The Rest of the Mechanical ThingsThere are a few other mecahnical parts of the tricycle that are too small to warrant their own steps.

    The motor, gearbox, and differential are connected to each other by #35 chain. As far as I've found, the cheapest place to get this chain isSurplus Center. The motorand the gearbox happened to be spaced perfectly, so that I did not need any sort of chain tensioner to make the chain fit between them. I was not so lucky for the chabetween the gearbox and differential however. I quickly made a chain tensioner by machining my own idler sprocket out of some nylon stock. Since I placed the chaintensioner on the low-tension side of the chain (where the chain returns from the differential to the gearbox) the sprocket did not need to be made out of a very robustmaterial. I pressed the sprocket onto a bearing, and fixed the bearing to the aluminum plate next to the chain. In order to tension the chain, I used a bolt that was smathan the hole through the bearing. This let me tighten the bearing down eccentrically, in order to adjust chain tension.

    Since in the bearing blocks, I used flangless bearings pressed into place, the bearings would be unlikely to support large thrust loads that might occur when turning. Tsupport these loads, I used bronze thrust washers, which are sandwiched between a shaft collar on each side of the bearing block.

    Since this tricycle, unlike those small children ride, does not have pedals, the front wheel needed somewhere for your feet to rest. I turned some foot pegs out ofaluminum tubing, and tapped their ends so that they could thread onto the 1/2" threaded rod I used for a front axle.

    http://www.surpluscenter.com/http://www.amazon.com/Pyramid-Alloy-Mountain-Cable-Brake/dp/B000AO7H16/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1364785162&sr=8-1&keywords=double+pull+brake+leverhttp://www.monsterscooterparts.com/brcalearm.htmlhttp://www.monsterscooterparts.com/brake-caliper-right-arm.htmlhttp://www.monsterscooterparts.com/brro4oudiv1.html
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    22/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    The final mechanical step was modifying the motor. The original motor I had was already ready to use, but it ended up having some internal shorts. This lead to manyhours of troubleshooting with local motor expert Shane, and finally replacement with a new identical motor. To prepare the motor, first I cut off the shaft protruding fromthe back end. This shaft if for attaching propellers to, so it was unnecessary I then milled a flat and a dimple 90 degrees apart from each other in the drive side of theshaft. When set screws on the drive sprocket are tightened into the flat and dimple, they stop the sprocket from rotating independently to the shaft. The dimple also stothe sprocket from shifting axially.

    Image Notes1. Chain-tensioning idler sprocket

    Image Notes1. You can just see the edge of the thrust washer

    http://scolton.blogspot.com/
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    23/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 14:Building a Battery PackBuilding the battery pack was hands down the most dangerous step of this project. For each battery pack (I built two), I used 36 A123 Systems 26650 cell, in a 12S3Pconfiguration. Since I used raw cells, I had to solder the cells together myself. This is where things get nasty. One of these cells is capable of briefly discharging 120Amps. When you are soldering the battery pack, you are poking metal things around the exposed contacts of large groups of these cells. Accidentally causing shortcircuits can do some serious damage. A short through something thin will probably vaporize the wire that caused the short. Whatever happens, there will be a lot of heinvolved. Fortunately, at least, these cells are much more stable than hobby grade lithium polymer cells, so they will not explode in flames if damaged, overcharged, ooverdischarged. I highly recommend that you don't build a pack l ike this, unless someone who knows what they are doing shows you how to first.

    To build the pack, I started by organizing the cells into groups of three, tacking them together with hot glue, and soldering the cells in parallel with heavy duty copperbraid. I then glued these modules together, and soldered them in series with more braid. The 12S battery pack was organized into two layers, each of which was a 6Spack. This let me use 6S balance connectors, since my battery charger cannot balance charge a 12S pack.

    To protect the pack, I used 3 liter soda bottles as heat shrink. When the bottles cool down, they form a hard shell around the cells. Between the two layers, and on theinside of the battery compartment, I added a few layers of vibration dampening foam.

    To cover up the battery compartment, I made a shell by bending some matte black acrylic and gluing it to the metal top plate above the battery compartment. To bendacrylic cleanly, I clamped large aluminum blocks just above and below the bend line, and heated the line with a heat gun. The aluminum blocks support the acrylic whyou bend it, and also keep the material you don't want to bend cool.

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    24/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Image Notes1. Battery tetris

    Image Notes1. Balance leads

  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    25/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 15:Electrical Systems.Since I used an off the shelf motor controller, the vehicle's electrical system is pretty straight forward. The battery pack is connected to the Kelly controller through a paof XT60 connectors, and the controller connects to the motor using 5mm bullet connectors. Between the battery pack and the controller is a 100 Amp fuse, and a largepower switch. In parallel with the power switch, I added the large 10K precharge resistor included with the controller. This resistor prevents a huge current surge fromflowing into the controller when it is connected to a battery. All the electronics were bolted to the underside of the frame's aluminum top plate.

    The challenging part of the electric systems is setting up the motor's hall effect sensors. To learn much more about sensored vs sensorless control of brushless dc

    motors, I recommend you read this guideto EV power systems. Since my motor does not have internal hall effect sensors, I had to attach these sensors externally. I dso using this sensor holderand sensor PCBfrom e0designs, in the 80mm variety. For how to set up the sensors, I will again refer you to e0designs, which has anexcellent guidefor how to do this.

    The Kelly controller has a number of options that can be programmed in via computer. I disabled all regenerative braking, since the gearbox has a freewheel built in. AI limited the motor's top speed to 85% of maximum, and peak current to 90% of maximum, because apparently this can help prevent the controller's built in over curreprotection from being tripped and shutting off the vehicle.

    http://e0designs.com/documentation/finding-motor-phase-sensor-combinations/http://e0designs.com/http://e0designs.com/products/hall-effect-sensor-board/http://e0designs.com/products/hall-effect-sensor-adapter/http://www.instructables.com/id/The-New-and-Improved-Brushless-Electric-Scooter-Po/http://www.amazon.com/HELLA-002843011-Series-Rating-Battery/dp/B0000AYAFE
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    26/27

    http://www.instructables.com/id/Electric-Tricycle/

    Step 16:Videos, Conclusion, Linkdump

    I found that the parking lot beneath the Stata Centeris an excellent place to ride, at early hours of the morning:

    First Testing:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_2LZ_O_hz0

    I have entered this Instructable in two contests, theUP! contestand the Make-To-Learn Youth Conest,so please vote if you like this.

    Image Notes1. ...zoom...

    Related Instructables

    Miter Saw

    Stationby

    gilleseg

    How To Adjust aMiter Saw

    (video)by

    toolrepair

    electric bicycle

    byzaheerpanhwer

    Miters & Bevels

    by woodknot

    PerformingBasic CarMaintenance

    Checksby

    lesthaeghet

    Battery SolarWind ElectricCar --- JackDanielsIndependenceProject(video)

    bylonginusboygenius

    http://www.instructables.com/member/longinusboygenius/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Battery-Solar-Wind-Electric-Car-Jack-Daniels-I/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/member/lesthaeghet/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Performing-Basic-Car-Maintenance-Checks/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Performing-Basic-Car-Maintenance-Checks/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Performing-Basic-Car-Maintenance-Checks/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Performing-Basic-Car-Maintenance-Checks/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Performing-Basic-Car-Maintenance-Checks/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/member/woodknot/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Miters-%26-Bevels/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Miters-%26-Bevels/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/member/zaheerpanhwer/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/electric-bicycle-1/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/electric-bicycle-1/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/member/toolrepair/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Adjust-a-Miter-Saw/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Adjust-a-Miter-Saw/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Adjust-a-Miter-Saw/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Adjust-a-Miter-Saw/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/member/gilleseg/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Miter-Saw-Station/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Miter-Saw-Station/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/id/Miter-Saw-Station/?utm_source=pdf&utm_campaign=relatedhttp://www.instructables.com/contest/maketolearn/http://www.instructables.com/contest/up2013/http://web.mit.edu/facilities/construction/completed/stata.html
  • 8/12/2019 Electric Tricycle

    27/27

    vertisemets


Recommended