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Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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End Show © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 1 of 20 Electron Arrangement in Atoms If this rock were to tumble over, it would end up at a lower height. It would have less energy than before, but its position would be more stable. You will learn that energy and stability play an important role in determining how electrons are configured in an atom. 5. 2
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Page 1: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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Slide 1 of 20

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

If this rock were to tumble over, it would end up at a lower height. It would have less energy than before, but its position would be more stable. You will learn that energy and stability play an important role in determining how electrons are configured in an atom.

5.2

Page 2: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

Electron Configurations

The ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms are called electron configurations.

Three rules—the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule—tell you how to find the electron configurations of atoms.

5.2

Electron Configurations

What are the three rules for writing the electron configurations of elements?

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Slide 3 of 20

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

> Electron Configurations

Aufbau Principle

According to the aufbau principle, electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first. In the aufbau diagram below, each box represents an atomic orbital.

5.2

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Slide 4 of 20

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

> Electron Configurations

Pauli Exclusion Principle

According to the Pauli exclusion principle, an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must have opposite spins; that is, the electron spins must be paired.

5.2

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Slide 5 of 20

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

> Electron Configurations

Hund’s Rule

Hund’s rule states that electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible.

5.2

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Slide 6 of 20

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

> Electron Configurations

Orbital Filling Diagram

5.2

Page 7: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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Slide 7 of 20

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Page 8: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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Slide 8 of 20

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Page 9: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Slide 9 of 20

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Practice Problems for Conceptual Problem 1.1

Page 10: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

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Electron Arrangement in Atoms

>

Slide 10 of 20

Exceptional Electron Configurations

Exceptional Electron Configurations

Why do actual electron configurations for some elements differ from those assigned using the aufbau principle?

5.2

Some actual electron configurations differ from those assigned using the aufbau principle because half-filled sublevels are not as stable as filled sublevels, but they are more stable than other configurations.

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Slide 11 of 20

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Electron Arrangement in Atoms

> Exceptional Electron Configurations

Exceptions to the aufbau principle are due to subtle electron-electron interactions in orbitals with very similar energies.

Copper has an electron configuration that is an exception to the aufbau principle.

5.2

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Slide 12 of 20

Section Quiz

-or-Continue to: Launch:

Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section

5.2 Section Quiz.

5.2.

Page 13: Electron Arrangement in Atoms

© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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5.2 Section Quiz.

1. Identify the element that corresponds to the following electron configuration: 1s22s22p5.

a. F

b. Cl

c. Ne

d. O

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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5.2 Section Quiz.

2. Write the electron configuration for the atom N.

a. 1s22s22p5

b. 1s22s22p3

c. 1s22s1p2

d. 1s22s22p1

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3. The electron configurations for some elements differ from those predicted by the aufbau principle because the

a. the lowest energy level is completely filled.

b. none of the energy levels are completely filled.

c. half-filled sublevels are less stable than filled energy levels.

d. half-filled sublevels are more stable than some other arrangements.

5.2 Section Quiz.


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