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Emerging Trends

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  • Emerging Trends

    Prof. Srikumar KrishnamoorthyComputer and Information Systems Group

    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

  • Some Emerging Technologies you

    might have encountered .

    P2P : Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Cloud Computing

    Grid Computing

    Utility Computing

    SaaS Software as a Service

    2

  • P2P Networks

    Peer-to-peer follows a distributed architecture

    without the need for central coordination, with

    participants being at the same time both

    producers and consumers of resources (in

    contrast to the traditional clientserver model)

    3Source: Wikipedia

  • P2P Key Characteristics

    4

    Peers have equal responsibility (server/client)

    Highly dynamic environments

    Increased autonomy

  • P2P File Sharing Napster

    Program for sharing files over the Internet

    a disruptive application/technology?

    history:

    5/99: Shawn Fanning (freshman, Northeasten U.) founds Napster Online music service

    12/99: first lawsuit

    3/00: 25% UWisc traffic Napster

    2000: est. 60M users

    2/01: US Circuit Court of

    Appeals: Napster knew users

    violating copyright laws

    7/01: # simultaneous online users:

    Napster 160K, Gnutella: 40K, Morpheus: 300K 5

  • Napster How does it work?

    Four Steps

    Connect to Napster server

    Upload your list of files (push) to server

    Give server keywords to search the full list

    with

    Select best of correct answers

    6

  • Napster

    napster.com

    users

    File list is uploaded

    1.

    7

  • Napster

    napster.com

    user

    Request

    and

    results

    User requests search at server.

    2.

    8

  • Napster

    napster.com

    user

    pingspings

    User pings hosts that apparently have data.

    Looks for best transfer rate.

    3.

    9

  • Napster

    napster.com

    user

    Retrieves

    file

    User retrieves file

    4.

    10

  • Napster

    Central Napster serverCan ensure correct results

    Fast search

    Bottleneck for scalability

    Single point of failure

    Susceptible to denial of service Malicious users

    11

  • Napster P2P File Sharing System

    File download directly between members computers, bypassing the central computer

    Central computer necessary for initial contact

    Legal issues concerning copyrighted material being freely distributed:

    Napster never stored any MP3 files!

    It provided means for people to exchange such files

    Napster paid music creators & owners $33million for copyright infringement

    12

  • P2P File Sharing Gnutella

    Decentralized P2P network

    Peers search files by sending requests to their

    neighbors

    I want song.mp3

    She wants song.mp3

    We havesong.mp3

    Give mesong.mp3

    Here it is!13

  • P2P File Distribution BitTorrent

    tracker: tracks peers

    participating in torrent

    torrent: group of peers exchanging chunks of a file

    obtain list

    of peers

    trading

    chunks

    peer

    P2P file distribution

    14

  • P2P Key Benefits

    Cost sharing/reduction

    Improved scalability and reliability

    Resource aggregation

    Ad-hoc communication/collaboration

    15

  • Grid Computing Definitions

    Grid computing is coordinated resource sharing and problem

    solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations

    Grid computing (Foster and Kesselman, 1999) is a growing

    technology that facilitates the executions of large-scale resource

    intensive applications on geographically distributed computing

    resources.

    Facilitates flexible, secure, coordinated large scale resource

    sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions,

    and resource16

  • Grid Computing Characteristics

    Co-ordinated resource sharing

    Create an illusion of a simple, yet powerful

    computer out of a large number of heterogeneous

    systems

    Dynamic collection of institutions

    Used for problem solving

    Tasks are submitted and distributed on nodes in

    the grid

    17

  • Why Grids ?

    Solving grand challenge applications using

    computer modeling, simulation and analysis

    Life Sciences

    CAD/CAM

    Aerospace

    Military ApplicationsDigital Biology Military ApplicationsMilitary Applications

    Internet & Ecommerce

    18

  • Grid Computing Distributed Processing

    19

    The Grid

    Master

    Slaves

    e.g. Hadoop, Hazelcast

  • A Typical Grid Computing Environment

    Grid Resource Broker

    Resource Broker

    Application

    Grid Information Service

    Grid Resource Broker

    databaseR2 R3

    RN

    R1

    R4

    R5

    R6

    Grid Information Service

    20

  • An Operational Grid

    Grid Middleware

    App1 App2 App3

    21Grid

    A B CD

    Resource

    Monitor

    Resource

    Discovery

    Job

    Manager

    Job

    Monitor

    Workflow ExecutorResource Broker

  • Drug Design: Data Intensive Computing

    on Grid

    It involves screening millions

    of chemical compounds

    (molecules) in the Chemical

    DataBase (CDB) to identify

    those having potential to

    serve as drug candidates.

    Protein

    Molecules

    Chemical Databases(legacy, in .MOL2 format)

    22

  • [email protected] ArchitectureA Virtual Lab for Molecular Modeling for Drug Design on Grid

    Screen 2K molecules in 30min. for $10

    Grid Market Directory

    ResourceBroker

    Grid Info. Service

    GTS

    GTS

    GTS

    GTS

    Give me list PDBs sourcesOf type aldrich_300?

    (GTS - Grid Trade Server)

    PDB2

    Data Replica Catalogue

    GTS

    PDB1

    mol.5 please?

    (RB maps suitable Grid nodes and Protein DataBank)

    23

  • MEG(MagnetoEncephaloGraphy) Data Analysis on the Grid: Brain Activity Analysis

    Life-electronics laboratory,

    AIST

    Data Analysis

    Provision of expertise in

    the analysis of brain function

    Provision of MEG analysis

    Data Generation

    Nimrod-G

    64 sensors MEG

    Results

    Analysis All pairs (64x64) of MEG data by shifting the

    temporal region of MEG data over time: 0 to 29750:

    64x64x29750 jobs

    World-Wide Grid

    deadline, budget,

    optimization preference

    1

    5

    4

    3

    2

    24

  • Search for Extra-terrestrial

    Intelligence

    ~ 180K volunteers, 300K computers,

    ~ 600Tera FLOPS computing power 25

  • Grid Financial Services Applications

    Portfolio risk analysis

    Value at Risk calculations

    Monte Carlo simulations

    Algorithmic trading

    Options Pricing calculations

    26

  • Cloud Computing

    Cloud computing is the use of computing resources

    (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a

    network (typically the Internet) Wikipedia

    A model for delivering information technology services in

    which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-

    based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection

    to a server. Investopedia

    Cloud computing is a style of computing where massively

    scalable IT-related capabilities are provided as a service

    across the Internet to multiple external customers Gartner

    27

  • Key Business Drivers for the Grid/Cloud

    Low Infrastructure utilization

    Management of (heterogeneous) resources

    were quite challenging

    Handling performance and scalability of

    business applications gracefully

    Run jobs processing petabytes (1015) of data

    Takes more than 10 days to read on 1 computer

    28

  • Over and Under Provisioning of

    Resources

    29

    Real world server utilization

    in data centers is 5 20 %

    on an average

    Under utilized resources due

    to over-provisioning

    Lost business due to under-

    provisioning

  • Cloud Computing Advantages

    Illusion of infinite computing resources available on demand no need to plan far ahead for provisioning

    Elastic infrastructureo Add or remove resources at fine grain(one server at a

    time with EC2). Can be added/removed in minutes

    Allows companies to start small and expand as needed

    Applications/Services can be accessed anytime, anywhere on the Internet

    30

  • Cloud Computing Benefits

    Lower IT application support costs

    Pay as you go Model No upfront commitment on the Infrastructure

    Ability to pay for use of computing resources on short-term basis as needed (e.g., processors by the hour and storage by the day)

    Lower costs and higher revenue Infrastructure utilization is no longer a concern for the

    enterprise who consume the service

    Manage peak customer load effectively and avoid lost business opportunity

    31

  • Real World Examples

    Animoto debut on Facebook

    experienced a demand surge that resulted in growing from 50 servers to 3500 servers in three days

    later traffic fell to a level well below peak

    Target.com (uses AWS) on Black Friday(Nov. 28)

    Other retailers had severe performance problems and intermittent unavailability

    Targets and Amazons sites were just slower by about 50%.

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