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2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar Phased Arrays Johnson J. H. Wang, Life Fellow Wang Electro-Opto Corporation, Marietta, Georgia, USA email: [email protected] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The material in this paper is based on work supported by the Naval Sea Systems Command under Contract No. N00024-13-C-4526. The author is grateful for the technical support and collaboration of the Ohio State University ESL team, since 2007, led by Dr. John Volakis. 1 ® Wang Electro-Opto Corporation WEO
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Page 1: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

2015 IEEE International APS SymposiumTHP-A1.6P.40

Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar Phased Arrays

Johnson J. H. Wang, Life FellowWang Electro-Opto Corporation, Marietta, Georgia, USA

email: [email protected]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The material in this paper is based on work supported by the Naval Sea Systems Command under Contract No. N00024-13-C-4526. The author is grateful for the technical support and collaboration of the Ohio State University ESL team, since 2007, led by Dr. John Volakis.

1

®

Wang Electro-Opto Corporation WEO

Page 2: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Introduction• Characterization of Multioctave Planar Phased Arrays

(MPPA) has been by indirect and incomplete methods due to high cost and complexity– except for flared-notch elements under development since

1980

• This paper discusses theoretical and empirical characterization of an MPPA called Traveling-Wave Antenna (TWA) Array, or TWAA.

• Performance: 2-12 GHz, 60° scan (E & H planes)

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Page 3: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Traveling-Wave Antenna Array (TWAA)

• 16×16-element– Scalable to other frequencies & numbers of elements

Front

view

Back view showing 256 SMA feed connectors

J. J. H. Wang, 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems & Technology, Boston, MA, pp. 207-213, October 2013.

J. J. H. Wang, “Planar broadband traveling-wave beam-scan array antennas,” U.S. patent #8,264,410 B1, filed 31 July 2007, awarded 11 September 2012.

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Page 4: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Key differences between TWAA and Other MPPAs

Features TWAA Other MPPAs

Bandwidth and scan angle

Inherently wide bandwidth and scan angle

Limited in achieving both wideband and wide scan simultaneously

Dissipative or exotic material(e.g., ferrite or metamaterial)

• Not used• Often needed/used,

thus low producibility• Large cost, weight &

thickness

Substrates/superstrates ofspecial dielectric property

Not used (standard PCB used only for structural support); thus lower cost, weight, thickness. Easily air cooled for high power!

Generally necessary; thus high cost, weight, thickness. Difficult to air cool, thus low power handling! 4

Page 5: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

– Far-field tests on sufficiently large array (16×16 elements)

– 2-18 GHz BSN (Beam Steering Network)

• True-Time-Delay (TTD) lines using phase-matched semirigidcoaxial-cable corporate feed network

– Discrete TTD lines

– Scan to

0°, ±30°, ±45°, ±60°

– Test over 2-12 GHz

– 0.25 GHz increments

Empirical Characterization

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Page 6: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Theoretical Characterization• Simulated gain patterns generated by ElectroScience

Laboratory (ESL) of Ohio Sate University (OSU)– multiplying array factor and Scan Element Gain (SEG) patterns of

infinite array using commercial software based on moment-method.

• Simulation for transmit mode, with special attention to feed structure and equivalent source.

• Simulation data not generated for• large scan at 60°.

• below half-space—beyond (-90° to +90°)

(due to limitations of software, computer and infinite-array model)

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Page 7: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

-180 0 +180 -180 0 -180 0 +180 -180 0 +180

A135-002 measured 60-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

A135-002 measured 45-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

A135-002 measured 0-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

+180

A135-002 measured 30-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

+1800-180+1800-180+1800-180

A135-002 measured 60-deg scan

2 GHz, H-PlaneA135-002 measured 45-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

A135-002 measured 30-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

0 +180-180

A135-002 measured 0-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

Good array scan performance in both E and H planes (measured vs. OSU simulation)(H-plane cases shown)

Measured

-30 scan

Measured

-45 scan

Measured

-60 scan

No simulation data

for -60 scan

5 dB/DIV

5 dB/DIV

Simulated

0 scanSimulated

-30 scanSimulated

-45 scan

Simulated

-45 scanSimulated

-30 scan

Simulated

0 scan

2 GHz

4 GHz

OSU simulated 0-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 30-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 45-deg scan

2 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 0-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 30-deg scan

4 GHz, H-PlaneOSU simulated 45-deg scan

4 GHz, H-Plane

2 & 4 GHz, H-Plane7

Page 8: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

-180 0 +180 -180 0 +180

A135-002 measured 60-deg scan

12 GHz, H-planeA135-002 measured 45-deg scan

12 GHz, H-plane

+1800-180

A135-002 measured 0-deg scan

12 GHz, H-plane

+180-180 0

A135-002 measured 30-deg scan

12 GHz, H-plane

-180 0 +180 -180 0 +180 -180 0 +180

A135-002 measured 0-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

A135-002 measured 30-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

A135-002 measured 45-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

+1800-180

A135-002 measured 60-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

Good array scan performance in both E and H planes (measured vs. OSU simulation)(H-plane cases shown)

8 & 12 GHz, H-Plane

Measured

-30 scan

Measured

-45 scan

Measured

-60 scan

No simulation data

for -60 scan

8 GHz

12 GHz

5 dB/DIV

5 dB/DIV

Simulated

0 scanSimulated

-30 scanSimulated

-45 scan

Simulated

-45 scanSimulated

-30 scan

Simulated

0 scan

OSU simulated 0-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 0-deg scan

12 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 30-deg scan

12 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 45-deg scan

12 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 30-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

OSU simulated 45-deg scan

8 GHz, H-Plane

8

Page 9: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Good E & H-plane scan gain (measured versus calculated)

9

H-plane scan

E-plane scan

Page 10: Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave ... · 2015 IEEE International APS Symposium THP-A1.6P.40 Empirical and Theoretical Characterization of Multioctave Planar

Conclusions

• Good agreements between theoretical and empirical performance—except for numerical modeling for wide scan beyond 45°.

• Measured data beyond 45° scan revealed

– Severe limitations in computing for wide-angle scan beyond 45° (due to software and computer)

– TWAA’s potential for wider scan-angle than conventional planar phased array.

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