Encouraging bicycling among university students: lessons from queen's university, Kingston, Ontario. 2008. Pearlman Hougie. Meme si les etudiants collegiaux et universitaires devraient mener dans cette activite compare aux personnes agees, le taux d'utilisation de ce mode de transport est assez faible. 2002. Transportation Quarterly 57 (3): 49-77. Pucher, J., and R. Several respondents stated that fear of bicycle theft was the primary barrier to them bicycling to campus. One reported, "I used to bike to campus daily until my locked bike was stolen. Garrard. Indeed universities could encourage experimentation with creative solutions to building more secure bicycle parking. May 2010. Preston. Cycling for active transport and recreation in Australia: Status review and future directions. 2004. The authors found that all precipitation, temperature, wind, and snow conditions had a significant influence on bicycle commuting Bicycle commuting is the act of commuting to work or school by bicycle, a common form of utility cycling. Very hot weather had a negative impact on bicycling levels as well. Active commuting in a university setting: Assessing commuting habits and potential for modal change. 2003. Sustainable transportation planning Transportation planning is the field involved with the siting of transportation facilities (generally streets, highways, sidewalks, bike lanes and public transport lines). Cycle Policy 2002-2012. 2007. Gender Differences in Bicycling Behaviour and Facility Preferences. 1: Reasons Why Bicycling And Walking Are And Are Not Being Used More Extensively As Travel Modes. 1994. The average reported distance between place of residence and school was 1.12 kilometres. Nearly 46 percent of the respondents were males and 54 percent were females. Wolman, N. Seventy percent of the students report taking detours from the most direct route to avoid vehicle traffic. Transport Policy 13: 240-253. Statistics Canada. Aussi, la neige sur l'accotement apres le deneigement decourage les cyclistes de se promener en velo en hiver. Mots cles: Le cyclisme, le comportement de voyage, le transport actif INTRODUCTION Bicycling offers multiple benefits including low environmental costs, personal health benefits, and low capital and maintenance costs for bicycle infrastructure. 1924). This study provides some insights into the bicycling experiences of university students using a small sample and a single cross-section. The first section asked demographic information including age and sex. To establish context, we summarize sumÂ·maÂ·rizeÂ Â intr. 1916), the Institute of Economics (est. Analysis of Effects of Fare-Free Transit Program on Student Commuting Mode Shares: BruinGo at University of California at Los Angeles. The number of bicycle trips drops even further during winter. Several staff members noted that they could park their bicycles indoors and hence were not concerned about bicycle security. We also wanted to compare differences in attitudes of male and female students towards bicycling. Pretentious; overblown. Â examine les barrieres qui decouragent le cyclisme parmi les etudiants collegiaux en utilisant les
Encouraging bicycling among university students: lessonsfrom queen's university, Kingston, Ontario.
2008. Pearlman Hougie. Meme si les etudiants collegiaux et universitaires devraient mener danscette activite compare aux personnes agees, le taux d'utilisation de ce mode de transport est assezfaible. 2002. Transportation Quarterly 57 (3): 49-77.
Pucher, J., and R. Several respondents stated that fear of bicycle theft was the primary barrier tothem bicycling to campus.
One reported, "I used to bike to campus daily until my locked bike was stolen. Garrard. Indeeduniversities could encourage experimentation with creative solutions to building more secure bicycleparking. May 2010. Preston. Cycling for active transport and recreation in Australia: Status reviewand future directions. 2004. The authors found that all precipitation, temperature, wind, and snowconditions had a significant influence on bicycle commuting Bicycle commuting is the act ofcommuting to work or school by bicycle, a common form of utility cycling. Very hot weather had anegative impact on bicycling levels as well. Active commuting in a university setting: Assessingcommuting habits and potential for modal change. 2003. Sustainable transportation planningTransportation planning is the field involved with the siting of transportation facilities (generallystreets, highways, sidewalks, bike lanes and public transport lines). Cycle Policy 2002-2012. 2007.Gender Differences in Bicycling Behaviour and Facility Preferences. 1: Reasons Why Bicycling AndWalking Are And Are Not Being Used More Extensively As Travel Modes. 1994. The averagereported distance between place of residence and school was 1.12 kilometres.
Nearly 46 percent of the respondents were males and 54 percent were females. Wolman, N. Seventypercent of the students report taking detours from the most direct route to avoid vehicle traffic.Transport Policy 13: 240-253.
Statistics Canada. Aussi, la neige sur l'accotement apres le deneigement decourage les cyclistes dese promener en velo en hiver.
Mots cles: Le cyclisme, le comportement de voyage, le transport actif
Bicycling offers multiple benefits including low environmental costs, personal health benefits, andlow capital and maintenance costs for bicycle infrastructure. 1924). This study provides someinsights into the bicycling experiences of university students using a small sample and a singlecross-section. The first section asked demographic information including age and sex. To establishcontext, we summarize sumÂ·maÂ·rizeÂ Â
intr. 1916), the Institute of Economics (est. Analysis of Effects of Fare-Free Transit Program onStudent Commuting Mode Shares: BruinGo at University of California at Los Angeles. The number ofbicycle trips drops even further during winter. Several staff members noted that they could parktheir bicycles indoors and hence were not concerned about bicycle security. We also wanted tocompare differences in attitudes of male and female students towards bicycling. Pretentious;overblown.
Â examine les barrieres qui decouragent le cyclisme parmi les etudiants collegiaux en utilisant les
reponses provenant des etudiants d'Universite Queen's a Kingston, Ontario. West BerkeleyCirculation Master Plan Report. 2005. Thoughtless of others; displaying a lack of consideration.
2. Transportation Research 9: 151-173.
Saelens, Brian E., James F., Sallis, and Lawrence D. A lower proportion of non-bicyclists (79.4percent) find slipping on ice to be a deterrent to bicycling as compared to winter bicyclists (80.6percent) and non-winter bicyclists (93.9 percent).
Table 6 reports respondents' attitudes towards potential safety interventions to promote bicycling.Correspondingly, larger proportion of females as compared to males report taking detours frommost direct routes to avoid vehicle traffic. Not surprisingly, females account for only 29 percent ofall bicyclists in Canada (Pucher and Buheler 2008).
Various components of bicycle infrastructure including bicycle lanes, specially designed streetintersections, and end-facilities all have an impact on the bicycling experience and hence bicyclingbehaviour. The impact of such strategies could have a mixed effect on bicycle ridership. October2006 Deakin University .*R1 refers to Academics' rankings in tables 3.1 - 3.7 in the report.Furthermore, there is an added risk of slipping on ice. Not well considered or carefully thought out;ill-advised. Renne. Reducing curbside parking supply is a politically contentious issue in mostsituations and requires careful planning and strategic implementation.
Finally, encouraging bicycling among university students is likely to have long-term benefits,particularly if these young adults continue to bicycle after college. & tr.v. The agency's majoractivities are grouped into two "programs," The Federal-aid Highway Program and the FederalLands Highway . It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. A descriptive account or record; ahistory: "the short and simple annals of the poor"Â Â of Behavioral Medicine behavioral medicine
The application of behavior therapy techniques, such as biofeedback and relaxation training, to theprevention and treatment of medical and psychosomatic disorders and to the treatment ofundesirable behaviors, such as overeating. 2003. For Inhabitants of housing, see Residency
Inhabitants is an independently developed commercial puzzle game created by S+F Software. Thisconcern is understandable in the context of Kingston which has dedicated bicycle lanes on very fewstreets. Urban Geography 18: 192-212.
Miranda-Moreno, L. 2010. refers to the number of institutions compared with Deakin.
. 1997. The authors collected a seven day travel diary from 163 individuals, including 61 females,during each of September (of 2009), January, April, and July (of 2010). ). parked cars) Female 21.55.4 73.2 100
make the bike route
unsafe All 22.9 5.8 71.9 100
I take detours from Male 25.5 6.4 68.1 100
the most direct route Female 12.5 14.3 73.2 100
in order to avoid
All 18.4 10.7 70.8 100
There is sufficient Male 38.3 8.5 53.2 100
street lighting at Female 57.2 5.4 37.5 100
All 48.5 6.8 44.6 100
Table 4: Barriers to Bicycling During Winters
Percentage of respondents
Barrier Sex Disagree Neither Agree Total
Cold weather Male 8.5 6.4 85.1 100
Female 19.6 0 80.4 100
Total 14.6 2.9 82.5 100
Too much snow Male 8.5 6.4 85.1 100
Female 5.4 0 94.6 100
Total 6.8 2.9 90.3 100
Snow is ploughed onto Male 2.1 12.8 85.1 100
the road shoulder Female 1.8 12.5 85.7 100
making the route feel
less safe Total 1.9 12.6 85.4 100
Risk of slipping on ice Male 10.6 10.6 78.7 100
Female 7.1 3.6 89.3 100
Total 8.7 6.8 84.5 100
Table 5: Barriers to Bicycling During Winters
Percent of respondents in each
Barrier Disagree Neither Agree
Cold weather Non Bicyclist 8.8 5.9 85.3
Non-winter 6.1 3.0 90.9
Winter 27.8 0 72.2
Too much Non Bicyclist 2.9 5.9 91.2
Non-winter 0 3.0 97.0
Winter 16.7 2.9 83.3
Snow is Non Bicyclist 2.9 17.6 79.4
ploughed Non-winter 0 15.2 84.8
onto the road Bicyclist
shoulder Winter 2.8 5.6 91.7
making the Bicyclist
route feel less
Risk of Non Bicyclist 5.9 14.7 79.4
slipping on Non-winter 3.0 3.0 93.9
Winter 16.7 2.8 80.6
Table 6: Safety Interventions to Encourage Bicycling
Percentage of respondents
This will encourage me Sex Disagree Neither Agree Total
to bicycle more .... Disagree
Clearly demarcated Male 4.3 8.5 87.2 100
bicycle lanes on major Female 7.1 1.8 91.1 100
Total 5.8 4.9 89.3 100
Bicycle paths that are Male 10.6 8.5 80.9 100
physically separated Female 19.6 1.8 78.6 100
traffic Total 15.5 4.9 79.6 100
Enforcing that cars Male 10.6 6.4 83.0 100
do not park in bicycle Female 8.9 3.6 87.5 100
Total 9.7 4.9 85.4 100
Bicycle paths cleared Male 10.6 10.6 78.7 100
of snow and ice in the Female 14.3 8.9 76.8 100
Total 12.6 9.7 77.7 100
Table 7: On-Campus Interventions to Encourage Bicycling
Percentage of respondents
This will Sex Disagree Neither Agree Total
encourage me to Disagree
bicycle more .... 1999. Table 2 shows that there was an almost even split among those who reportednever bicycling to school (non-bicyclists), bicycling to school only between the months of April andNovember (non-winter bicyclist), and those who reported bicycling to the school year round even ifless frequently during winters (winter bicyclists). Hall, and Brian B. 2003. A very high percentage ofall respondents agree that providing bicycle parking secure from theft will encourage them tobicycle more, although a higher percentage of males agrees with the idea as compared to females(87.2 percent versus 80.4 percent). Transportation 34: 453-470.
Kingston Economic Development Corporation. It is published semi-quarterly and contains a range oforiginal papers, by geography and other social scientist researches, on issues relating to urbanpolicy and planning, race, poverty, ethnicity in urban areas, housing, and Â 15 (3): 223-245.
Bonham, J. 2000. (2006) also found safety concerns to be a more influential factor among femalescompared to males. Journal of the Institute of Transportation Engineers Institute of TransportationEngineers (ITE) is an international educational and scientific association of transportationprofessionals who attempt to meet mobility and safety needs and was founded in 1930. A higherproportion of male respondents as compared to female respondents considers cold weather to be abarrier to bicycling during winters. Her daughter Constance Harris writes for the newspaper as afashion writer. According to according to
1. Wiley, Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison
John M. Although more than two-thirds of the respondents agree that bicycle paths cleared of snowand ice in the winter will encourage them to bicycle more, the percentage of respondents who agreeis lowest among all four suggested interventions.
Table 7 presents respondents' attitudes towards potential interventions on campus to encouragemore bicycling. This paper examines potential barriers to bicycling among college students. Notmuch is known about the bicycling behavior of university students. Cycle facilities and cyclists'safety: Experiences from Greater Nottingham and lessons for future cycling provision. Â 54: 122-124
Garrard, J., S. including Davis, Turlock, Chico, Woodland (all in California), Eugene (Oregon), andBoulder (Colorado), Edmond et al (2009) found that males and females have different perceptions ofsafety in the same built environment. Subject to snow: a snowy climate. Department ofTransportation.
Flynn, Brian, S., G. Usually not considered scientifically valid but may indicate areas for furtherinvestigation and research. In Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects, Vol 3, eds. , Ontario. 2006.2007. Therefore, it is not surprising that more than 66 percent of all respondents find that vehicletraffic makes the route feel unsafe. Washington: Transportation Research Board, 31-40.
LaPlante J. July. April 2010. Employer travel plans, cycling and gender: will travel plan measuresimprove the outlook for cycling to work in the UK? Transportation Research D, (8): 53-67.
Dill, Jennifer, and Kim Voros. A much higher proportion of non-bicyclists and non-winter bicyclists ascompared to winter bicyclists consider low temperatures and snow to be debilitating factors duringwinters. http:// www.vejpark2.kk.dklpublikationer/pdf/413_cykelpolitik_uk.pdf (accessed June 24,2011).
Dickinson, Janet E., Simon Kingham, Scott Copsey, and Deborah J. A few students stronglycommented on the "unfriendly" bicycle infrastructure. Enforcing that cars do not park in bicyclelanes is also considered to encourage more bicycling by more than 85 percent of respondents, withslightly higher percentage of females agreeing with the idea as compared to males. The paperreports results from an internet-based survey of students from Queen's University in Kingston,Ontario Kingston, Ontario, is a Canadian city located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where thelake runs into the St. Kingston's Major Employers. The study found that rainy rainÂ·yÂ Â
adj. While natural weather conditions may itself discourage a number of students from bicycling, thefindings indicate that snow ploughed onto the road shoulder--where a bicyclist would usually ride inabsence of a bicycle lane--is an added barrier. Environmental and Travel Preferences of Cyclists Thisis an incomplete list. Precipitation--both rain and snow--negatively influenced bicycling.
Bicycling Among College/University Students
Compared to the literature on bicycling in general, there is a narrower body of literature regardingbicycling among young adults, particularly university and college students. In a study of bicyclingbehaviour conducted in Montreal between 2008 and 2010, bicycle traffic counters were placed atfive key locations on the city's bicycling network. One comment was "Kingston has few bike paths,
shoulders (and roads in general) are constantly in a state of disrepair in the city."
This study examined bicycling experiences of university students. Using data from 35 different citiesin the U.S., Dill and Voros (2003) found a positive and significant relationship between the numberof bicycle commuters and plentiful bicycling infrastructure.
Adverse ambient weather could be a significant barrier to bicycling (Oja et al 1998, Winters et al2007). One way of creating room for bicycle lanes is by eliminating curbside parking. Rose, and SingKai kai
NZ informal food [Maori]
noun N.Z. Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trendsand policies. To this effect, we conducted an internet-based survey of students at Queen's Universitylocated in Kingston, Ontario during January-February of 2011.
Queen's University is located in the city of Kingston This article refers to the municipal area ofKingston in Victoria, Australia. Complete Streets: We can get there from here. Utilitarian Bicycling:A Multilevel Analysis of Climate and Personal Influences. 2011. Orpana, and Alexander J.Â conditions for a large part of the year. A very high proportion of all respondents agree that clearlydemarcated bicycle lanes will encourage them to bicycle more. 2005. Report to Senate: November2009 Enrolment Report, Executive Summary. City of Guelph. Buehler. , Melbourne. The fourthsection asked respondents to indicate their preferences regarding various interventions aimed atencouraging bicycling. : Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. TransportationResearch Record (Transportation Research Board): 102-110.
Axisa, Jeffrey J., Darren M. Preventive Medicine 45: 55-59.
Giuliano, G. Promoting transportation cycling Transportation cycling is a specific philosophy ofcycling in which proponents use their bicycles for commuting, errands, and general transportation.However, much remains to be understood about the bicycling behaviour of university students.
Keywords: bicycling, travel behaviour, active transportation
Le cyclisme est un des choix modal Mode-oriented. 2007. Most mid-rise apartment buildings aroundthe university neighborhood offer very limited bicycle parking spots. 186,058), S central Sask.,Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 32(1): 52-58.
Ajay Agarwal and Ashley North
School of Urban and Regional Planning
Table 1: Mode share of bicycles in Canada in census years 1991, 2001,
Mode Share 1991 2001 2006
Automobile (driver) 73.3 73.8 72.8
Automobile (passenger) 7.4 6.9 7.7
Public Transit 10.1 10.5 11.0
Walking 7.0 6.6 6.4
Bicycle 1.1 1.2 1.3
Others 1.0 1.1 1.2
Source: (Statistics Canada, 2011)
Table 2: Number of Respondents in Each Category by Gender
Bicycling experience Sex Disagree Neither Agree Total
on way to school Disagree
Vehicle traffic makes Male 42.5 0 57.5 100
the route feel unsafe Female 26.7 0 73.3 100
All 33.9 0 66.1 100
The road conditions Male 23.4 6.4 70.2 100
(e.g. Travel to Work and Household Responsibility: New Evidence. The Ottawa-Gatineau, Montreal,and Toronto Census Metropolitan Areas had mode shares of 2.1 percent, 1.6 percent, and 1.0percent respectively (Transport Canada Transport Canada is the department within the governmentof Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation inCanada. Uncommon; rare.
2. Â (Rietveld and Daniel 2004; Rodriguez and Joo 2004), and ambient weather conditions (Oja et al1998; Bergstrom and Magnusson 2003; Winters et al 2007; Miranda-Moreno and Nosal 2011; Flynnet al 2012).
Individuals have varied perceptions and attitudes concerning safety, convenience, environmentalcosts of travel, exercise, and peer group acceptance. , and Steven Farber. http://guelph.ca/uploads/PBS_Dept/planning/documents/active%20developments/716%20Gordon/Parking%20Study.pdf (accessed June 24, 2011).
McClintock, Hugh, and Johanna Cleary. 1997. Abraham. Abounding in or covered with snow: asnowy day.
b. Taking a detour would normally increase the trip distance, and if the increase is substantial(relative to the original route) then it may further discourage at least some students from bicyclingto school.
The study found some anecdotal evidence anecdotal evidence,
n information obtained from personal accounts, examples, and observations. The effect of weatherand climate on bicycle commuting. Geography
, had the highest share of bicycle commuters at 5.6 percent; Kingston, Ontario, and SaskatoonSaskatoonÂ (s?sk?t n`), city (1991 pop. According to the 2000 Twin Cities Metropolitan Area TravelBehavior Inventory, 13 percent of female respondents cited unsafe road conditions as a concerncompared to 3 percent of all male respondents (Krizek et al 2005). However, bicycle trips constitutea very low proportion of all trips made in Canada Made in Canada may also mean Country of origin.
Made in Canada is a Canadian television situation comedy which aired on the CBC from 1998 to2003. Journal of the Transportation Research Board (Transportation Research Board of the NationalAcademies) : 16-25.
Federal Highway Administration The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of theUnited States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. Frank. Only34 respondents chose to leave a comment, but many left more than one remark. 3,485,398), seat ofLos Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. ; bicycle mode share is less than 1.3 percent of all trips (Table 1).Environmental characteristics include land use and urban form (Cao et al 2008), bicyclinginfrastructure (Miranda-Moreno and Nosal 2011), natural features such as topographytopographyÂ (t?p?g`r?f?), description or representation of the features and configuration of landsurfaces. http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/uploadedFiles/Planning_and_ Development/Level_3_-_DAP/--BERKELEY%20PTDM PTDM Polarization Time Division Multiplexing
PTDM Plain Text Data Mode %20Existing%20 Conditions%20Report.pdf (accessed June 24, 2011).
1. and A. http://blogs.olin.edu/ studentblog/2007/03/laundry-day.html (accessed April 13, 2011).
Hunt, J. Determinants of bicycle use: do municipal policies matter? Transportation Research Part A38:531-550.
Rissel, C., and J. Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings From theTransportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. The third section asked questions aboutrespondents' bicycling experience in Kingston and the impact of winter weather. Â les moinspopulaires au Canada malgre les avantages reconnus. Lawrence River and the Thousand Islandsbegin.
Kingston is the county seat of Frontenac County. For example, an indoor bicycle room or an outdoorbicycle shelter with access controlled through the now ubiquitous magnetic strip on student identitycards. November 10, 2010. Portland State University, Portland.
Dillman, D. 1996. Â d'amenagement cyclable empechent le cyclisme pour ces eleves. The term isderived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). http://www. This would requiremunicipalities to consider not only automobile drivers, but also bicyclists as being road users. 2003).
The main purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting bicycling among universitystudents in general, and during winter months in particular.http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/censusrecensement/index-eng.cfm (accessed June 30, 2011).
Titze, Sylvia, Willibald J. rainÂ·iÂ·er, rainÂ·iÂ·est
Characterized by, full of, or bringing rain.
rain iÂ·ness n.
Adj. According to the 2006 Canadian Census, out of all the commuters 15-24 years of age, only 27.6percent used bicycle. Annals anÂ·nalsÂ Â
1. The most convenient, and often the only bicycle parking location in these houses is the frontporch, which is a location highly vulnerable to property theft. Neimeier. , Bonham et al (2010) foundthat students were more concerned about the security of bicycles and easily detachable deÂ·tachÂ Â
tr.v. More than 86 percent of all respondents agree that providing bicycle parking facilities shelteredfrom weather elements (such as rain and snow) will encourage them to bicycle more. 2010.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TransportationResearch Board of the National Academies) 1835 : 101-110.
Butler, Gregory, P., Heather M. For other places called Kingston, see Kingston.
The City of Kingston is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. Characterized by tact andpropriety: responded to the insult with gracious humor.
3. Mary Ellen Synon, writing in the Daily Irish Mail alleged that Anne Harris had written an articlejustifying the 1972 Aldershot , Kay Teschke, Peter A Cripton, and Meghan Winters. 3,907,738),366,255 sq mi (948,600 sq km), including 6,976 sq mi (18,068 sq km) of water surface, W Canada.Interestingly, an even larger proportion of respondents find that cars parked in bicycle paths (roadshoulder or curbside curbÂ·sideÂ Â
1. City of Cyclists. snowÂ·iÂ·er, snowÂ·iÂ·est
a. Urban Geography The Urban Geography Journal was first published in 1980. Correspondingly, alarge percentage of students report taking detours from their most direct route to school in order toavoid vehicle traffic. 1994. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguablepoints of law. No. sumÂ·maÂ·rized, sumÂ·maÂ·rizÂ·ing, sumÂ·maÂ·rizÂ·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum Â the factors that influence bicycling in general. Explaining Gender Difference in BicyclingBehavior. Gender Differences in Risk Assessment: Why do Women Take Fewer Risks than Men?Judgment and Decision Making 1 (1): 48-63.
Hill, Benjamin. One of the key reasons for the low response rate perhaps was our inability to sendout multiple reminders regarding the survey to students as suggested, for example by Dillman(2000).
Non-response bias is often a concern in internet based surveys: those who do not have regularaccess to the internet and/or email will be excluded. Even among college and university students, anage group potentially more likely than older adults to bike, the mode share of bicycling is quite low.November 18, 2009. A slightly higher proportion of female respondents agrees that clearlydemarcated lanes will encourage them to bicycle more as compared to the male respondents.
Although a high proportion of all respondents agrees that physically separated bicycle paths willencourage them to bicycle more, the percentage is much lower as compared to clearly demarcated(but not physically separated) bicycle lanes (79.6 percent versus 89.3 percent). We also eliminatedthree respondents who reported living in dormitories on the main campus. The authors did notexamine the impact of winter weather on bicycling because parts of the bicycle-dedicated networkswere closed in the winter.
Flynn et al (2012) examined the impacts of weather on bicycling among residents from five differentcounties in the state of Vermont, U.S. Having showers available was also found to improve theattractiveness of bicycling, but the influence was smaller than that for secure bicycle parking.
Using data collected from focus groups comprising of 21 staff members and 16 students from theUniversity of South Australia South Australia,Â state (1991 pop. This eliminated four respondentswho reported living more than 8 kilometers away from campus. 2008. Â often collects for days onthe road shoulder. Joo. We then review the literature on bicycling among university/college students.
Factors Affecting Bicycling in General
Factors that influence an individual's decision to make a trip by bicycle can be divided into twocategories: personal characteristics and environmental characteristics. McCain. Transport Policy 10(1): 35-49.
Nankervis, Max. Municipalities could set up regulations for provision of a minimum number ofbicycle parking spots in residential buildings based on the number of units and/or inhabitants
:This article is about the video game. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of CaliforniaDavies.
Carey, Nick. June 28, 2011. 2009. Very interestingly, a large number of students raised concernregarding lack of secure bicycle parking at their place of residence. The findings suggest thatsharing the roadway with automobiles is a safety concern among students, a little more amongfemale students than male students. There are some variations in the attitudes of males as comparedto females. Examining The Impacts of Residential Self-Selection on Travel Behavior: Methodologiesand Empirical Findings. However, this concern is not valid since all Queen's University studentshave free internet access See how to access the Internet. Accident Analysis and Prevention 27 (4):503-521.
Oja, Pekka, Ilkka Vuori, and Olavi Paronen. It is quite common to see bicycles secured to lamp-postsand porch railings in neighbourhoods close to the university campus.
The study suggests that providing more bicycle parking both on campus and at their homes willencourage students to bicycle more. Pindus. I know of many other students who have also beenvictims of bike theft/vandal ism." Interestingly, several respondents sounded their concern regardinglack of bicycle parking at off campus student rentals (residential), something that the authors hadnot initially considered. Transportation within Canada can be by Rail, Road, Water, Piped, or Air.Cycling and the built environment, a US perspective. More than 70 percent of all respondentsdisagree that on campus lessons on bicycling safely in traffic will encourage them to bicycle more.1850. Â Associates. It is near several beaches and has views of the North Shore mountains.
Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS NHTS National Household TravelSurvey (formerly called NPTS Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey)
NHTS Number of Heights . A sidewalk.
Located, operating, or occurring at or along the sidewalk or curb: ) are a safety concern forbicycling. 1998. Note that the majority of the streets in the city of Kingston--including those aroundthe university campus--do not have bicycle lanes and bicyclists often share the roads withautomobile drivers. Perceived Risk and Modal Choice: Risk Compensation in TransportationSystems. Â the 2006 Canadian Census, Victoria, British Columbia British Columbia,Â province (2001pop. To separate or unfasten; disconnect: detach a check from the checkbook; detach burs fromone's coat.
2. This is a list of cyclists by decade. ITE is a standards development organization designated by theU.S. Topographic maps use symbols and coloring, with particular attention given to the shape andelevations of terrain. Factors influencing commute distance: a case study of Toronto's commutershed. March 28, 2007. Making Cycling Irresistible irÂ·reÂ·sisÂ·tiÂ·bleÂ Â
1. Curbside parking, which puts bicyclists closer to the moving traffic, is a safety concern too.Exquisite; choice.
3. Distance traveled in three Canadian cities: Spatial analysis (Data West Research Agencydefinition: see GIS glossary.) Analytical techniques to determine the spatial distribution of avariable, the relationship between the spatial distribution of variables, and the association of thevariables of an area. Part two describes the research approach. Â factors including perception ofbenefits and barriers, and beliefs related to physical activity and self-efficacy could influence anindividual's decision to bicycle (Saelens et al 2003). It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts,Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontarioand the Canadian province of Â : John Wiley John Wiley may refer to:
John Wiley & Sons, publishing company
John C. If these barriers were removed, more students would be inclined to bicycle during winters.Part four discusses the findings and their policy implications.
Although there is an extensive literature on bicycling in general--some fairly recent--there is a muchnarrower (though growing) body of research on bicycling among university students. 2005. Contraryto our expectation, however, the response rate was quite low (5.8 percent) with a total of 110completed surveys. Among the factors that have been shown to negatively influence bicycling amongcollege students include long travel distance, time-constraint, inconvenience associated withbicycling (for example balancing heavy shoulder bags containing books and laptops), and fear ofbicycle theft.
A study of university students from Austria found that the students who feared bicycle theft werehalf as likely to bicycle regularly as compared to the students who did not fear bicycle theft (Titze et
al. All rights reserved.
. Transportation Research Record (National Research Council) 1438: 25-33.
Aultman-Hall, Lisa, Fred L. Having an overpowering appeal: irresistible beauty. Open to argument:an arguable question, still unresolved.
2. The vast majority of all; respondents consider cold weather and too much snow as barriers tobicycling during winters. For example, in Montreal, bicycle trips drop by one-half between July andNovember (Miranda-Moreno and Nosal 2011).
Even among college and university students, a demographic group potentially more likely than olderadults to bicycle, the share of bicycling as a commute mode is quite low. F., and T. Handy.retÂ·roÂ·fitÂ·ted or retÂ·roÂ·fit, retÂ·roÂ·fitÂ·ting, retÂ·roÂ·fits
1. Transport Policy 13 (3): 265-279.
Queen's University. Weather or not to cycle: temporal trends and impacts of weather on cycling inan urban environment. 2009. Kingston experiences moderate winters, which may by itself not bedebilitating deÂ·bilÂ·iÂ·tatÂ·ing
Causing a loss of strength or energy.
Weakening, or reducing the strength of.
Mentioned in: Stress Reduction Â for bicycling: mean high temperature ranges from 0.2 degreesCelsius in December to 3.5 degrees Celsius in March; average monthly snowfall is 41, 53, 37, 29,and 7 centimetres in December, January, February, March, and April, respectively.
A link to the online survey instrument was emailed to nearly 1900 students (including bothundergraduate and graduate students). , what are the key barriers to bicycling during winters? Whatcan be done to promote more bicycling among university students? Using data from Queen'sUniversity in Kingston, Ontario, this paper describes bicycling experiences of university students,examines barriers to bicycling, and suggests strategies to promote bicycling among universitystudents.
The paper is structured in four parts. By Your Own Two Feet: Factors Associated with ActiveTransportation in Canada Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place toanother. modal - (Of an interface) Having modes. Baetz. The study found that there was a steadyincrease in bicycle ridership ridÂ·erÂ·shipÂ Â
The number of passengers who ride a public transport system. 1995. Â drivers and lack of drivercourtesy towards bicyclists and pedestrians. A much larger proportion of females (73.3 percent) find
that vehicle traffic makes the route unsafe as compared to males (57.5 percent). AustralianWomensport and Recreation Association. Gender, Race, and the Determinants of Commuting: NewYork in 1990. Â Berkeley, and University of California Los Angeles Los AngelesÂ (lÃ´s ?n`j?l?s, l?s,?n`j?l?z'), city (1990 pop. Influences on bicycle use. Â at all five locations arguablyarÂ·guÂ·aÂ·bleÂ Â
1. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. Â oncollege campuses. australianwomensport.com.au/images/Reports/victorian%20research/Revolutions%20key%20findings%20A4.pdf (accessed July 31, 2012).
Garrard, J, G. Several students left a comment on inconsiderate inÂ·conÂ·sidÂ·erÂ·ateÂ Â
1. Wiley (1846-1912), U.S.
Â and Sons.
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tang:Â see butterfly fish. More extensive and systematic studies are needed to validate the study'sfindings and their applicability to other campuses and cities.
A special thanks to two teams of researchers for graciously graÂ·ciousÂ Â
1. 2007). In the United States, France, Australia and Latin America, the show was syndicated as TheIndustry. 2012. Â weather in the morning--and no afternoon rain--would reduce bicycle ridership by13 to 15 percent, all else equal. , University of California The University of California has a combinedstudent body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combinedsystemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). May18, 2009. Transportation cycling results from a desire to reduce reliance on motorizedtransportation such as cars and as a form of advocacy Â for women: the role of bicycleinfrastructure. Establishing Pedestrian Walking Speeds Draft Results. Staff tended to be moreconcerned about end-facilities such as showers and change areas.
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Â universities have made concerted efforts to increase campus sustainability through transportationdemand management (for example, University of Alberta, University of Victoria, University ofOttawa
City of Copenhagen. The Relationship Between Non-Motorized Mode Choice and the Local PhysicalEnvironment. 2008. If a university reduces parking supply on campus and/or increases parking cost,parking demand in the vicinity of campus will further increase at least in the short term. A higherproportion of males find street lighting to be sufficient as compared to females.
Table 4 reports perceived barriers to bicycling during winters. H. City of Berkeley. Characterized bykindness and warm courtesy.
2. Impossible to resist: an irresistible impulse to sneeze.
2. and B. Magnusson. 2011. http://www. Personal psychosocial psychosocialÂ /psyÂ·choÂ·soÂ·cial/(si?ko-soÂ´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. 2004. Analysis of Bicycle CommuterRoutes Using Geographic Information Systems Implications for Bicycle Planning. Journal ofTransport Geography.
Balsas BalÂ·sasÂ Â
A river flowing about 724 km (450 mi) from south-central Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. D., and J. Asurvey of 1128 bicyclists from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada found that providing secure parkingwould significantly improve the attractiveness of bicycling among the respondents (Hunt andAbraham 2007).
Despite the known benefits of bicycling, very few Canadians commute TO COMMUTE. To substituteone punishment in the place of another. A modal operation switches from one mode to another.Bruce Newbold. The results indicate that fear of bicycle theft, and sharing the roadway withautomobile traffic are among the leading deterrents to bicycling among university students. Partthree presents analysis and findings. Environmental Health 8 (47).
Rietveld, Pat, and Vanessa Daniel. Â on campus.
The survey instrument was structured in five sections. , Saskatchewan, shared second place with abicycle mode share of 2.4 percent. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive
may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment. Crawford and N. We wouldalso like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback, which helped usimprove the paper substantially.
Antonakos, C.L. Garrard et al. Case Study No. Brookings Graduate School of Economics andGovernment (est. 2010. 2003. Ridership would drop by 11 to 20 percent if the temperatures weregreater than 28[degrees]C with humidity at 60 percent. Details
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. 2006. Most municipalities, including theCity of Kingston, regulate the number of automobile parking spaces provided on site: most setminimum requirements. History Â 2008). Transportation Research A 33:417-431.
Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates. 1922), and the Robert S. , University of British ColumbiaLocations
The Vancouver campus is located at Point Grey, a twenty-minute drive from downtown Vancouver.The difference between the proportion of males and the proportion of females who consider parkedcars to be a safety concern is not as large (70.2 and 73.2 percent respectively). We had anticipated ahigh response rate because the survey notification was being emailed by a known faculty member.asp (accessed 26 January, 2011).
Krizek, J. Wiens. Overrefined; forced.
4. . Additionally, the study found that younger respondents valued secure parking much more thanthe older respondents. I. Hakman. The 7. Please add to this list if you are aware of an omission.Contrast with non-modal.
1. Kevin, Pamela Jo Johnson, and Nebiyou Tilahun. The majority of respondents in each category findsnow ploughed onto the road shoulder as a potential safety hazard. 2011. Wiley, Americanambassador
John D. Modeless interfaces are generally considered to be superior because the user does not haveto remember which mode he is in.
2. Transport Reviews 28 (4): 495-528.
Pucher, J., and R. Daily walking and cycling to work: their utility as health-enhancing physicalactivity. Following the introduction, part one presents a literature review. R2 refers to Articles andResearch rankings in tables 5.1 - 5.7. queensu.ca/registrar/aboutus/reports/enrolment/EnrlRpt.pdf(accessed October 10, 2010).
Reynolds, Conor CO, M Anne Harris Anne Harris, (b.25 August 1947), is deputy editor of the SundayIndependent. Nor Agree
Bicycle parking Male 8.5 4.3 87.2 100
facilities that are Female 16.1 3.6 80.4 100
secure from theft
Total 12.6 3.9 83.5 100
Bicycle parking Male 12.8 2.1 85.1 100
facilities that are Female 10.7 1.8 87.5 100
weather Total 11.7 1.9 86.4 100
On campus Male 78.7 10.6 10.6 100
lessons on how Female 64.3 12.5 23.2 100
to bicycle safely
in traffic Total 70.9 11.7 17.5 100
A bicycle repair Male 27.7 8.5 63.8 100
facility on Female 17.9 10.7 71.4 100
Total 22.3 9.7 68.0 100
Bicycle parking Male 23.4 6.4 70.2 100
closer to my Female 26.8 8.9 64.3 100
campus Total 25.2 7.8 67.0 100
COPYRIGHT 2012 Institute of Urban Studies
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from thecopyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. Gender Differences in the Journey to Work. Sixty eightpercent of all respondents agree that an on-campus bicycling facility will encourage them to bicyclemore, with a much higher support from females as compared to males (71.4% versus 63.8%).
Finally, 67 percent of all respondents agree that providing bicycle parking facilities closer to theirdestinations on campus will encourage them to bicycle more with more support from males (70.2%)as compared to females (64.3%).
In the last section of the questionnaire, respondents were given an opportunity to leave an openended comment. Kingston is a medium sized city with a total population of approximately 117,200
(Census 2006). Roadways are cleared of snow to facilitate automobile movement and municipalitiesshould do the same for bicycles.
The study suggests that creating demarcated bicycles lanes and removing automobile parking frombicycle paths (typically roadway edges in absence of bicycle lanes) would encourage more bicyclingamong students. U.S. Several researchers have documented marked differences in perceptions andattitudes towards bicycling between males and females.
Using a survey of 965 residents from six different communities in the U.S. Scott, and K. Journal ofPhysical Activity and Health 4: 66-79.
Turner, T., and D. and Barbara Koth. Often this has translated into strategies to minimize the use ofthe personal automobile by encouraging walking, bicycling, and public transit. Roorda, RubenMercado For the hispanic surname "Mercado", please see de Mercado.
Mercado first originated in Spain. A large number of Queen's University students live aroundcampus in former single-family dwellings that have now been converted to student rentals bylandlords (like many other university neighbourhoods). In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Approximately 79 percent of the respondents reported making more than 8 trips from their placeof residence to campus each week, 16.5 percent reported making 6-7 trips, and 4.5 percent reportedmaking fewer than 6 trips. Â Vol 78 (5): 24-28.
LEA Consulting Ltd. The second section asked questions regarding respondents' travel behavior.Queen's University. Agarwal. Hourly ridership and local weather data were analyzed from April 2008to July 2010. Census. , Carlos J.L. High proportions of both male and female respondents (85.1 and85.7 percent) consider snow ploughed onto the road shoulder to be unsafe for bicycling duringwinters. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Brookings Institution,Â at Washington, D.C.;chartered 1927 as a consolidation of the Institute for Government Research (est. 1997.http://livework.kingstoncanada.com/en/employment/majoremployers. 2008. Preventive Medicinepreventive medicine,Â branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and themaintenance of good health practices. http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/uploadedFiles/Planning_and_Development/Level_3_-_Redevelopment_Agency/i_existing_conditions_combined.pdf(accessed June 29, 2011).
Winters, Meghan, Melissa Friesen, Mieke Koehoorn, and Kay Teschke. Â due to the improvedbicycling infrastructure (Miranda-Moreno and Nosal 2011). Nosal. As a result, bicyclists findthemselves riding closer to the moving traffic. Only 28 percent of all commuters 15-24 years of ageused a bicycle in Kingston according to the 2006 census.
What are some of the key barriers to bicycling among university students, especially for making tripsto school? In addition to ambient weather Ambient Weather, founded in 1999 by Ed Edelman, is anArizona based weather station distributor and software manufacturer that specializes in customizedsolutions and products for the home and office, industry, schools, resorts, government and themedia. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of theliterature. The study also found that females are more likely than males to perceive theirsurroundings as being "unsafe" for bicycling due to fast moving vehicular traffic. Transport Policy 3(1/2) : 67-77.
McLafferty, S., and V. Journal of Transport Geography 19 (1): 39-50.
Moudon, Anne Vernez, et al. This type of bicycle parking may be more space intensive and have ahigher upfront cost as compared to a bicycle rack yet the higher capital cost may be justified on thebasis of long term health benefits associated with bicycling.
Most Canadian cities experience cold temperatures and snowy snowÂ·yÂ Â
adj. Mean age of the respondents was 22.9 years (minimum 19 and maximum 38). TransportationResearch Part D 15: 94-102.
Boyd, Brent, Melissa Chow, Robert Johnson Robert Johnson may refer to:
Robert Johnson (governor), South Carolina
Robert Johnson (Texas) (1929-1995), member of Texas state legislature 1956-63
Robert D. Buehler. Bicycling is the dominant mode of commuting in countries such as India andChina and is also common in many European countries (though rare in most parts of the UnitedStates). 2006. Transportation 24: 397-419.
Wilbur Smith Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (nowZambia)) is a best-selling novelist.
As a baby, he became sick with cerebral malaria for ten days. Sears, L. Creating bicycle lanes onexisting streets, particularly in the core where most rights of way are not very wide, requirescreative thinking. 2010). Personal characteristics known to influence bicycling include physicalability (Rissel and Garrard 2006), sex (Blumen 1994; Antonakos 1994; McLafferty and Preston 1997;Turner and Neimeier 1997; Dickinson et al. Â bicycle parts Bicycle parts include:
; Ball bearing : ; Bar ends : extensions at the end of straight handlebars, usually fitted onto mountainbikes ; Basket : cargo carrier ; Bottle cage : used to carry a water bottle ; Bottom bracket : containsa spindle to which the crankset is
Â (such as seat, lights) than the staff. deÂ·tached, deÂ·tachÂ·ing, deÂ·tachÂ·es
1. Public transit as a metropolitan growth and development strategy. Aultman-Hall. During winters,snow ploughed onto the road shoulders deters Gated Resort Community Capitol Hill DC potentialbicyclists. In 1999, Microsoft sold Sidewalk to Ticketmaster, which continued to provide guides,ticketing and other information to the MSN network. The key improvement was bike lanes physicallyseparated from vehicular traffic. .
Harris, Christine, and Michael Jenkins. 2007. Several strategies to retrofit retÂ·roÂ·fitÂ Â
v. E. (informal) food, grub (slang) provisions, fare, board, commons, eats (slang Â Lo. As stated orindicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. This brought the final number of respondents included in our analysis to 103.
Nine percent of all respondents in the sample lived at a distance of less than 400 meters fromcampus, 43 percent lived between 400 m and 1 km from campus, and 48 percent lived more than 1km away from campus. However, a much higher proportion of female respondents (94.6 percent) ascompared to male respondents (85.1 percent) consider too much snow during winters to be abarrier. Miranda-Moreno and Nosal (2011) examined the impact of ambient weather on bicycleridership in Montreal. New York New York, state, United States
New York,Â Middle Atlantic state of the United States. 2006. Universities and the cycling culture.World Transport Policy Practice 13(1): 49-63.
Rodriguez, D., and J. Eight kilometres is reported to be the maximum comfortable distance for asingle utilitarian bicycle trip (Bergstrom and Magnusson 2003). 2003), income (Pucher and Renne2003; Pucher and Buehler 2006; Butler, Orpana, and Wiens 2007), and perceptions and attitudes(Dill and Voros 2006). Laundry Day. Mail and Internet surveys: The tailored design method (2ndEdition). Snow ploughed off both the roadway and the sidewalk A Microsoft service that waslaunched in 1997 to provide online arts and entertainment guides on the Web for major citiesworldwide. The side of a pavement or street that is bordered by a curb.
2. Stronegger, Susanne Janschitz, and Pekka Oja. Canadian Journal of Public Health 98 (4): 259-264.
Cao, Xinyu, Patricia Mokhtarian, and Susan Handy. The university campus is located in the city'score. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2247: 42-52.
Morency, Catherine, Antonio Paez, Matthew J. Inadequate street lighting was a safety concern fornearly 45 percent of the respondents.
Table 3 also shows differences in attitudes towards safety between male and female students.Â sharing their survey instruments: Sylvia Titze, Willibald Stronegger, Susanne Janschitz, and PekkaOja; and Arma Niska (nee Bergstrom) and Rolf Magnusson. Â 25 (2): 80-91.
Shannon, Tya, Billie Giles-Corti, Terri Pikora, Max Bulsara, Trevor Shilton, and Fiona Bull. A slightlyhigher percentage of the female respondents reported bicycling to school during winters ascompared to the male respondents (Table 2).
Table 3 reports students' perception of various safety concerns associated with bicycling in general.Potential of transferring car trips to bicycle during winter. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sqkm), S central Australia. In English it means 'market'.
Is the last name of the 'Great' Fifa Soccer player Eswold. Dana, J. A chronological record of theevents of successive years.
2. Â from the perspective of vulnerable population segments. .
Universities could encourage bicycling by investing more in bicycle infrastructure on campus.Cyclists by decade
Cyclists before the 1880s
Cyclists of the 1880s
. Â that suggests that fear of bicycle theft is a deterrent for many students. Patient Education andCounseling 33: S87-S94.
Pucher, J., and J. , and Susan L. Revolutions for women: increasing women's participation in cyclingfor recreation and transport, summary of key findings. . Risk of slipping on ice is a safety concern fora vast majority of respondents, although higher proportion of females (89.3 percent) as compared tomales (78.7 percent) considers the same to be a barrier to bicycling during winters.
Table 5 reports attitudes of the respondents in the three bicyclist categories towards bicyclingduring winters. However, twice the percentage of females as compared to males thinks that thesafety lessons will encourage them to bicycle more. To provide (a jet, automobile, computer, orfactory, for example) with parts, devices, or equipment not in Â the existing infrastructure toaccommodate bicycles have been suggested, for example Complete Streets (LaPlante and McCain2008). Transportation Research Board A 37: 649-666.
Blumen, O. 1992. Weather factor impacts on commuting to work by bicycle. But curbside parking onstreets around university campuses remains in high demand, particularly if it is free. Strategiesinclude restrictive on-campus parking permits, bicycle share programs, and universal public transitpasses. Existing Parking & Transportation Demand Management Programs, Conditions & Practices.With its numerous health and environmental benefits, the bicycle is among the most sustainablemodes of transportation. Johnson (1883-1961), U.S.
, and Alexander Smith. The last section contained two open-ended questions to allow respondents todescribe key barriers to bicycling and suggest what could be done to encourage more bicycling tothe university campus.
We restricted our analysis to the respondents who lived within 8 kilometres from school. Researchon Women's Issues in Transportation. Until recently preventive medicine was largely the domain ofthe U.S.