English Linguistics 1
13.10.2010Session 131 Introduction: Linguistics and everyday life/ language1.1 English at play: Children's rhymesRebus, puns1.2 Folk linguistics: Popular beliefs about languageFolk etymology
1.3 What is linguistics?The scope of linguisticsLinguistics vs. traditional grammar
13.10.2010Session 141. Introduction: Linguistics and everyday life/language1.1 English at play:Children's rhymesHUMPty DUMPty SAT on a WALL HUMPty DUMPty HAD a great FALLALL the king's HORSes and ALL the king's MENCOULDn't put HUMPty toGETHer aGAIN
13.10.2010Session 15Observations on stress, rhythm, rhyme (phonetics)
four beats/stresses in a linenumber of unstressed: varies from 1 to 2principle of isochrony:'distance' (duration) between stresses relatively regulareffect on unstressed syllables: compressed, spoken 'faster', reduced forms!stress timed rhythm (vs. syllable timed rhythm)
13.10.2010Session 16After having kissed Pamela John collapsed.AFter having KISSED PAMela JOHN colLAPSED
stress timed rhythmtendency towards equal length of stress groups
rhyme in early children's verse: aa, bb etc.why not ab, ab, cd, cd etc.?
psycholinguistic explanation: short time memory working memory cannot 'save' meanings long enough to recognize distant rhymesadults: 5-9 units (words, phrases)
13.10.2010Session 1713.10.2010Session 18example for high demands on the working memory:German: verb final position + verb separationDie Studentin, die fr die Prfung zwar gelernt, sich aber wenig gemerkt hatte, weil sie whrend des Lernens Schmerzen gehabt hatte, welche von einem lange Zeit unbehandelten Zahn herrhrten, ... trat zur Prfung nicht an.
13.10.2010Session 19Rebus, punsRebusRepresentation of names, words by pictures or signs suggesting their syllablesXmasChristmasX for initial chi of Greek Khristosx(xxx)U2 Bar-B-Q 4-sale, 4U
symbolizes kiss(es)you toobarbecuefor sale, for you
13.10.2010Session 110O I C
RU 18U R 2 GOOD 2 B 4GOT10
Oh, I see
Are you 18?
You are too good to beforgotten.
13.10.2010Session 111Punsuse of words or phrases or structures with more than one meaning
First shoot your dog
then freeze it.
(headline in printed ad)13.10.2010Session 112First shoot your dog then freeze it.
Fig. 1-1a13.10.2010Session 114
Fig. 1-1bto shoot
1. to kill or injure s.o. using a gun2. to take photographs or make a film of s.th.
to freeze1. to make food extremely cold 2. to produce a still
13.10.2010Session 11513.10.2010Session 116
tied up1. fastened by strings, ropes2. metaphorical: to be busyFig. 1-2
People are saying PLAYERS PLEASE more than ever.13.10.2010Session 11713.10.2010Session 118 People are saying PLAYERS PLEASE more than ever. Syntactic ambiguityN (Object) + Interjection'People buy more Players cigarettes than ever before'N (Subject) + Verb (Predicate)'Players are pleasing cigarettes'
13.10.2010Session 119Guest: Waiter, what's this fly doing in my soup?Waiter:Looks like the breast-stroke, sir. pragmatically motivated punmeaning as a consequence of situational context; response logically possible but not adequate for the situation
13.10.2010Session 1201.2 Folk linguisticsPopular beliefs about languageoften stereotypes:
all languages decay (e.g. E, G; Latin, Greek are closest to the ideal language)written language is more correct than spoken languagedialects are corrupted varieties of the standard language13.10.2010Session 121Some languages aremore beautifulmore logicalmore primitivemore cultivated ...than others.
judgements based on social standing and on prescriptive attitudes13.10.2010Session 122Folk etymology etymology: facts relating to the historical development of form and meaning of wordsfolk etymology:modifying a word's form to make it seem to be derived from familiar words
13.10.2010Session 123Ex.: etymologyOE fugel, fugol (800)MEvuhel (1175)fouxl (1300)foule (1381) Chaucerfowle (1485)CaxtonModEfowl (2006)'bird, especially a chicken, that is kept for its meat andeggs'(G Geflgel, E poultry)
13.10.2010Session 124E. Rotten row F. route du roiE. Marylbone (Road) F. Marie-la-bonne 'Maria, die Gute'E. sparrow grass asparagus 'Spargel' E. lance-knight G. Landsknecht reinterpretation of first component: lance, replacement of second ~ by etymologically similar: knight 13.10.2010Session 125bridegroom OE brydguma 'Brutigam' bryde, E. bride 'Braut' guma 'Mann' - extinct associated with E. groom 'Pferdepfleger; Diener'
13.10.2010Session 126Reinterpretation of morphological boundaries lone alone, me. al(l) one, 'einsam', G 'allein'adder a nadder, G. 'Natter'umpire a nompere, a nounpere; lat. non par, G. 'Schiedsrichter'beginning of a word interpreted as indefinite article13.10.2010Session 127North Riding, East Riding, West Riding names of three districts in Yorkshire; originally me. thriding 'Drittel',assimilation of th to preceding th or t incorrect boundaries13.10.2010Session 128reinterpretation due to assimilationassimilation: a sound changes because of the effect of another sound next to it
Sherry sherris (Shakespeare) Xeres 'city' and 'wine from Xeres'misinterpretation of a singular form as a plural
1.3 What is linguistics? Because of crucial importance of the ability to communicate / use language adequately the study of language has increased in many disciplines, e.g. psychology, neurology, sociology, anthropology, teaching professions, speech therapy, computer sciences etc.
13.10.2010Session 129one of the fastest-expanding branches of knowledge linguistics - the systematic study of languagetries to answer basic questions, such as'What is language?''How does language work?'
13.10.2010Session 130these lead to more specific questions:'What do all languages have in common?''What range of variation is found among languages/ Where do languages differ?''How does human communication differ from animal communication?''How does a child learn to speak?''How do we learn second or third languages?'13.10.2010Session 131'Why are children better in acquiring a foreign language than adults?''How and why do languages change?''Are social class differences reflected in language?''How is language used to persuade?''Will the spread of English cause the death of other languages?'etc.
13.10.2010Session 132What is a linguist?linguist (E) She's an excellent linguist.(1)student of linguistics ( 1. Student, 2. Forscher)(2)s.o. proficient in several languages (~ 'Sie ist sprachlich hochbegabt')Linguist (G)s.o. (1)
13.10.2010Session 133linguistic (E)(1)linguistic skill, minorityrefers to language (sprachliche Fertigkeit etc.)(2)linguistic analysisrefers to linguistics 13.10.2010Session 1341.3.1 Scope of linguistic analysis / Bereiche der linguistischen AnalysePronunciation/ Aussprache: phonetics and phonology/ Phonetik und PhonologieStructure of words: morphology/ MorphologieSentences: syntax/ SyntaxMeanings: semantics/ SemantikTextual cohesion: text linguistics/ TextlinguistikUtterance and context: pragmatics/ Pragmatik
13.10.2010Session 13513.10.2010Session 136
Fig. 1-3 The scope of linguistics, Aitchison 1999, 7Diachronic vs. synchronic analysis(a) diachronic:historical perspective, development, change etc.(b) synchronic:analysis of the linguistic system at a particular point of time.This includes for instance also Old English around 1000 A.D.
13.10.2010Session 137However, in widespread (sloppy) use the following characterizations apply:
diachronichistorical varieties, e.g. Old E., Middle E.synchronicmodern varieties13.10.2010Session 1381.3.2 How does linguistics differ from traditional grammar (school grammar)?1. descriptive / deskriptiv (linguistics) vs. prescriptive / prskriptiv (traditional grammar)
grammatically unacceptable: e.g.ain't for am not, is not, have not etc.different from etc.split infinitive - to humbly apologize
13.10.2010Session 1392. spoken vs. written language/ gesprochene vs. geschriebene Sprachelinguistics:separate systemsprimacy of spoken language
3. intrinsic or universal vs. Latin framework of description/intrinsischer oder universaler vs. lateinischer Beschreibungsrahmen13.10.2010Session 141examples: descriptive vs. prescriptive grammar
Whos there? - Its me.He is bigger than me.Who(m) did you ask?
13.10.2010Session 142She gave him the book. (StE)She gave it to him. (SE)= school grammarShe gave him it. (unusual)She gave it him. (very common indeed in NE)
Put your coat on! (SE)Put on your coat! (ScottishE, NE)
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